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for Whitireia Students
This guide is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Please emailwith any feedback. An online version is available on the library web pages, and updated during the year. This Edition: Adapted by Kim Baxter. With thanks to: Whitireia students & staff, including: Kataraina Mateparae; Catherine Doughty; Kerri Arcus; Susan Ridley; Adele Holland; Ram Petikam. Previous editions: Ailsa Parker, Jill Wilkinson (2000 to 2008); Debra Wilson (2011). CONTENTS
Personal Communication, 7 Abbreviations, 11 Electronic Sources, 8 Gale database, 20 Policy document, 17 Hanging indent, 10 Multiple publications, same Issue number (periodicals), 13 Alphabetical order, 10 Retrieval Date, 17 Author as publisher, 12 Television broadcast, 16 Letter to editor, 13, 16 Live performance, 8 Chapter in book, 6, 12 Microsoft Word, 2 Cited in text, 6 Motion picture, 15 Unpublished manuscript, 17 Conference paper Verbal communication, 7 Citation in text, 6 Music Recording, 15 Entire web site, 9 No author, 6, 12, 14 Worksheet - book, 23 Citation in text, 6 Worksheet - periodical, 24 No author, Internet, 6 Worksheet – Proquest article, Worksheet - Referencing terms, As author and publisher, 4 As website author, 19 One important part of an assignment is the way in which a logical argument is built up using a variety of other writers' ideas, both for and against your own When you are using someone else's ideas, you must acknowledge their work by using a reference
A reference is a brief summary of the details of a source of a quotation, e.g. book, journal or web site,
and it follows a set format If you don't acknowledge someone else's work it is plagiarism which is considered cheating, and would
be a reason to fail an assignment. The main reasons for referencing are: 1. To let the reader know where you got your references from. 2. To let the marker identify the range and quality of your reading for the topic. 3. To distinguish between your ideas and someone else's. 4. To place your work in the ongoing cycle of knowledge. APA GUIDELINES
At Whitireia, assignments are referenced using the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines, which are a set of rules for different types of sources. The examples in this guide are based on: American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style. (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2007). APA style guide to electronic references. Washington, DC: Author. The manuals can be found in your campus libraries and an updated guide is available electronically via the library catalogue and web site. FURTHER ONLINE HELP
Helpful Internet web sites: Frequently Asked Questions About APA Style Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE
There are two parts to referencing. This guide provides examples for: Part 1: Reference Citations in the Text: This means stating within the text of your assignment, the sources
from which you have obtained information. You can cite ( quote) by paraphrasing and/or direct quotation. Part 2: The Reference List: This is a detailed list of the sources used in your assignment.
1. Firstly, identify the kind of item you wish to reference. For example, is it a book? Or webpage? Or 2. Then, go to the contents page of this guide. Look up the type of item you wish to reference, for example, encyclopedia. Then go to the page number listed. 3. Next, find out the author/s of the work you want to reference. A reference will vary depending on the number and type of author. Use the examples in this guide to write your reference. 4. Use the worksheets at the back of this guide to make your referencing accurate. 5. Remember that in APA, footnotes are discouraged and et al. is rarely used. USING MICROSOFT WORD TO INSERT REFERENCES
If you have access to Microsoft Office 2007 or above, you can insert references and create bibliographies: 1. Click on the References Tab > Insert Citation button on the toolbar when you're ready to enter a
2. You can either insert a "placeholder" and fill out the fields (author, title, year, etc.) later, or complete them right away. 3. When you're ready to make your reference list, just click the Bibliography button and it does it
automatically. You can select APA. 4. Remember that you will still need to do a lot of work to tidy up your references such as adding page numbers and URLs. 5. If you are using Word 2003 at home, the Insert Citation button is not available.
Remember, you can only do this with (.docx) documents. For further help, ask a librarian. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. PART 1: REFERENCE CITATIONS IN THE TEXT
You can quote someone else's work (cite) by paraphrasing and/or direct quotation. Paraphrasing is when you use your own words. APA uses the author – date method of citation. It does not recommend footnotes or end notes. This means the last name of the author(s) is followed by the year of publication and must be included in the text of your assignment. DIRECT QUOTE
Putting into your own words the author's main
A direct quote is using exactly, word for word, what
ideas, points and concepts. is written in the book, journal, newspaper, etc. You don't have to include the page number when When using a direct quote the relevant page number must always be given.
No quotation marks are used
If you are quoting fewer than 40 words then put
the quote in quotation marks " "
If quoting 40 or more words indent the entire
quote and use double spacing If you are using the author's name in your text
If you are using the author's name in your text
then put the year in brackets after the author's then put the year in brackets after the author's name with the page number going after the Examples
White (1994) suggests that unemployment is a Benner (1984) states, "nurses make life-and-death health issue for young people as the stress and decisions and possess an increasingly specialized poverty associated with not having work has a body of knowledge" (p. 196). detrimental effect on an individual's health status. Block Quote (40 words or more)
The Public Health Commission (1994) states that A useful definition is put forward by Baumrind (1987): suicide is the second most common cause of death By adolescence I refer to an age span roughly for young males in New Zealand after motor vehicle between the ages of ten and twenty-five that is heralded by the accelerating physical changes accompanying puberty; results in sexual maturity and identity formation; and eventuates in emancipation from childhood dependency. (p. 97) Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. If you are not using the author's name in your
If you are not using the author's name in your
text then both the author's name and the year text then the author's name, year and page are enclosed in brackets at the end of the number goes in brackets at the end of the quote. Examples
It has been suggested that unemployment is a health The role of nurses is important as "nurses make life- issue for young people as the stress and poverty and- death decisions and possess an increasingly associated with not having work has a detrimental specialized body of knowledge" (Benner, 1984, p. effect on an individual's health status (White, 1994). Suicide was the second most common cause of A useful definition that could be used for death by injury for young males in New Zealand after motor vehicle accidents (Public Health Commission, The developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, entered at approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending about 18 years of age. Adolescence begins with rapid physical changes – dramatic gains in height and weight, changes in body contour, and the development of sexual characteristics. (Santrock, 2008, p. 14) HINT FOR ORGANISATIONS AND USING ABBREVIATIONS
When the author is an organisation, government department or agency, etc., you use the same
format as above except you use the organisation's name instead. This also applies to Internet sites where the author is not listed. Examples
The Ministry of Health (1997) suggests that culturally appropriate strategies are needed to reduce and prevent the increase of diabetes among Maori. "Diabetes is one of many factors contributing to low Maori health status" (Ministry of Health, 1997, p. 9). If an organisation is referred to in abbreviated form, then the abbreviation can be used after the first citation. For example: Sport and Recreation New Zealand (SPARC, 2009) (Sport & Recreation New Zealand [SPARC], 2009) Subsequent citations: Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. HOW TO REFERENCE WHEN THERE IS
MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR, AN EDITOR,
OR THERE IS NO AUTHOR
Use ‘&' when you are using the authors'
(Fleras & Spoonley, 1999) names in brackets. Use ‘and' when you are using the authors'
Fleras and Spoonley (1999) suggest, "New Zealand names in the text of your assignment. at the turn of the century is experiencing a crisis of national identity" (p. 150). For a work which has more than one author, list the authors in the order displayed in the (Hendry, Shuksmith, Love, & Gledinning, 1993) Specific Rules:
1) When there are two authors
Roberts and Taylor (1998) state that "nursing Always cite both authors' names in the text
research has not had a good record of using theoretical frameworks" (p. 63).
of your assignment. Nursing research does not seem to make use of theoretical frameworks (Roberts & Taylor, 1998). 2) When there are three, four or five authors
In fact, there are several youth lifestyles depending The first time you use that reference on the contexts in which young people live (Hendry, cite al the authors' names. Shuksmith, Love, & Gledinning, 1993). Morello, Mizer, Wilson, and Granato (1998) state that "bacterial diseases acquired through the respiratory tract include some of the most important and serious human infections" (p. 238). Any further references after that, include the Hendry et al. (1993) contend that risk taking is part of first author's name followed by: et al. being a young person. (et al. means "and others") Morello et al. (1998) describe the most common symptoms of gastrointestinal infections as "diarrhoea, often accompanied by crampy abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting" (p. 334). 3) When there are six or more authors
Use the surname of the first author followed Smith et al. (1995) by: et al. when there are six or more authors. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. 4) When there is an editor or editors
Use the same format as for author or authors. Use the author of a specific chapter in the text, not the editor. 5) When there is no author available
To cite a study called "The Effects of Aspirin on Heart When a work has no author, use the first few words Attack Victims" you would use the following: of the title. Put the words that you use in quotation ("The Effects," 1995) marks. This rule applies to all works without a named author, for example: Internet sites. N.B Do not cite the URL here. It To cite an Internet site called "Asthma & Al ergy belongs in the reference list only. Foundation of America" you would use the following: Articles from library databases. For example, ("Asthma & Allergy," 2002). Encyclopædia Britannica, Proquest, Gale, ("Plastic Pol ution," 2011) Articles from newspapers ("Study Finds," 1982) When the author is clearly designated as (Anonymous, 2001) "Anonymous", use this in your citation. In your reference list, put Anonymous where Anonymous, (2001). The title. Place. Publisher. the author would go. 6) Two or more works within the same
List in alphabetical order by author. Several studies (Ammenwerth, Mansmam, Iller & Separate different works with semicolons. Eichstadter, 2003; Arbaugh & Duray, 1999; Boonstra, 2008; Pollard, 1997) found that …. Works by the same author are arranged by date and separated by commas. If the same Several studies by Durie on Maori health (Durie, publication date, use a, b, c, etc. Give 1998a, 1998b, 2001) state that……. author's surname once. 7) Titles of books, journals, chapters and articles
used in the text
In the book Hip Hop Dance: Meanings and Message Capitalise all the major words the author states that …. Italicise book titles Use double quotation marks for titles of journal The chapter "Why Pavlovas are Important" explains. article or a chapter in a book Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. CITING AN AUTHOR FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE
If the book, article etc. that you are using refers to another source by another author(s) then you need to acknowledge this in your assignment. To do this you: Name the person whose ideas are presented. Then in brackets, write ‘as cited in' followed by the name of the author and the year of publication. In the reference list cite the secondary source that you used. Text citation
Miles (as cited in Doyal, 1995) found that women in developed countries go to the doctor more than men. Reference list entry
Doyal, L. (1995). What makes women sick: Gender and the political economy of health. London, England: Note: Every effort should be made to use primary rather than secondary sources. PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
For example, letters, memos, telephone conversations, personal interviews, e-mail, non-archived messages from electronic discussion groups or bulletin boards, and notes written by a student during a lecture. They are unpublished and 'non-recoverable', and are not included in the reference list. Cite them in the text of
your assignment only. Give the initials and the last name of the communicator and exact a date as possible including day, month and year. Examples
"Nursing during the war was fun" (S. Jones, personal communication, September 17, 2000). S. Jones (personal communication, September 17, 2000) spoke of nursing during the war. LECTURER'S NOTES / COURSE HANDOUTS
Avoid using these types of sources in your assignments. It is better to refer to published sources and do your own research. Ask the lecturer for recommended readings or a reference list. If the lecture material is available in electronic format (in Moodle) use the format for referencing electronic sources and include a retrieval statement. Lecturer's notes and Powerpoint slides are unpublished. Text citation (Wilson, 2010)
Reference list entry
Wilson, D. (2010). Research on the Internet: NURS5211 [Lecture notes]. Porirua, New Zealand: Whitireia Community Polytechnic, Faculty of Health. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. LIVE PERFORMANCES
Live performances, unless recorded, do not provide recoverable data so are not included in the reference
list. Cite them in the text of your assignment only. Give as much information as required to identify the
performer, date and concert. CITATION OF ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Follow the author - date format already described. For the date of publication, use the date the journal/book was published or the date the web page was created or last updated. If there is no obvious date available, use n.d. (this stands for no date). For direct quotes, give a page number if available. However many electronic sources do not have page numbers so use a paragraph number. Use the abbreviation para. or the ‘¶' symbol. Paraphrasing from the Internet
Quoting from the Internet
Cited the same way as books, journals etc - the Cited the same way as books, journals, etc - the author, year and page (or paragraph) number According to the Ministry of Women's Affairs (2000), "Under MMP the ranking of women on party lists is under MMP the number of women in parliament is crucial in determining the number of women in influenced by the place they hold on the party list. Parliament" (Ministry of Women's Affairs, 2000, p. 2). Under MMP the number of women in parliament is As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it, "positive influenced by the place they hold on the party list emotions are both an end — better to live fulfilled, (Ministry of Women's Affairs, 2000). with joy — and a means to a more caring and healthy (Buetler, 2001, Conclusion section, para. 2) If page or paragraph numbers are not available or visible, cite the heading of the section from which you have taken the quote and the number of the Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. ENTIRE WEB SITE
To cite an entire web site (not a specific document), give the address of the site in the text e.g. Grabaseat is a popular New Zealand web site (http://flightbookings.airnewzealand.co.nz/vgrabview/). A reference list entry is not required. CITATION OF FIGURES, TABLES, PHOTOS OR PICTURES FROM AN
1. Citing a figure, table, photo or picture from an external source which has been inserted into the
Refer to a photo or picture as a figure. Refer to the figure or table by number in the order it is inserted in the text e.g. As you can see in Figure 1, the structure of glucose… The source of a copied figure, table, photos or picture is not included in the reference list but there
must be a caption which. a. Is both an explanation of the figure, table, photo or picture and its title. b. Goes underneath the figure, table, photo or picture. c. Is accompanied by a note giving credit to the original author and the source. Figure 1. The structure of a-d-glucose. Note. From Glucose. (2008). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from Table 1. Alcohol and tobacco available for consumption – By type - Year ended December 2006. Note. From Alcohol and tobacco. (2007). Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved from Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. 2. Citing a figure, table, photo or picture from an external source which is not inserted into the text
Cite as usual but include the figure or table number e.g. Management paradigm shifts in human history are discussed by Clawson (2002, Figure 2-2, p. 19). Include in reference list. N.B. If preparing a document for external publication check with the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association for information about a copyright statement. FOOTNOTES & APPENDIX
Footnotes: APA discourages the use of content footnotes. If you wish to use them, see the Concise Rules of APA Style (2010). Appendices: Keep the Appendix relatively brief. Can include: tables, figures, letters, or supporting information. If you have more than one appendix, label them Appendix A, Appendix B, and so on. PART 2: REFERENCE LIST
A reference list is required for every assignment and is set out on a separate page at the end of the assignment. The reference list documents the specific material that you have referred to in the body of your References cited in the text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. A reference list is not a bibliography. A bibliography includes all the material that you have read as background but which is not quoted or cited in your essay. ARRANGEMENT
Reference list entries are arranged in alphabetical order by the first word of the specific entry. If there is no author, and the entry begins with an article (a, an or the), use the first letter of the second For works by two or more authors: arrange the authors in the sequence shown on the title page. The primary author is always listed first, followed by the others, in the order of their level of contribution to Order of several works by the same author: arrange by year of publication, the earliest first. Order of several works by the same author and published in the same year: arrange by title, and place a, b, c. after the date: Parker, A. (2008a). If there is no date, use (n.d.). Put entries with numerals in alphabetical order, as if the numerals were spelt out. APA requires that the reference list is double spaced, and a hanging indentation should be made for each entry – 2nd and following lines of a citation are set in from the margin. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. PUBLISHERS
Include town or city of publication, and country: Wellington, New Zealand. For American cities, use the city name, then the 2-letter postal code: Thousand Oaks, CA. It is not necessary to include Inc., Co., Ltd., etc. when referring to the publisher. Keep it brief. If two or more publisher locations are given, give the location listed first in the book. If more than one publisher is listed, give the first one listed. chapter
‘&' is used for ‘and' when referring to authors in the reference list.
Each element should be followed by a full-stop. Put the author's name first, spel ed out in full, with initials only for the first and second names. Only the first letter of the first word of the title and of the subtitle are capitalised. Give the date of the publication in brackets followed by a full-stop. Titles of books and journals should be italicised. REFERENCE LIST: BOOKS
A reference is divided into elements and these elements follow a set pattern: Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Harper, G. (1997). Kippenberger: An inspired New Zealand commander. Auckland, New Zealand: For editions later than the first, the edition number is added, in brackets, after the title and before the place of publication. It may be abbreviated in the entry. Roberts, K., & Taylor, B. (2002). Nursing research processes: An Australian perspective (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Nelson Thompson Learning. ONE AUTHOR ONLY
Orange, C. (1987). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, New Zealand: Allen & Unwin. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. TWO TO SEVEN AUTHORS
The first author/s are followed by a comma, then ‘&', and then the final author, surname first. Benner, P., & Wrubel, J. (1984). The primacy of caring: Stress and coping in health and illness. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley. EIGHT OR MORE AUTHORS
List first six authors, then insert three elipses . followed by the last author.
CORPORATE AUTHOR AND AUTHOR AS PUBLISHER
If an organisation or corporate body is named on the title page (not just as the publisher), then it is listed If the author is also the publisher, use the word Author for the name of the publisher. Ministry of Youth Affairs. (1994). 15-25: A youth statistical profile. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. NO AUTHOR
Put the title where the author would go. In the reference list, put in alphabetical order according to the first significant word in the title, not small words like the or a. Wellington Manawatu & Wairarapa (12th ed.). (2002). Auckland, New Zealand: Wises Maps. EDITED BOOK
The editor's name is followed by (Ed.). Kawharu, I. H. (Ed.). (1989). Waitangi: Maori & pakeha perspectives of the Treaty of Waitangi. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press. ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
If the chapter has an author, the author's name begins the entry followed by the date, then the title of the chapter. Quotation marks are not used around the chapter title. ‘In' is followed by the editor/s, initials first, then the title of the book with relevant pages in brackets. Blake, R. A. (1991). Critical incident stress debriefing for law enforcement personnel: A model. In J. Reese, J. Horn & C. Dunning (Eds.), Critical incidents in policing (pp. 239-256). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Walton, J. A., & Marriott, R. (2012). Culturally competent care. In D. Brown & H. Edwards (Eds.), Lewis's medical surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (3rd ed., pp. 22-35). Marrickville, Australia: Elsevier. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. CONFERENCE PAPERS OR PROCEEDING OF MEETINGS AND SYMPOSIA
Similar to above (article or chapter in an edited book). Capitalise the name of the conference or symposia. Add a retrieval statement for conference proceedings found online for example: Include the month and year: for unpublished symposium contributions, paper or poster presentations. Christenson, S. L. (2009). The relevance of engagement for students at-risk of educational failure: Findings and lessons from Check & Connect research. In J. Morton (Ed.), Engaging young people in learning: Why does it matter and what can we do?: Conference proceedings (pp. 36-84). Wellington, New Zealand: NZCER Press. ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DICTIONARY
Treat as an edited book. Harris, P., Nagy, S., & Vardaxis, N. (Eds.). (2009). Mosby's dictionary of medicine, nursing and health professions (2nd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W., Australia: Mosby. ENTRY IN AN ENCYCLOPEDIA
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago, Ill: Encyclopedia Britannica. REFERENCE LIST: PERIODICAL OR JOURNALS
Article author/s. (Date). Article title. Title of Periodical, volume and issue information, page numbers.
Titles of articles should not be italicised, underlined or placed in inverted commas. Capitalise only the first letter of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper names. Titles of periodicals (or journals) should be quoted in full, capitalised and italicised. Volume numbers and page numbers follow the title of the periodical. Italicise the volume number. If there is both a volume and issue number, enclose the issue number in brackets and do not italicise. If no volume number, do not use brackets and insert the issue number in italics. Enclose non-routine information in brackets immediately after the title article e.g. [Letter to the editor]. JOURNAL ARTICLE, ONE AUTHOR ONLY
Bell, N. (1991). Critical incident stress debriefing: Smoothing out the edges of rough calls. Emergency, 2(6), Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. JOURNAL ARTICLE, CORPORATE AUTHOR, NO VOLUME NUMBER
MIMS New Zealand. (2008). Lormetazepam. MIMS New Ethicals, 9, 81. JOURNAL ARTICLE, TWO TO SEVEN AUTHORS
Berah, E., Jones, H., & Valent, P. (1998). The experience of a mental health team involved in the early phase of a disaster. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 18, 334-358. JOURNAL ARTICLE, EIGHT OR MORE AUTHORS
List first six authors, then insert three elipses . followed by the last author.
Riddell, T., Wells, S., Jackson, R., Lee, A., Crengle, S., Bramley, D., . Kerr, A. (2010). Performance of Framingham cardiovascular risk scores by ethnic groups in New Zealand: PREDICT CVD-10. NZMJ Digest, 19, 11-16. JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH AN AUTHOR BUT NO VOLUME OR ISSUE NUMBER
If there is no volume or issue number then include "pp." before the page numbers. Use "p." if one page Becht, R. (2003). A Bourne winner. Player, June, pp. 14-21. JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH NO AUTHOR
Put the title where the author would go In the reference list, put in alphabetical order according to the first significant word in the title, not small words like the or a. Going public: A promising process in limiting domestic abuse. (2001). Health Care for Women International, 22(6), 517 – 520. MAGAZINE ARTICLE
Give the date shown on the publication – month for monthlies or day for weeklies Henry, W. A. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31. SAME AUTHOR MORE THAN ONE PUBLICATION IN A YEAR
For the first article used in the text add a small ‘a' after the year, then add a small ‘b' for the next Order alphabetically by title. Brydolf, M., & Segesten, K. (1996a). Living with ulcerative colitis: Experiences of adolescents and young adults. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23, 39-47. Brydolf, M., & Segesten, K. (1996b). They feel your needs in the air: Experiences of supportive activities among adolescents with ulcerative colitis. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 11(1), 71-78. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. REFERENCE LIST: OTHER MATERIALS
Annual reports are referenced as books with corporate authors. For electronic annual reports give the URL rather than publishing details. LEAFLETS, PAMPHLETS AND BROCHURES
Format references in the same way as books. In brackets, identify the publication as a brochure. Asthma Foundation of New Zealand. (n.d.). Control of inhaled allergies [Brochure]. Wellington, New Zealand: LEGISLATION: STATUTES OR ACTS
Name of Act, Volume or Number, Source (Year). Reference will differ depending on source used Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, 17, Brookers Bound Reprinted Statutes (1996). Victims' Rights Act 2002, 39, New Zealand Statutes (2003). MOTION PICTURE
Give the name and, in brackets, the role of the producer or director, or both. Identify the work as a motion picture. Give the country of origin. Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, B. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of
Cunningham, C., Weiner, Z., Walsh, F., Jackson, P. (Producers), & Jackson, P. (Director). (2012). The hobbit: An unexpected journey [Motion picture]. United States: New Line Cinema & Metro-Goldwin- MUSIC RECORDING
Composer, A. (Copyright Year). Title of song/composition. [Recorded by B. artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Means of recording: MP3, CD, record, tape, etc.]. Location: Label. (Recording date, if different from copyright year) Original recording by composer
Mitchell, J. (1971). California. On Blue [CD]. Hollywood, CA: Reprise Records. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. Recording by an artist other than the composer
Andersson, B., & Ulvaeus, B. (n.d.). The winner takes all [Recorded by the London Unity Orchestra]. On The London Unity Orchestra plays ABBA [CD]. London, England: Newsound. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
Precede page numbers for newspapers with ‘p.' or ‘pp.' If an article is not on continuous pages, give all page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma. Reuben, J. (1999, December 23). Council falling apart. Evening Post, p. 4. Humphreys, L. (1998, May 1). Families, doctors vow to fight for child health. The Daily News, pp. 1, 25. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, NO AUTHOR
Study finds free care used more. (1982, April 4). The Dominion, p. 14. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, NOT CONTINUOUS PAGES
Lublin, J. S. (1980, December 5). On idle: The unemployed shun muck mundane work, at least for a while. The Wall Street Journal, pp. 1, 25. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE, LETTER TO THE EDITOR
O'Neil , G. W. (1982, January). In support of DSM-111 [Letter to the editor]. APA Monitor, p. 4. TELEVISION BROADCAST
Give the name and, in brackets, the role of the producer or director, or both. Identify the work as either a television broadcast or television series and give the city of origin. The format can be listed in square brackets after the title: [Motion picture], [Television broadcast], [Television series], [Television series episode]. If retrieved online add "Retrieved from" and the name of database or URL at the end. Smith, L. (Executive Producer). (2000, November 5). Computer viruses [Television broadcast]. Dunedin, New Zealand: Fine Films. Single episode from a television series:
Writer, A. (Writer), & Director, B. (Director). (2009). Episode title [Television series episode]. In E. Producer (Executive producer), Series Title. Place: Broadcaster/Channel. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. UNPUBLISHED THESES OR DISSERTATIONS
Use master's thesis or doctoral dissertation. Wilson, C. (1998). Reflections on care: Older people speak about experiences of nursing care in acute medical and surgical wards. Unpublished master's thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. UNPUBLISHED WORK INCLUDING A POLICY DOCUMENT
Author, A. A. (2008). Title of paper or manuscript. Unpublished manuscript.
Unpublished manuscript or document not submitted for publication. Can include policy documents which are not published externally but on a company Intranet. Amount of information about the manuscript or document may vary. Whitireia Community Polytechnic. (2004). Planning a new library. Unpublished manuscript. Capital & Coast District Health Board. (2009). Discharge criteria – day surgery and day procedures: Organisation clinical policies and procedures; version no. 3. CPP PER-09. Unpublished manuscript. Name the director and/or producer, if possible. Add the type of format after the title [Videotape], [CD], [DVD], [Video file], followed by country of origin and name of studio. If retrieved online add "Retrieved from" and the name of database or URL at the end. For example: Retrieved from eTV database. Preparing and conducting an interview [Videotape]. (1990). Australia: VEA. REFERENCE LIST: ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Use the same information as for a printed source but include retrieval information. Date of publication is the date on the web page. If it is an electronic journal, it is the date of the journal. For an electronic version based on a print source, include page numbers. For example: PDF documents. Retrieval Date
1. A retrieval date (date looked at on the Internet) is required only if the content you are citing might change e.g. wiki. 2. A retrieval date is not necessary if the content is permanent and unlikely to change e.g. an electronic journal article or an electronic book or PDF or web page. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. Location of a source
1. For the location of a source, use a DOI if available (Digital Object Identifier which is a permanent address using numbers and letters) e.g Science Direct database uses DOIs. For more information on DOIs, check ou 2. For subscription (pay-to-use) content, if no DOI is available, give the name of the database (not its URL) or the URL of the journal home page. For external publication purposes use the latter and consult the APA Style Guide to Electronic References. 3. If the content is free-to-use, give the exact URL of the web page. 4. For online dictionaries or encyclopaedias, give the homepage URL. 5. If possible, underlining should be removed from the URL. 6. Make sure URLs are working and do not end with a full-stop. REFERENCE LIST: ONLINE JOURNALS AND BOOKS
JOURNAL ARTICLE FROM A SUBSCRIPTION DATABASE SUCH AS PROQUEST
Author's last name, Author's initials. (Date of publication). Title of article. Name of journal, volume
and issue information, page numbers if available. Retrieved from the source database (name
Spencer, M. E. (2007). The state-of-the-art: NCSU libraries learning commons. Reference Services Review, 35(2), 310-321. Retrieved from Proquest database. Ng, S. Q., Brammer, J. D., & Creedy, D. J. (2012). The psychometric properties, feasibility and utility of behavioural-observation methods in pain assessment of cognitively impaired elderly people in acute and long-term care: A systematic review. Joanna Briggs' Institute Library of Systematic Reviews, 10(17), 977-1085. Retrieved from Ovid Joanna Briggs Institute EBP database. JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH A DOI (SUBSCRIPTION OR FREE)
Author's last name, Author's initials. (Date of publication). Title of article. Name of journal, volume
and issue information. page numbers if available. doi:xxxxxxxxxx
Lillie, S. E. (2008). Diffusion of innovation in the age of YouTube. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(3), 267-26 JOURNAL ARTICLE (SUBSCRIPTION) FROM THE JOURNAL WEB SITE
Kara-Soteriou, J., & Rose, H. (2008). Using children's literature to teach about positive character traits. YC Young Children, 63(4), 30-36. Retrieved from Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. JOURNAL ARTICLE (FREE), WITH NO AUTHOR, ISSUE NUMBER ONLY, FROM A WEB SITE
Title of article. (Date of publication). Name of journal, issue information, page numbers. Retrieved
Untangling the web. (2008). Career Edge, 19, 13-15. Retrieved from ONLINE BOOK (FREE) FROM A WEB SITE
Pybus, T. A. (1954). Maori and missionary: Early Christian missions in the South Island of New Zealand. E-BOOKS FROM LIBRARY DATABASES (GALE, PROQUEST, ACM OR EBSCO)
For undergraduate students, we recommend that you give the name of the database (do not include the URL). However, for researchers, if you are submitting work to a publisher and there is no DOI, you are now required to give the URL of the ebook's homepage.
ONLINE DOCUMENT WITH EDITORS, ON WEB SITE (ORGANISATION AS PUBLISHER)
If a report is available online, add the publisher as part of the retrieval statement if it has not been identified as the author. Yorke, J., Winter, L., Kinsella, S., & Price, C. (Eds.). (2010). Academic integrity at Curtin: Student guidelines for avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from Curtin University of Technology ONLINE DOCUMENT, ON WEB SITE (MEDSAFE DATA SHEETS)
Medsafe. (2004). Adrenaline hydrochloride 1:10,000 injection MIN-I-JET [Data sheet]. Retrieved from Medsafe. (2010a). Ketalar: ketamine hydrochloride [Data sheet]. Retrieved from Medsafe. (2010b). Omeprazole infusion 40 mg: Omeprazole 40 mg for intravenous infusion [Data sheet]. REFERENCE LIST: GENERAL WEB SITE INFORMATION
PAGE ON A WEB SITE, WITH AN AUTHOR AND DATE
Author's last name, Author's initials. (Date of publication). Title of page. Retrieved from URL
Schamroth, N. (2008). Real hot chocolate & madeleines. Retrieved from PAGE ON A WEB SITE WITH AN ORGANISATION AS AUTHOR
Author. (Date of publication). Title of page. Retrieved from URL
Statistics New Zealand. (2012). New Zealand in profile 2012. Retrieved from Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. PAGE ON A WEB SITE, WITH NO AUTHOR, AND NO DATE
Title of page. (n.d.). Retrieved from URL
Map of relative iwi position. (n.d.). Retrieved from REFERENCE LIST: ONLINE DICTIONARIES OR ENCYCLOPEDIAS
If no author, use title of article. If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition number after the title: (11th ed.). ONLINE DICTIONARY FROM A WEB SITE
Wānanga. (2010). In Ngata Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.learningmedia.co.nz/ngata Give the URL of the home page for free reference works from web sites. ONLINE ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE FROM A LIBRARY DATABASE
Facebook. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from Britannica Academic Edition database. Uretsky, S. P. (2006). Antibiotics. In Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine (3rd ed.). Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library. For articles from library databases, we recommend that undergraduate students use this format. REFERENCE LIST: OTHER MATERIAL
The state funeral of Sir Edmund Hillary [Audio Podcast]. (2008, November 21). Retrieved from If possible, include producer e.g. Brown, A. (Producer). Name of podcast. (Date). URL BLOG POSTING
Obama, Barack. (2008, July 14). My plan for Iraq [Web log message]. Retrieved from Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. BROCHURE ON A WEB SITE
Diabetes New Zealand. (2005). Diabetes and pregnancy [Brochure]. Retrieved from LEGISLATION: STATUTES OR ACTS IN AN LIBRARY DATABASE
Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act 2007, 7. Retrieved from Brookers Online. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. LEGISLATION: STATUTES OR ACTS FROM A WEB SITE
Unsolicited Electronic Messages Act 2007, 7. Retrieved from NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FROM A LIBRARY DATABASE
Patterson, C. (2003, August 13). Basketballers propose Porirua stadium. The Dominion Post. Retrieved from Knowledge Basket database. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (NO AUTHOR), FROM A DAILY ONLINE NEWSPAPER
Wellington actor wins Pacific prize. (2004, November 11). New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from THESIS OR DISSERTATION FROM AN INSTITUTIONAL WEB SITE
Patrick, R. (2008). New teachers, professional knowledge and educational reform in New Zealand (Doctoral dissertation, Deakin University, 2008). Retrieved from Bill Gates. (2008). Retrieved July 16, 2008, from Wikipedi Please check with your tutor as to whether you can use Wikipedia Wikis are collaborative so there is no guarantee as to the quality of the content Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. VIDEO FROM YOU TUBE OR OTHER VIDEO POSTING WEBSITE
Ministry of Health New Zealand (2012, June 12). Living with hearing loss [Video file]. Retrieved from Wolpert, D. (2011, July). Daniel Wolpert: The real reason for brains [Video file]. Retrieved from Do not italicise titles of unpublished works. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. SAMPLE REFERENCE LIST
Christensen, J. C. (1988). The nursed passage: A theoretical framework for the nurse–patient partnership. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Disley, B. (1994). Suicide prevention initiatives: Youth suicide – the world and New Zealand wide picture. Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 8, 5-11. Jacobs, J. (2000). Preventing workplace violence. Association of Operating Room Nurses, 6(5), 42-50. Retrieved from Proquest database. Morrison, T. M. (1996, December 5). Teen angels bite back. The Dominion, p.11. Plastic pollution. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from Britannica Academic Edition database. Smith, A. (1998). PA and NP programs and growth – too much of a good thing? Clinician News, 2(2): 1. Statistics New Zealand. (2010). New Zealand in profile 2010. Retrieved from Taylor, J., & Muller, D. (1995). Nursing adolescents: Research and psychological perspectives. Oxford, England: Blackwell Science. White, R. (1994). Young people, unemployment and health. In C. Waddell & A.R. Petersen (Eds.), Just health: Inequality in illness, care and prevention (pp. 47-60). Melbourne, Australia: Churchill WHO Expert Committee. (1996). Nursing practice. (WHO Technical Report Series 860). Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. APPENDIX: WORKSHEETS
WORKSHEET - BOOK
Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. WORKSHEET - PERIODICAL
Author/s. (Date). Article title. Title of Periodical, vol(is), pages.
Title of Periodical,
Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. WORKSHEET – WEB PAGE
Author. (Date). Title of page. Retrieved from URL or Address
Title of page.
URL or Address
A retrieval date (date looked at on the Internet) is required only if the content you are citing might change e.g. wiki A retrieval date is not necessary if the content is permanent and unlikely to change. Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. WORKSHEET – PROQUEST ARTICLE, CONTENT PERMANENT
Author. (Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, vol(is). Retrieved from Proquest database.
Title of Periodical, vol(is).
Retrieved from Proquest
Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012. WORKSHEET – REFERENCING TERMS
Whitireia NZ. Updated 29 November 2012.
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Rassegna bibliografica Genitorialità/Famiglia Genitorialità/Famiglia L'educazione (im)possibile Orientarsi in una società senza padri Vittorino Andreoli Rizzoli Editore, 2014 Numero pagine: 213 Educare oggi, sostiene Andreoli, vuol dire insegnare a vivere in un mondo vastissimo e così mutevole da diventare quasi misterioso. Come fare? Come si può e si deve immaginare l'educazione in una società camaleontica dove tutto si trasforma continuamente, compresi i sentimenti e legami umani (parte indispensabile di ogni processo di crescita)? Da questa domanda parte un grido d'allarme che coinvolge non solo la famiglia e la scuola ma l'intera società, giacché il fallimento educativo è un malessere profondo che riguarda tutti, genitori e no, insegnanti e no, e che può essere risolto solo con uno sforzo comune (in primis ritrovando un punto d'unione con tutte le figure chiamate in causa durante la crescita dei ragazzi e tra loro una costante comunicazione tesa ad evitare la moltiplicazione degli stili educativi). Gli adulti devono capire, sottolinea Andreoli, che i sentimenti e i legami, come anche la possibilità di una progettualità a lunga durata (vale a dire della percezione del futuro da parte degli adolescenti), devono essere prioritari in quanto veicoli di messaggi che servono a dare sicurezza ed aiutano a formare l'identità del ragazzo: l'internet e i social networks potranno anche offrire agli adolescenti stimoli ed emozioni maggiori, ma senza ricchezza e benefici dei legami affettivi "reali". Il saggio ha un forte carattere divulgativo e cerca di dare risposte esaurienti a varie problematiche adolescenziali mettendo al centro di tutto la famiglia e la sua funzione: non più una somma di Io separati, ma una piccola orchestra diretta dal "bisogno esistenziale dell'uomo e della convivenza tra uomini". Informazioni su autore: Andreoli è considerato uno dei maggiori psichiatri italiani; al grande pubblico è noto in quanto studioso dei meccanismi della mente umana e osservatore del disagio psicologico degli adolescenti e dei loro genitori (argomento al quale ha dedicato, nel corso della sua carriera professionale, numerosi saggi) Altri soggetti: paternità e maternità/aspetti socio-culturali; educazione familiare; ruolo del contesto scolastico; adolescenza; identità