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Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions CIVIL AVIATION RULES AND STANDARDS FEDRAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA PART 1 — GENERAL POLICIES, PROCEDURES, AND DEFINITIONS General Polices, Procedures and Definitions [THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK] Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions TABLE OF CONTENTS AMENDMENTS . ii Table of CONTENTS . iii PART 1 GENERAL POLICIES, PROCEDURES, AND DEFINITionS . vi RULES OF CONSTRUCTION . 1 1.1.1.1 RULES OF CONSTRUCTION . 1 1.1.1.2 APPLICABILITY . 1 1.1.1.3 ORGANISATION OF RULES AND STANDARDS . 2 GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND STANDARDSGOVERNING TESTING, LICENSES, AND CERTIFICATES . 2 1.2.1.1 DISPLAY AND INSPECTION OF LICENSES AND CERTIFICATES . 2 1.2.1.2 CHANGE OF NAME . 3 1.2.1.3 CHANGE OF ADDRESS . 4 1.2.1.4 REPLACEMENT OF A LOST OR DESTROYED AVIATION LICENSE OR CERTIFICATE . 4 1.2.1.5 FALSIFICATION, REPRODUCTION, OR ALTERATION OF APPLICATIONS, LICENSES, CERTIFICATES, LOGBOOKS, REPORTS, OR RECORDS . 5 1.2.1.6 VOLUNTARY SURRENDER OR EXCHANGE OF LICENSE . 5 1.2.1.7 PROHIBITION ON PERFORMANCE DURING MEDICAL DEFICIENCY . 5 1.2.1.8 PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE TESTING AND REPORTING . 6 INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES . 6 INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES . 6 1.3.1.1 REPORTS OF VIOLATIONS. 6 1.3.1.2 INVESTIGATIONS—GENERAL . 7 ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION . 7 Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions LEGAL ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS . 7 1.3.3.1 CIVIL PENALTIES . 7 1.3.3.2 CRIMINAL PENALTIES . 8 1.3.3.3 CERTIFICATE ACTION . 8 1.3.3.4 DETENTION OF AIRCRAFT . 9 APPLICABILITY . 9 REQUIREMENTS FOR APPLICATION . 9 1.4.3.1 GENERAL . 9 1.4.3.2 SUBSTANCE OF THE REQUEST FOR EXEMPTION. 10 1.4.4.1 INITIAL REVIEW BY THE AUTHORITY . 10 1.4.4.2 EVALUATION OF THE REQUEST . 11 1.4.4.3 NOTIFICATION OF DETERMINATION . 11 1.4.4.4 EXTENSION OF THE EXEMPTION TO OTHER INTERESTED PARTIES . 11 DEFINITIONS . 12 REPEALS AND SAVINGS PROVISIONS . 45 SI UNIT OF MEASUREMENT . 45 IS: 1.2.1.8 LIST OF PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES . 47 LEGAL ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS . 47 TABLE 1. RANGE OF CIVIL PENALTIES . 48 TABLE 2. SANCTIONS . 48 AIR OPERATORS AND AIRPORT OPERATORS . 48 PERSONNEL OF AIR CARRIERS . 51 INDIVIDUALS AND GENERAL AVIATION— OWNERS, PILOTS, MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL, APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANISATIONS, APPROVED TRAINING ORGANISATIONS . 53 SECURITY VIOLATIONS BY INDIVIDUALS . 57 Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions WHEREAS, it is desirable to consolidate and modernize the aviation rules and standards to bring them to international standards, WHEREAS, it is important to set the rules and standards as to how the regulatory, administrative, technical and supervisory activities of the Authority shal be performed in the one hand and setting the duties, obligations and standards that shal be respected by operators and aviation personnel, WHEREAS, it is necessary, to provide detailed rules and standards for the administration of license, certification, investigation and enforcement of aviation laws. NOW THEREBY, The Authority under its power given by Article 92/2 of the Civil Aviation Proclamation No 616/2008 issued the fol owing rules and standards. These Rules and Standards may be cited as "Civil Aviation Rules and Standards of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2013" 2. DUTY TO COOPERATE Any person shal have the duty to cooperate in the implementation of these Rules and Standards. 3. EFFECTIVE DATE These Rules and Standards shal come into force as of the 1st day of July 2013. Done at Addis Ababa, this 1st day of July 2013 Col. Wosenyeleh Hunegnaw Director General, Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions PART 1 GENERAL POLICIES, PROCEDURES, AND DEFINITIONS General Polices, Procedures and Definitions RULES OF CONSTRUCTION 1.1.1.1 RULES OF CONSTRUCTION Throughout these rules and standards the fol owing word usage applies: Shall indicate a mandatory requirement. The words "no person may." or "a person may not."mean that no person is required authorized or permitted to do an act described in these rules and standards. May indicates that discretion can be used when performing an act described in these rules and standards. Will indicates an Action incumbent upon the Authority. Includes means "includes but is not limited to." Approved means the Authority has reviewed the method, procedure, or policy in question and issued a formal written approval. (7) Acceptable means the Authority has reviewed the method, procedure, or policy and has neither objected to nor approved its proposed use or implementation. Prescribed means the Authority has issued written policy or methodology which imposes either a mandatory requirement, if the written policy or methodology states "shal ," or a discretionary requirement if the written policy or methodology states "may." 1.1.1.2 APPLICABILITY (a) These Rules and Standards shal be applicable to: 1. Civil aerodromes in Ethiopia; 2. Air services and general aviation services operators established or operating in Ethiopia; 3. Any aircraft registered by the Authority; 4. Any foreign aircraft within the Ethiopian territory. 5. Aviation Personnel and training schools certified by the Authority; 6. Enterprises operating in Ethiopia in the design, manufacture, maintenance, repair and modification of aircraft and aircraft parts or components; and 7. Air navigation facilities and services in Ethiopia. (b) Those rules and standards addressing persons certificated under any Part of these rules and standards apply also to any person who engages in an operation governed by any Part of these rules and standards without the appropriate certificate, license, operations specification, or similar document required as part Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions of the certification. (c) Rules and standards addressing general matters establish minimum standards for al aircraft operated in Ethiopia. Specific rules and standards applicable to the holder of a certificate shal apply if they conflict with more general rules and standards. (d) Foreign air operators who conduct commercial air transport into, or from, Ethiopia shal be governed by the provisions of the Operations Specification issued by the Authority, and by those provisions in Parts 7, 8, and 10 that specifical y address commercial air transport. Rules and standards that address AOC holders apply only to operators certificated by the Authority. 1.1.1.3 ORGANISATION OF RULES AND STANDARDS (a) These rules and standards are subdivided into five hierarchical categories: (1) Part refers to the primary subject area. (2) Subpart refers to any subdivision of a Part. (3) Section refers to any subdivision of a Subpart. (4) Subsection refers to the title of a rules and standards and can be a subdivision of a Subpart or (5) Paragraph refers to the text describing the rules and standards. Al paragraphs are outlined alphanumerical y in the fol owing hierarchical order: (a), (1), (i), (A). (b) Acronyms used within each Part are defined at the beginning of those Parts, (c) Standards may refer to Implementing Standards, which provide detailed requirements that support the purpose of the subsection, and unless otherwise indicated, have the legal force and effect of the referring rules and standards. The rules of construction, Subsection 1.1.1.1, apply to Implementing Standards. GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND STANDARDS GOVERNING TESTING, LICENSES, AND CERTIFICATES 1.2.1.1 DISPLAY AND INSPECTION OF LICENSES AND CERTIFICATES (a) Pilot License: (1) To act as a pilot of a civil aircraft of Ethiopia registry, a pilot shal have in his or her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft a valid pilot license or special purpose authorization issued under these rules and standards. (2) To act as a pilot of a civil aircraft of foreign registry within Ethiopia, a pilot shal be the holder of a valid pilot license, and have the pilot license in his or her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (b) Flight Instructor License: A person who holds a flight instructor license shal have that license, or other documentation acceptable to the Authority, in that person's physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft when exercising the privileges of that license. (c) Other Aviation Personnel License: A person required by any part of these rules and standards to have an aviation personnel's license shal have it in their physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft or at the work site when exercising the privileges of that license. (d) Medical Certificate: A person required by any part of these rules and standards to have a current medical certificate shal have it in their physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft or at the work site when exercising the privileges of that certificate. (e) Approved Training Organization (ATO) Certificate: Each holder of a certificate shal display that certificate in a place in the school that is normal y accessible to the public and that is not obscured. (f) Aircraft Certificate of Registration: Each owner or operator of an aircraft shal carry the aircraft certificate of registration on the aircraft and have it available for inspection. (g) Aircraft Certificate of Airworthiness: Each owner or operator of an aircraft shal display that certificate in the cabin of the aircraft or at the entrance to the aircraft flight deck. (h) Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO) Certificate: Each holder of an AMO certificate shal prominently display that certificate in a place accessible to the public in the principal business office of the AMO. (i) Aerial Work Certificate: Each owner or operator of an aircraft engaged in aerial work shal carry that certificate or a copy of that certificate on the aircraft and have it available for inspection. (j) Air Operator Certificate: Each owner or operator of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport shal carry the air operator certificate or a copy of that certificate on the aircraft and have it available for inspection. (k) Aerodrome License or Certificate: Each owner or operator of an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport shal carry the air operator certificate or a copy of that certificate on the aircraft and have it available for inspection. (k) Inspection of License: Each person who holds an aviation personnel or crewmember license, medical certificate, or authorization required by these rules and standards shal present it for inspection upon a request from (1) The Authority; or (2) Any national or local law enforcement officer. 1.2.1.2 CHANGE OF NAME (a) A holder of a license or certificate issued under these rules and standards may apply to change the name on a license or certificate. The holder shal include with any such request: (1) The current license or certificate; and (2) A copy of the marriage license, court order, or other document verifying the name change. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (3) The Authority shal change the name of the holder and issue a replacement license or certificate with the appropriate endorsement. (4) The Authority shal retain copies of the documents submitted under this rules and standards. (b) The Authority may return to the aviation personnel the documents specified in paragraph (a) of this 1.2.1.3 CHANGE OF ADDRESS (a) The holder of an aviation personnel license or certificate, or approved training organization certificate who has made a change in permanent address shal not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the license or certificate unless the holder has notified the Authority in writing of the new permanent address, or current residential address if the permanent mailing address includes a post office box number. 1.2.1.4 REPLACEMENT OF A LOST OR DESTROYED AVIATION LICENSE OR CERTIFICATE a) An applicant who has lost or destroyed one of the fol owing documents issued under these rules and standards shal request a replacement in writing from the office if any designated by the Authority: (1) An aviation personnel license. (2) A medical certificate. (3) A knowledge test report. (4) Any license issued by the Authority (b) The aviation personnel or applicant shal state in the request letter:- (1) The name of the aviation personnel or applicant; (2) The permanent address, or if the permanent address includes a post office box number, the person's current residential address; (3) The Pass port or equivalent national identification number; (4) The date and place of birth of the aviation personnel or applicant; and (5) Any available information regarding the:- (i) Grade, number, and date of issuance of the license, and the ratings, if applicable; (i ) Date of the medical examination, if applicable; and (i i) Date of the knowledge test was taken, if applicable (iv) Police report verifying the registration of the lost or destroyed license or document Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (c) After receiving an application from, the Authority confirming that the lost or destroyed document was issued, aviation personnel may carry the facsimile in lieu of the lost or destroyed document for up to 15 days pending the aviation personnel's receipt of a duplicate document. 1.2.1.5 FALSIFICATION, REPRODUCTION, OR ALTERATION OF APPLICATIONS, LICENSES, CERTIFICATES, LOGBOOKS, REPORTS, OR RECORDS (a) No person may make or cause to be made concerning any license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization, application for or duplicate thereof, issued under these rules and standards: (1) Any fraudulent or intentional y false statement; (2) Any fraudulent or intentional y false entry in any logbook, record, or report that these rules and standards require, or used to show compliance with any requirement of these rules and standards; (3) Any reproduction for fraudulent purpose; or (4) Any alteration. (b) Any person who commits any act prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section may have his or her aviation personnel license, rating, certificate, qualification, or authorization revoked or suspended. 1.2.1.6 VOLUNTARY SURRENDER OR EXCHANGE OF LICENSE (a) The holder of a license or certificate issued under these rules and standards may voluntarily surrender it (1) Cancel ation; (2) Issuance of a lower grade license; or (3) Another license with specific ratings deleted. (b) An applicant requesting voluntary surrender of a license shal include the fol owing signed statement or its equivalent: "This request is made for my own reasons, with full knowledge that my (insert name of license or rating, as appropriate) may not be reissued to me unless I again pass the tests prescribed for its issuance." 1.2.1.7 PROHIBITION ON PERFORMANCE DURING MEDICAL DEFICIENCY (a) A person who holds a current medical certificate issued under these rules and standards shal not act in a capacity for which that medical certificate is required while that person: (1) knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make the person unable to meet the requirements for the required medical certificate; or (2) is taking medication or receiving other treatment for a medical condition that results in the person being unable to meet the requirements for the required medical certificate. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions 1.2.1.8 PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE TESTING AND REPORTING (a) Any person who performs any function requiring a license, rating, qualification, or authorization prescribed by these rules and standards directly or by contract for a certificate holder under the provisions of these rules and standards may be tested for usage of psychoactive substances. (b) Chemicals considered psychoactive substances are listed in IS 1.2.1.8. (c) Any person subject to these rules and standards who refuses to submit to a test to indicate the percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when requested by an inspector of the Authority, or refuses to furnish or to authorize the release of the test results requested by the Authority may:- (1) Be denied any license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization issued under these rules and standards for a period of up to 1 year after the date of that refusal; or (2) Have his or her license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization issued under these rules and standards suspended or revoked. (d) Any person subject to these rules and standards who refuses to submit to a test to indicate the presence of narcotic drugs, marijuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances in the body, when requested by an inspector of the Authority, or refuses to furnish or to authorize the release of the test results requested by the Authority may:- (1) Be denied any license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization issued under these rules and standards for a period of up to 1 year after the date of that refusal; or (2) Have his or her license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization issued under these rules and standards suspended or revoked. (e) Any person subject to these rules and standards who is convicted for the violation of any local or national statute relating to the growing, processing, manufacture, sale, disposition, possession, transportation, or importation of narcotic drugs, marijuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances, may:- (1) Be denied any license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization issued under these rules and standards for a period of up to 1 year after the date of final conviction; or (2) Have his or her license, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization issued under these rules and standards suspended or revoked. INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INVESTIGATIVE PROCEDURES 1.3.1.1 REPORTS OF VIOLATIONS (a) Any person who knows of a violation of the Proclamation or any rules and standards and orders there under should report it to the Authority. (b) Each report made under this section together with any other information the Authority may have that is Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions relevant to the matter reported wil be reviewed by the Authority to determine the nature and type of any additional investigation or enforcement Action the Authority wil take. 1.3.1.2 INVESTIGATIONS—GENERAL (a) Under the Proclamation, the Authority may conduct investigations, hold hearings, issue subpoenas, require the production of relevant document, records, and property, and take evidence and depositions. 1.3.1.3 FORMAL COMPLAINTS 1.3.1.4 Complaints submitted to the Authority under section 1.3.1.1(a) shal be in a form and manner prescribed by the ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION (a) If it is determined that a violation or an al eged violation of the proclamation, or an order or rules and standards or rules and standards issued under it, is appropriate for administrative Action, the Authority may take administrative Action by one of the fol owing: (1) A "Warning Notice" that shal recite available facts and information about the incident or condition and indicate that it may have been a violation; or (2) A "Letter of Correction" which confirms the Authority's decision in the matter and states the necessary corrective Action the al eged violator has taken or agreed to take. If the agreed corrective Action is not ful y completed, formal certificate Action may be taken in accordance with 1.3.3.3. (b) An administrative Action under this section does not constitute a formal adjudication of the matter. LEGAL ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS 1.3.3.1 CIVIL PENALTIES (a) Any foreign civil aircraft operator who violates the provisions of Article 40(1) or (2) of the Proclamation shal be liable to a fine up to 15,000 United States Dol ar. (b) Any person, other than a person conducting an operation in commercial air transport or international commercial air transport, who violates any provision of the Proclamation, these Aviation Safety Rules, or any order issued there under, is subject to a civil penalty imposed by the Authority in accordance with article 78/2 of the Proclamation. (c) Any person conducting an operation in commercial air transport or international commercial air transport, who violates any provision of the Proclamation, these Aviation Safety Rules, or any order issued there under, is subject to a civil penalty imposed by the Authority in accordance with article 78/3 of the Proclamation. (d) Civil penalties may be assessed instead of or in addition to any license or certificate Action described in Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (e) Guidelines for civil penalties and certificate Actions are listed in IS 1.3.3. 1.3.3.2 CRIMINAL PENALTIES (a) Part seven of the Proclamation establishes criminal penalties for any person who knowingly and wil ful y violates specified provisions of that Proclamation, or any rules and standards or order issued there under. (b) If the Authority becomes aware of a possible violation of any criminal provision of the Proclamation, shal immediately report it to the appropriate government body in a manner prescribed by law. 1.3.3.3 CERTIFICATE ACTION (a) Suspension or revocation of a license or certificate for violation of these rules and standards. (1) The holder of any license or certificate issued under these rules and standards who violates any provision of the Proclamation, as amended, or any rules or order issued there under, is subject to suspension or revocation of the license or certificate, in accordance with the provisions of Article 32 and 77 of the Proclamation. (2) Any license or certificate issued under these rules and standards ceases to be effective, if it is surrendered, suspended, or revoked. (3) The holder of any license or certificate issued under these rules and standards that has been suspended or revoked shal return that license to the Authority when requested to do so by the Authority. (b) Re-examination or re-inspection of a certificate or license for lack of qualification. Under Article 32 of the Proclamation, the Authority may re-inspect any civil aircraft, aircraft engine, propel er, appliance, air operator, school, or approved maintenance organization, or any civil aviation personnel holding a certificate or license issued under Article 10 of the Proclamation. If, as a result of that re-inspection or re-examination, or any other investigation made by the Authority, the Authority determines that a lack of qualification exists, and that safety in air transport and the public interest requires it, the Authority may issue an order to amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the license or certificate in whole or in part. Procedures for the re-examination of personnel licenses, ratings, authorizations, or certificates are set forth in Part 2 of these rules and standards. (c) Notice and opportunity to be heard. Unless safety in air transport requires immediate Action, prior to a final determination under this section 1.3.3, the Authority shal provide the person with an opportunity to be heard as to why such certificate or license should not be amended, modified, suspended, or revoked, in accordance with Article 80/1 of the Proclamation. (d) Reapplication after revocation. Unless otherwise authorized by the Authority, a person whose license, certificate, rating, or authorization has been revoked may not apply for any license, certificate, rating, or authorization for 1 year after the date of revocation. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (e) Reapplication after suspension. Unless otherwise authorized by the Authority, a person whose license has been suspended may not apply for any license, rating, or authorization during the period of suspension. 1.3.3.4 DETENTION OF AIRCRAFT (a) As provided by the Proclamation, an aircraft that is involved in a violation for which a civil penalty has been imposed or may be imposed on its owner or operator may be subject to detention by the Authority in accordance with enforcement procedures set forth by the Authority. This subpart prescribes procedures for the request, review, and denial or issuance of exemptions from the rules and standards of these Parts, as provided by these rules and standards. (a) Any interested person may apply to the Authority for an exemption from these rules and standards. (b) Only the Authority may issue exemptions, and no person may take or cause to be taken any Action not in compliance with these rules and standardsunless the Authority has issued an applicable exemption to the person. Exemptions wil only be granted in extraordinary circumstances. REQUIREMENTS FOR APPLICATION Applications for an exemption should be submitted at least 60 days in advance of the proposed effective date, to obtain timely review. The request must contain the applicant's: Street address and mailing address, if different; Telephone number; Fax number if available; Email address if available; and Agent for al purposes related to the application; If the applicant is not a citizen or legal resident of Ethiopia, the application must specify an Ethiopian agent for service. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions 1.4.3.2 SUBSTANCE OF THE REQUEST FOR EXEMPTION Applications must contain the fol owing: Justification for the exemption; (2) A citation of the specific requirement from which the applicant seeks relief; Description of the type of operations to be conducted under the proposed exemption; The proposed duration of the exemption; An explanation of how the exemption would be in the public interest, that is, benefits the public as a whole; A detailed description of the alternative means by which the applicant wil ensure a level of safety equivalent to that established by these rules and standards in question; and A review and discussion of any known safety concerns with the requirement, including information about any relevant accidents or incidents of which the applicant is aware. (8) Any other relevant information that may be required by the Authority. (9) If the applicant seeks to operate under the proposed exemption outside of Ethiopia airspace, the application must also indicate whether the exemption would contravene any provision of the Standards and Recommended Practices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (10) An application for exemption shal be accompanied by a fee. If the applicant seeks emergency processing, the application must contain supporting facts and reasons that the application was not timely filed, and the reasons it is an emergency. The Authority may deny an application if the Authority finds that the applicant has not justified the failure to apply in a timely fashion. REVIEW, PUBLICATION, AND ISSUE OR DENIAL OF THE EXEMPTION 1.4.4.1 INITIAL REVIEW BY THE AUTHORITY The Authority wil review the application for accuracy and compliance with the requirements of 1.4.3. If the application appears on its face to satisfy the provisions of 1.4.3 and the Authority determines that a review of its merits is justified, the Authority wil publish a detailed summary of the application for comment and specify the date by which comments must be received by the Authority for consideration. If the filing requirements of 1.4.3 have not been met, the Authority wil notify the applicant and take no further Action until the applicant complies with the requirements of 1.4.3. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions 1.4.4.2 EVALUATION OF THE REQUEST After initial review, if the filing requirements have been satisfied, the Authority shal conduct an evaluation of the request to include: A determination of whether an exemption would be in the public interest; A determination, after a technical evaluation, of whether the applicant's proposal would provide a level of safety equivalent to that established by these rules and standards; If it appears to the Authority that a technical evaluation of the request would impose a significant burden on the Authority's technical resources, the Authority may deny the exemption on that basis. A determination, if the applicant seeks to operate under the exemption outside of Ethiopia airspace, of whether a grant of the exemption would contravene the applicable ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices; An evaluation of comments received from interested parties concerning the proposed exemption; and A recommendation, based on the preceding elements, of whether the request should be granted or denied, and of any conditions or limitations that should be part of the exemption. 1.4.4.3 NOTIFICATION OF DETERMINATION (a) The Authority shal notify the applicant by letter and publish a detailed summary of its evaluation and decision to grant or deny the request. The summary shal specify the duration of the exemption and any conditions or limitations to the exemption. (b) If the request is for emergency relief, the Authority wil publish the application and/or the Authority's decision as soon as possible after processing the application. (c) If the exemption affects a significant population of the aviation community of Ethiopia, the Authority shal also publish the summary in its aeronautical information publications. 1.4.4.4 EXTENSION OF THE EXEMPTION TO OTHER INTERESTED PARTIES (a) If the Authority determines that an exemption should be granted, other persons or organizations may apply to the Authority to be included in the relief granted. (b) Such applications shal be in accordance with the requirements of 1.4.3 (c) If the Authority determines that the request merits extension of the exemption to the applicant, it shal notify the applicant by letter, specifying the duration of the exemption, and listing any additional conditions that may pertain to the applicant that are not addressed in the underlying exemption. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (a) For the purpose of these rules and standards, the fol owing definitions shal apply: Acceptable: A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1.(a)(7) that means the Authority has reviewed the method, procedure, or policy and has neither objected to nor approved its proposed use or implementation. Acceptance Checklist: A document used to assist in carrying out a check on the external appearance of packages of dangerous goods and their associated documents to determine that al appropriate requirements have been met. (3) Accountable Manager: The person acceptable to the Authority who has corporate AUTHORITY for ensuring that al operations and maintenance activities can be financed and carried out to the standard required by the Authority, and any additional requirements defined by the operator. Accredited Representative: As relating to an aircraft accident, a person designated by a State, on the basis of his or her qualifications, for the purpose of participating in an investigation conducted by another party. (ICAO Annex 13) Acrobatic Flight: Maneuvers intentional y performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an abnormal variation in speed. ADS Agreement: An ADS reporting plan that establishes the conditions of ADS data reporting (i.e. data required by the air traffic services or control unit and frequency of ADS reports that have to be agreed to prior to the provision of the ADS services). ADS Contract : A means by which the terms of an ADS agreement wil be exchanged between the ground system and the aircraft, specifying under what conditions ADS reports would be initiated, and what data would be contained in the reports. Advisor: As relating to an aircraft accident, a person appointed by a State on the basis of his or her qualifications, for the purpose of assisting its accredited representative in an investigation. (ICAO Annex 13) Advisory Airspace: An airspace of defined dimensions, or designated route, within which air traffic advisory service is available. (10) Advisory Route: A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is available. (11) Aerial Work: An aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used for specialized services such as agriculture, construction, photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. (12) Aerodrome: A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, instal ations and equipment) intended to be used either whol y or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. (13) Aerodrome control Service: Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (14) Aerodrome control Tower: A unit established to provide air traffic control service to aerodrome (15) Aerodrome Operating Minima: The limits of usability of an aerodrome for: Takeoff, expressed in terms of runway visual range and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions; Landing in precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate to the category of the operation; Landing in approach and landing operations with vertical guidance, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H); and (i i) Landing in non-precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range, minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) and, if necessary, cloud conditions. (16) Aerodrome Traffic Zone: An airspace of defined dimensions established around an aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic. (17) Aeronautical Experience: Pilot time obtained in an aircraft, approved flight simulation training device for meeting the training and flight time requirements of these rules and standards. (18) Aeronautical Product: Any aircraft, aircraft engine, propel er, or subassembly, appliance, material, part, or component to be instal ed thereon. (19) Aeroplane: A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. (20) Aeroplane Flight Manual: A manual, associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations within which the aero plane is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members of the safe operation of the aero plane. (21) Agricultural Aircraft Operation: The operation of an aircraft for the purpose of:- Dispensing any economic poison; Dispensing any other substance intended for plant nourishment, soil treatment, propagation of plant life, or pest control; or Engaging in dispensing activities directly affecting agriculture, horticulture, or forest preservation, but not including the dispensing of live insects. (22) Air Navigation Facility: Any facility used in, available for use in, or designed for use in aid of air navigation, including aerodromes, landing areas, lights, any apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather information, for signaling, for radio directional finding, or for radio or other electrical communication, and any other structure or mechanism having a similar purpose for guiding or control ing flight in the air or the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (23) Aircraft: Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth's surface. (24) Aircraft Avionics: A term designating any electronic device – including its electrical part – for use in an aircraft, including radio, automatic flight control and instrument systems. (25) Aircraft Category: Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics, e.g. aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free bal oon, airship, powered-lift. (26) Aircraft Certificated for Single-pilot Operation: A type of aircraft which the State of Registry has determined, during the certification process, can be operated safely with a minimum crew of one pilot. (27) Aircraft Certificated for Multi-pilot Operation: A type of aircraft which the State of Registry has determined, during the certification process, can be operated safely with a minimum crew of two pilots. (28) Aircraft Engine: Any engine used, or intended to be used, for propulsion of aircraft and includes al parts, appurtenances, and accessories thereof other than propel ers. (29) Aircraft Operating Manual: A manual, acceptable to the State of the Operator, containing normal, abnormal and emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance information, details of the aircraft systems, and other material relevant to the operation of the aircraft. (30) Aircraft Required to be Operated with a Co-pilot:. A type of aircraft that is required to be operated with a co-pilot as specified in the flight manual or by the air operator certificate. (31) Aircraft Piracy: Any actual or attempted seizure or exercise of control, by force or violence, or by any other form of intimidation, with wrongful intent, of an aircraft within the jurisdiction of Ethiopia. (32) Aircraft Technical Log: Documentation for an aircraft that includes the maintenance record for the aircraft and a record for each flight made by the aircraft. The aircraft technical log is comprised of a journey records section and a maintenance section. (33) Aviation Personnel: This term refers to any individual who carries out civil aviation operational or technical functions and includes:- Any individual who engages, as the person in command or as pilot, mechanic, or member of the crew, or who navigates an aircraft while the aircraft is underway; (i ) Any individual in charge of the inspection, maintenance, overhauling, or repair of aircraft, and any individual in charge of the inspection, maintenance, overhauling, or repair of aircraft, aircraft engines, propel ers, or appliances; or (i i) Any individual who serves in the capacity of flight control er, air traffic control er or aircraft dispatcher officer. (34) Aviation Personnel Ship: The consistent use of good judgment and wel -developed knowledge, skil s and attitudes to accomplish flight objectives. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (35) Air Navigation Facility: Any facility used in, available for use in, or designed for use in aid of air navigation, including airports, landing areas, lights, any apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather information, for signaling, for radio directional finding, or for radio or other electromagnetic communication, and any other structure or mechanism having a similar purpose for guiding or control ing flight in the air or the landing and takeoff of aircraft. (36) Air Operator: Any organization which undertakes to engage in domestic commercial air transport or international commercial air transport, whether directly or indirectly or by a lease or any other arrangement. (37) Air Operator Certificate (AOC) : A certificate authorizing an operator to carry out specified commercial air transport operations. (38) Airship: A power-driven lighter than air aircraft. (39) Air Traffic: Al aircraft in flight or operating on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome. (40) Air Traffic Control Clearance: Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air traffic control unit. (41) Air Traffic Control (ATC) Facility: A building holding the persons and equipment responsible for providing ATC services (e.g., airport tower, approach control, centre). May also be cal ed air traffic control unit. (42) Air Traffic Control Service: A service provided within advisory airspace that promotes the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow and separation of air traffic at aerodromes and during the approach, departure, and en route environments including aircraft that are operating on IFR flight plans. Also can be cal ed air traffic advisory service or air traffic service. (43) Air Traffic Services Airspaces: Airspaces of defined dimensions, alphabetical y designated, within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services and rules of operation are specified. (44) Air Traffic Services Reporting Office: A unit established for the purpose of receiving reports concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure. (45) Aircraft Accident: An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as al such persons have disembarked, in which: A person is fatal y or seriously injured as a result of:- (A) Being in the aircraft; (B) Direct contract with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft; or (C) Direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are from natural causes, self- Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normal y available to the passengers and crew. The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and would normal y require major repair or replacement of the affected component, except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories; or for damage limited to propel ers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes, fairings, smal dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. Aircraft Category: Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics (e.g., aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free bal oon, airship and powered-lift). (47) Aircraft Component: Any component part of an aircraft up to and including a complete power plant and/or any operational/emergency equipment. Aircraft Type: Al aircraft of the same basic design. Airframe: The fuselage, booms, nacel es, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but excluding propel ers and rotating airfoils of a power plant), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories and controls. Airship: A power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft. Airway: A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor. Airworthiness Approval Tag. A tag that may be attached to a part. The tag must include the part number, serial number, and current life status of the part. Each time the part is removed from a type certificated product, a new tag must be created or the existing tag must be updated with the current life status. The tag has two distinct purposes – (1) as a certification of release to service of a part, component or assembly after maintenance, preventive maintenance, overhaul or rebuilding, and (2) for shipping of a newly manufactured part. Airworthiness Data: Any information necessary to ensure that an aircraft or aircraft component can be maintained in a condition such that airworthiness of the aircraft, or serviceability of operational and emergency equipment, as appropriate, is assured. Airworthiness Directive: Continuing airworthiness information that applies to the fol owing products: aircraft, aircraft engines, propel ers, and appliances. An airworthiness directive is mandatory if issued by the State of Design. (55) Airworthiness Release: The air operator's aircraft are released for service fol owing maintenance by a person specifical y authorized by the air operator rather than by an individual or maintenance organization on their own behalf. (56) Alteration: The alteration of an aircraft/aeronautical product in conformity with an approved Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (57) Alerting Service: A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required. (58) Alternate Aerodrome: An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or land at the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate aerodromes include the fol owing: Takeoff alternate. An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should this become necessary shortly after takeoff and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure. En-route alternate. An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition en route. ETOPS en-route alternate. A suitable and appropriate alternate aerodrome at which an aeroplane would be able to land after experiencing an engine shut-down or other abnormal or emergency condition while en route in an ETOPS operation. Destination alternate. An alternate aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it become either impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. (59) Altitude: The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL). (60) Annexes to the Chicago Convention: The documents issued by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) containing the Standards and Recommended Practices applicable to the proclamation. (61) Appliances: Instruments, equipment, apparatus, parts, appurtenances, or accessories, of whatever description, which are used, or are capable of being or intended to be used, in the navigation, operation, or control of aircraft in flight (including parachutes and including communication equipment and any other mechanism or mechanisms instal ed in or attached to aircraft during flight), and which are not part or parts of aircraft, aircraft engines, or propel ers. (62) Approach and Landing Operations Using Instrument Approach Procedures: Instrument approach and landing operations are classified as fol ows: Non-precision approach and landing operations. An instrument approach and landing which utilized lateral guidance but does not utilize vertical guidance. Approach and landing operations with vertical guidance. An instrument approach and landing which uses lateral and vertical guidance but does not meet the requirements established for precision approach and landing operations. Precision approach and landing operations. An instrument approach and landing using precision lateral and vertical guidance with minima as determined by the category of operation. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Category I (CAT I) operation. A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 feet), and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. Category II (CAT II) operation. A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 feet) but not lower than 300 m (100 feet) and a runway visual range not less than 350 m. Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation. A precision instrument approach and landing with: A decision height lower than 30 m (100 feet) or no decision height; and A runway visual range not less than 200 m. (vi ) Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation. A precision instrument approach and landing with: A decision height lower than 15 m (50 feet) or no decision height; and A runway visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m. (vi i) Category IIIC (CAT IIIC) operation. A precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations. (63) Approach Control Service: Air traffic control service for arriving or departing control ed flights. (64) Approach Control Unit: A unit established to provide air traffic control service to control ed flights arriving at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes. (65) Appropriate ATS or ATC Authority: The Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority. (66) Appropriate Airworthiness Requirements: The comprehensive and detailed airworthiness codes established, adopted or accepted by a Contracting State for the class of aircraft, engine or propel er under consideration. (67) Appropriate Authority: (i) Regarding flight over the high seas: The relevant Authority of the State of Registry. (i ) Regarding flight other than over the high seas: The relevant Authority of the State having sovereignty over the territory being over flown. (68) Approval for Return to Service: See maintenance release. (69) Approved: A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1.(a)(6) that means the Authority has reviewed the method, procedure, or policy in question and issued a formal written approval. (70) Approved by the Authority: Approved by the Authority directly or in accordance with a procedure approved by the Authority. (71) Approved Continuous Maintenance Program: A maintenance program approved by the State of (72) Approved Data. Technical information approved by the Authority. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (73) Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO) : An organization approved by the Authority, in accordance with MCAR Part 6, to perform specific aircraft maintenance activities by the Authority. These activities may include the inspection, overhaul, maintenance, repair and/or modification and release to service of aircraft or aeronautical products. (74) Approved Training Organization (ATO): An organization approved by the Authority, in accordance with MCAR Part 3, to perform to perform flight crew training and other training approved by the Authority. (75) Approved Standard: A manufacturing, design, maintenance, or quality standard approved by the (76) Approved Training: Training carried out under special curricula and supervision approved by the (77) Apron : A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuel ing, parking or maintenance. (78) Area Control Centre: A unit established to provide air traffic control service to control ed flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. (79) Area control service: Air traffic control service for control ed flights in control areas. (80) Area Navigation (RNAV) : A method of navigation that permits aircraft operations on any desired flight path within the coverage of station-referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these. (81) Article: Any item, including but not limited to, an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propel er, appliance, accessory, assembly, subassembly, system, subsystem, component, unit, product, or part. (82) ATS or ATC route:. A specified route designed for channel ing the flow of air traffic as necessary for the provision of air traffic services, defined by route specifications that include an ATS or ATC route designator, the track to or from significant points (way points), distance between significant points, reporting requirements, and as determined by the appropriate ATS or ATC Authority, the lowest safe altitude. The term "ATS" or "ATC" route is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route, control ed or uncontrol ed route, arrival or departure route. (83) Authorized Instructor: A person who:- Holds a valid ground instructor certificate issued under Part 2 when conducting ground training; Holds a current flight instructor certificate issued under Part 2 when conducting ground training or flight training; or Is authorized by the Authority to provide ground training or flight training under Part Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (84) Authority: The Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority. (85) Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS): A surveil ance technique in which aircraft automatical y provide, via a data link, data derived from on-board navigation and position-fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four-dimensional position and additional data as appropriate. (86) Balloon: A non-power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft. (87) Banner: An advertising medium supported by a temporary framework attached external y to the aircraft and towed behind the aircraft. (88) Cabin Crew Member: A crew member who performs, in the interest of safety of passengers, duties assigned by the operator or the pilot-in-command of the aircraft, but who shal not Proclamation as a flight crew member. (89) Calendar Day: The period of elapsed time, using Co-ordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later in the next midnight. (90) Calendar Month: A period of a month beginning and ending with the dates that are conventional y accepted as marking the beginning and end of a numbered month (as January 1 through January 31 in the Gregorian calendar). (91) Calendar Year : A period of a year beginning and ending with the dates that are conventional y accepted as marking the beginning and end of a numbered year (as January 1 through December 31 in the Gregorian calendar). (92) Calibration: A set of operations, performed in accordance with a definite documented procedure that compares the measurement performed by a measurement device or working standard with a recognized bureau of standards for the purpose of detecting and reporting or eliminating adjustment errors in the measurement device, working standard, or aeronautical product tested. (93) Cargo Aircraft: Any aircraft carrying goods or property but not passengers. In this context, the fol owing are not considered to be passengers: An operator's employee permitted by, and carried in accordance with, the instructions contained in the Operations Manual; An authorized representative of an Authority; or A person with duties in respect of a particular shipment on board. (94) Category One Operation (CAT I) : A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. (95) Category Two Operation (CAT II): A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 60 m (200ft) but no lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a visual range not less 350 m. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (96) Category Three A (CAT IIIA) Operation: A precision approach and landing with: A decision height lower than 30 m (100ft) or no decision height; and A runway visual range not less than 200 m. (97) Category Three B (CAT IIIB) Operation: A precision approach and landing with: A decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no decision height; and A runway visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m. (98) Category Three C (CAT IIIC) Operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations. (99) Causes: As relating to an aircraft accident or incident, Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof which led to the accident or incident. (ICAO Annex 13) (100) Ceiling: The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6,000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half the sky. (101) Certify as Airworthy: The Proclamation of completing a maintenance release by a properly authorized person after the modification, overhaul, repair or inspection of an aircraft or aeronautical product by which the aircraft or aeronautical part is cleared for use in flight as meeting the requirements of the airworthiness certificate of Ethiopia. (102) Certifying Staff: Those personnel who are authorized by the Approved Maintenance Organization in accordance with a procedure acceptable to the Authority to certify aircraft or aircraft components for release to service. (103) Change-over- point: The point at which an aircraft navigating on an ATC route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges is expected to transfer its primary navigational references from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of the aircraft. Change-over-points are established to provide the optimum balance in respect of signal strength and quality between facilities at al levels to be used and to ensure a common source of azimuth guidance for al aircraft operating along the same portion of a route segment. (104) Check aviation personnel (aeroplane) : A person who is qualified, and permitted, to conduct an evaluation in an aeroplane, in a flight simulation training device for a particular type aeroplane, for a particular AOC holder. (105) Check aviation personnel (simulator) :A person who is qualified to conduct an evaluation, but only in a flight simulation training device for a particular type aircraft, for a particular AOC holder. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (106) Chicago Convention: ("Convention") The Convention on International Civil Aviation Concluded in Chicago, U.S.A. in 1944, in effect, 1947 and includes:- Any amendment to the convention which has into force under article 94/a of the convention and has been ratified by Ethiopia, Any annex and amendment thereto accepted under article 90 of the convention, and The international standards and recommended practices from time to time accepted and amended by International Civil Aviation Organization pursuant to article 37 of the convention (107) Citizen of Ethiopia: This term refers to one of the fol owing: An individual who is a citizen of Ethiopia; A partnership of which each member is a citizen of Ethiopia; or A corporation or association created or organized and authorized under the proclamations. (108) Civil Aircraft: Any aircraft other than a state or public aircraft. (109) Civil Aviation: The operation of any civil aircraft for the purpose of general aviation operations, aerial work or commercial air transport operations. (110) Clearance Limit: The point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance. (111) Commercial Air Transport Operation: An aircraft operation involving the public transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire. (112) Commercial Air Transport: An aircraft operation involving the public transport of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire. (113) Common mark: A mark assigned by the International Civil Aviation Organization to the common mark registering Authority registering aircraft of an international operating agency on other than a national basis. (114) Common Mark Registering Authority: The Authority maintaining the non-national register or, where appropriate, the part thereof, in which aircraft of an international operating agency are registered. (115) Competency: A combination of skil s, knowledge and attitudes required to perform a task to the prescribed standard. (116) Competency Element: An Action that constitutes a task that has a triggering event and a terminating event that clearly defines its limits, and an observable outcome. (117) Competency Unit: A discrete function consisting of a number of competency elements. (118) Complex Aeroplane: An aero plane that has retractable landing gear, flaps, and a control able pitch propel er; or in the case of a seaplane, flaps and a control able pitch propel er. (119) Composite: Structural materials made of substances, including, but not limited to, wood, metal, ceramic, plastic, fiber-reinforced materials, graphite, boron, or epoxy, with built-in strengthening Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions agents that may be in the form of filaments, foils, powders, or flakes, of a different material. (120) Computer System: Any electronic or automated system capable of receiving, storing, and processing external data, and transmitting and presenting such data in a usable form for the accomplishment of a specific function. (121) Configuration Deviation List (CDL) : A list established by the organization responsible for the type design with the approval of the State of Design which identifies any external parts of an aircraft type which may be missing at the commencement of a flight, and which contains, where necessary, any information on associated operating limitations and performance correction. (122) Congested Area: A city, town, settlement, or open air assembly of people. (123) Consignment : One or more packages of dangerous goods accepted by an operator from one shipper at one time and at one address, receipted for in one lot and moving to one consignee at one destination address. (124) Contracting States: Al States that are signatories to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention). (125) Control Area: A control ed airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the earth. (126) Control ed aerodrome. An aerodrome at which air traffic control service is provided to aerodrome traffic. (127) Controlled Airspace: An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided in accordance with the airspace classification. (128) Controlled Flight: Any flight which is subject to an air traffic control clearance. (129) Controlled Flight into Terrain: Occurs when an airworthy aircraft is flown, under the control of a qualified pilot, into terrain (water or obstacles) with inadequate awareness on the part of the pilot of the impending col ision. (130) Controller-pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) : A means of communication between control er and pilot, using data link for ATC communications. (131) Control Zone: A control ed airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a specified (132) Conversion : Conversion is the Action taken by Ethiopia in issuing its own license on the basis of a license issued by another Contracting State for use on aircraft registered in Ethiopia. (133) Co-pilot: A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as pilot-in-command but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction. (134) Course: A program of instruction to obtain an aviation personnel license, rating, qualification, authorization, or currency. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (135) Courseware: Instructional material developed for each course or curriculum, including lesson plans, flight event descriptions, computer software programs, audio-visual programs, workbooks, and handouts. (136) Credit: Recognition of alternative means or prior qualifications. (137) Crew Member: A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during a flight duty period. (138) Crew Resource Management: A program designed to improve the safety of flight operations by optimising the safe, efficient, and effective use of human resources, hardware, and information through improved crew communication and co-ordination. (139) Critical Engine: The engine whose failure would most adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of an aircraft. (140) Critical Phases of Flight: Those portions of operations involving taxi ng, takeoff and landing, and al flight operations below 10,000 feet, except cruise flight. (141) Cross Country: A flight between a point of departure and a point of arrival fol owing a pre- planned route using standard navigation procedures. (142) Cross-Country Time: That time a pilot spends in flight in an aircraft which includes a landing at a point other than the point of departure and, for the purpose of meeting the cross-country time requirements for a private pilot license (except with a rotorcraft rating), commercial pilot license, or an instrument rating, includes a landing at an aerodrome which must be a straight- line distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure. (143) Cruise Climb: An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the aeroplane mass decreases. (144) Cruise Relief Pilot: A flight crew member who is assigned to perform pilot tasks during cruise flight to al ow the PIC or co-pilot to obtain planned rest. (145) Cruising Level: A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. (146) Current Flight Plan: The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent (147) Danger Area: An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of the aircraft may exist at specified times. (148) Dangerous Goods: Articles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment and which are shown in the list of dangerous goods in the ICAO Technical Instructions (see definition below) or which are classified according to those Instructions. (149) Dangerous Goods Accident: An occurrence associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods which results in fatal or serious injury to a person or major property damage. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (150) Dangerous Goods Incident: An occurrence, other than a dangerous goods accident, associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods, not necessarily occurring on board an aircraft, which results in injury to a person, property damage, fire, breakage, spil age, leakage of fluid or radiation or other evidence that the integrity of the packaging has not been maintained. Any occurrence relating to the transport of dangerous goods which seriously jeopardizes an aircraft or its occupants is deemed to constitute a dangerous goods incident. (151) Dangerous Goods Transport Document: A document specified by the ICAO Technical Instructions for the Safe Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Air. It is completed by the person who offers dangerous goods for air transport and contains information about those dangerous goods. The document bears a signed declaration indicating that the dangerous goods are ful y and accurately described by their proper shipping names and UN numbers (if assigned) and that they are correctly classified, packed, marked, labeled and in a proper condition for transport. (152) Data Link Communications: A form of communication intended for the exchange of messages via (153) Deadhead Transportation: Time spent in transportation on aircraft (at the insistence of the AOC holder) to or from a crew member's home station. (154) Defined Point After Takeoff: The point, within the takeoff and initial climb phase, before which the Class 2 helicopter's ability to continue the flight safely, with one engine inoperative, is not assured and a forced landing may be required. (155) Defined Point Before Landing: The point, within the approach and landing phase, after which the Class 2 helicopter's ability to continue the flight safely, with one engine inoperative, is not assured and a forced landing may be required. (156) Directly in Charge: As applied to an Approved Maintenance Organization in Part 6 - Means an appropriately licensed person having the responsibility for the work of an approved maintenance organization that performs maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, or other functions affecting aircraft airworthiness. A person directly in charge does not need to physical y observe and direct each worker constantly but must be available for consultation on matters requiring instruction or decision from higher Authority. (157) Director : The Director General of Ethiopian Civil Aviation appointed by the Government . (158) Dry Lease: The lease of an aircraft without the crew. (ICAO D268) (159) Dual Instruction Time: Flight time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a properly authorized pilot on board the aircraft. (160) Duty Period: As related to an air operator, a period which starts when flight or cabin crew personnel are required by an operator to report for or to commence a duty and ends when that person is free from al duties. (161) Duty Time: The total time from the moment a person identified in these rules and standards begins, immediately after a rest period, any work on behalf of the certificate holder until that person is free from al restraint associated with that work. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (162) Economic Poison: Any substance or mixture of substances intended for:- Preventing, destroying, repel ing, or mitigating any insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, weeds, and other forms of plant or animal life or viruses, except viruses on or in living human beings or other animals, which the Ethiopia may declare to be a pest, and Use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. (163) Effective Length of the Runway: The distance for landing from the point at which the obstruction clearance plane associated with the approach end of the runway intersects the centerline of the runway to the far end. (164) Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) : A generic term describing equipment which broadcast distinctive signals on designated frequencies and, depending on application, may be automatical y activated by impact or be manual y activated. An ELT may be any of the fol owing: Automatic fixed ELT. An automatical y activated ELT which is permanently attached to an aircraft. Automatic portable ELT. An automatical y activated ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft but readily removable from the aircraft. Automatical y deployable ELT. An ELT which is rigidly attached to an aircraft and which is automatical y deployed and activated by impact, and in some cases, also be hydrostatic sensors. Manual deployment is also provided. Survival ELT. An ELT which is removable from an aircraft, stowed so as to facilitate its ready use in an emergency, and manual y activated by survivors. ELT battery useful life. The length of time after its date of manufacture or recharge that the battery or battery pack may be stored under normal environmental conditions without losing its ability to al ow the ELT to meet the applicable performance standards. ELT battery expiration date. The date of battery manufacture or recharge plus one half of its useful life. (165) Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning (EGPWS): A forward looking warning system that uses the terrain data base for terrain avoidance. (166) Equivalent System of Maintenance: An AOC holder may conduct maintenance activities through an arrangement with an AMO or may conduct its own maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, so long as the AOC holder's maintenance system is approved by the Authority and is equivalent to that of an AMO, except that the approval for return to service of an aircraft/aeronautical product shal be made by an appropriately licensed aviation maintenance technician or aviation repair specialists in accordance with Part 2, as appropriate. (167) Error: As relates to the flight crew, an or inaction by the flight crew that leads to deviations from organizational or flight crew intentions or expectations. (ICAO Annex 1) Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (168) Error Management: The process of detecting and responding to errors with countermeasures that reduce or eliminate the consequences of errors, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft state. (169) Estimated Off-Block Time: The estimated time at which the aircraft wil commence movement associated with departure. (170) Estimated Time of Arrival: For IFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft wil arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that approach procedure wil be commenced, or if no navigation aid is associated with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft wil arrive over the aerodrome. For VFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft wil arrive over the aerodrome. (171) Evaluator: A person employed by a certified Approved Training Organization who performs tests for licensing, added ratings, authorizations, and proficiency checks that are authorized by the certificate holder's training specification, and who is authorized by the Authority to administer such checks and tests. (172) Examiner: Any person authorized by the Authority to conduct a pilot proficiency test, a practical test for an aviation personnel license or rating, or a knowledge test under these rules and standards. (173) Exception: As it related to dangerous goods in Part 9 - A provision in ICAO Annex 18 which excludes a specific item of dangerous goods from the requirements normal y applicable to that item. (174) Expected Approach Time: The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, fol owing a delay, wil leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing.The actual time of leaving the holding point wil depend upon the approach clearance. (175) Extended Overwater Operation : With respect to aircraft other than helicopters, an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 nm from the nearest shoreline; and to helicopters, an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 nm from the nearest shoreline and more than 50 nm from an offshore heliport structure. (176) Facility: As used in Part 6, Approved Maintenance Organizations - A physical plant, including land, buildings, and equipment, which provide the means for the performance of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modifications of any article. (177) Fatal Injury: As relates to an aircraft accident, any injury which results in death within 30 days of the accident. (ICAO Annex 13) (178) Flight Plan : Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. (179) Filed Flight Plan: The flight plan as filed with an air traffic service unit by the pilot or a designated representative, without any subsequent changes. (180) Fireproof Material: A material capable of withstanding heat as wel as or better than steel when the dimensions in both cases are appropriate for the specific purpose. (181) Flight(s): The period from takeoff to landing. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (182) Flight Crew Member: A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time. (183) Flight Duty Period. : The total time from the moment a flight crew member commences duty, immediately subsequent to a rest period and prior to making a flight or a series of flights, to the moment the flight crew member is relieved of al duties having completed such flight or series of flights. (184) Flight Information Centre: A unit established to provide flight information service and alerting (185) Flight Information Region: An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight information service and alerting service are provided. (186) Flight Information Service: A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. (187) Flight Level: A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific pressure datum, 1,013.2 hectopascals (hPa), and is separated from other surfaces by specific pressure intervals. (188) Flight Plan: Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. The term "flight plan" is used to mean variously, ful information on al items comprised in the flight plan description, covering the whole route of a flight, or limited information required when the purpose is to obtain a clearance for a minor portion of a flight such as to cross an airway, to take off from, or to land at a control ed aerodrome. (189) Flight Recorder: Any type of recorder instal ed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation. Note: This could include the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) or flight data recorder (FDR). (190) Flight Safety Document System :A set of inter-related documentation established by the operator, compiling and organizing information necessary for flight and ground operations, and comprising, as a minimum, the operations manual and the operator's maintenance control manual. (191) Flight Simulation Training Device: Any one of the fol owing three types of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the ground: A flight simulator, which provides an accurate representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical, electrical, electronic, etc. aircraft systems control functions, the normal environment of flight crew members, and the performance and flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistical y simulated. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic flight deck environment, and which simulates instrument responses, simple control functions of mechanical, electrical, electronic, etc., aircraft systems, and the performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular class. A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped with appropriate instruments and which simulates the flight deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument flight conditions. (192) Flight Status: An indication of whether a given aircraft requires special handling by air traffic services units or no. (193) Flight Time: The period of time that the aircraft moves under its own power for the purpose of flight and ends when the aircraft comes to rest after it is parked, with engine(s) shut down if applicable. (194) Flight Time — Aeroplane: The total time from the moment an aeroplane first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment it final y comes to rest at the end of the flight. (195) Flight Time — Helicopter: The total time from the moment a helicopter's rotor blades start turning until the moment the helicopter final y comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped. (196) Flight Time — Glider: The total time occupied in flight, whether being towed or not, from the moment the glider first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight. (197) Flight Training: Training, other than ground training, received from an authorized instructor in flight (198) Flight Visibility: The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight. (199) Foreign Air Operator : Any operator, not being an Ethiopia air operator, which undertakes, whether directly or indirectly or by lease or any other arrangement, to engage in commercial air transport operations within borders or airspace of Ethiopia, whether on a scheduled or charter basis; (200) Foreign Authority: The civil aviation Authority that issues and oversees the Air Operator Certificate of the foreign operator. (201) Freight Container: See unit load device. (202) Freight Container in the Case of Radioactive Material Transport: An article of transport equipment designed to facilitate the transport of packaged goods, by one or more modes of transport without intermediate reloading. It must be of a permanent enclosed character, rigid and strong enough for repeated use, and must be fitted with devices facilitating its handling, particularly in transfer between aircraft and from one mode of transport to another. A smal freight container is that which has either an overal outer dimension less than 1.5 m, or an internal volume of not more than 3m³. Any other freight container is considered to be a large freight container. (203) General Aviation Operation: An aircraft operation of a civil aircraft for other than a commercial air transport operation or aerial work operation. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (204) Glider: A non-power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces, which remain, fixed under given conditions of flight. (205) Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) : A warning system that uses radar altimeters to alert the pilots of hazardous flight conditions. (206) Ground Visibility: The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer. (207) Gyroplane. A heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight by the reactions of the air on one or more rotors which rotate freely on substantial y vertical axes. (208) Handling Agent: An agency which performs on behalf of the operator some or al of the latter's functions including receiving, loading, unloading, transferring or other processing of passengers or cargo. (209) Heading: The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usual y expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, compass or grid). (210) Heavier-Than-air Aircraft: Any aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic forces. (211) Height. The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered a point, measured from a specified datum. (212) Helicopter: A heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the reactions of the air on one or more power-driven rotors on substantial y vertical axis. Class 1 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in case of critical engine failure, it is able to land on the rejected takeoff area or safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area, depending on when the failure occurs. (i ) Class 2 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in case of critical engine failure, it is able to safely continue the flight, except when the failure occurs prior to a defined point after takeoff or after a defined point before landing, in which case a forced landing may be required. (i i) Class 3 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in case of engine failure at any point in the flight profile, a forced landing must be performed. (213) Helideck: A heliport located on a floating or fixed offshore structure. (214) Heliport: An aerodrome or defined area on a structure intended to be used whol y or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface movement of helicopters. (215) High Speed Aural Warning: A speed warning that is required for turbine-engined airplanes and airplanes with a VMO/MMO greater than 0.80 VDF/MDF or VD/MD. (216) Holdover Time: The estimated time de-icing/anti-icing fluid wil prevent the formation of frost or ice and the accumulation of snow on the protected surfaces of an aircraft. Holdover time begins when the final application of de-icing or anti-icing fluid commences and expires when the de-icing or anti-icing fluid applied to the aircraft loses its effectiveness. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (217) Housing: As it related to Approved Maintenance Organizations in Part 6 - Buildings, hangers, and other structures to accommodate the necessary equipment and materials of a maintenance organization that:- Provide working space for the performance of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modifications for which the maintenance organization is approved and rated; and (i ) Provide structures for the proper protection of aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propel ers, appliances, components, parts, and subassemblies thereof during disassembly, cleaning, inspection, repair, modification, assembly, and testing; and (i i) Provide for the proper storage, segregation, and protection of materials, parts, and supplies. 218) Human Factors Principles:. Principles which apply to aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and maintenance and which seek safe interface between the human and other system components by proper consideration to human performance. (219) Human Performance: Human capabilities and limitations which have an impact on the safety and efficiency of aeronautical operations. (220) ICAO: Where used in these rules and standards, this is an abbreviation for the International Civil Aviation Organization. (221) IFR: The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules. (222) IFR flight: A flight conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules. (223) IMC: The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions. (224) Incident: An occurrence other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations. (ICAO Annex 13) (225) Includes : A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1(a)(5) that means "includes but is not limited to." (226) Incompatible: Describing dangerous goods, which if mixed, would be liable to cause a dangerous evolution of heat or gas or produce a corrosive substance. (227) Inspection: The examination of an aircraft or aeronautical product to establish conformity with a standard approved by the Authority. (228) Instrument Approach Procedure: A series of predetermined maneuvers by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply. (229) Instrument Flight Time : Time during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference to instruments and without external reference points. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (230) Instrument Ground Time: Time during which a pilot is practicing, on the ground, simulated instrument flight in a flight simulation training device approved by the Licensing Authority. (231) Instrument Meteorological Conditions: Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions. (232) Instrument Time: Time in which cockpit instruments are used as the sole means for navigation and control, which may be instrument flight time or instrument ground time. (233) Instrument Training: Training which is received from an authorized instructor under actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions. (234) Interchange Agreement: A leasing agreement which permits an air carrier to dry lease and take or relinquish operational control of an aircraft at an airport. (235) International Commercial Air Transport: The carriage by aircraft of persons or property for remuneration or hire or the carriage of mail between any two or more countries. (236) International Operating Agency: An agency of the kind contemplated in Article 77 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation. (237) Investigation :As relates to an aircraft accident or incident, a process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention which includes the gathering and analysis of information, the drawing of conclusions, including the determination of causes and, when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations. (ICAO Annex 13) (238) Investigator-in-Charge: As relates to an aircraft accident or indent, a person charged, on the basis of his or her qualifications, with the responsibility for the organization, conduct and control of an investigation. (ICAO Annex 13) (239) Journey Log: A form signed by the PIC of each flight that records the aeroplane's registration, crew member names and duty assignments, the type of flight, and the date, place, and time of arrival and departure. (240) Knowledge Test: A test on the aeronautical knowledge areas required for an aviation personnel license or rating that can be administered in written form or by a computer. (241) Landing Area: That part of a movement area intended for the landing or takeoff of an aircraft. (242) Landing Decision Point: The point used in determining landing performance from which, an engine failure occurring at this point, the landing may be safely continued or a balked landing initiated. (243) Large Aeroplane: An aeroplane having a maximum certified takeoff mass of 5,700 kg. (12,500 (244) Level: A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight and meaning variously, height, altitude or flight level. (245) Licensing Authority: The Authority designated by the Contracting State as responsible for the licensing of personnel. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (246) Life-limited Part: Any part for which a mandatory replacement limit is specified in the type design, the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness, or the maintenance manual. (247) Lighter-than-air Aircraft: Any aircraft supported chiefly by its buoyancy in the air. (248) Line Maintenance: Any unscheduled maintenance resulting from unforeseen events, or scheduled checks that contain servicing and/or inspections that do not require specialized training, equipment or facilities. (249) Line Operating Flight Time: Flight time recorded by the PIC or Co-Pilot while in revenue service for an AOC holder. (250) Long Range Overwater Flights: Routes on which an aeroplane may be over water and at more than a distance corresponding to 120 minutes at cruising speed or 740 km (400 NM), whichever is the lesser, away from land suitable for making an emergency landing. (251) Low Altitude Wind Shear Warning and Guidance System: A system that wil issue a warning of low altitude wind shear and in some cases provide the pilot with guidance information of the escaper maneuver. (252) Mach Number Indicator: An indicator that shows airspeed as a function of the Mach number. (253) Maintenance: The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, inspection, replacement, defect rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or repair. (254) Maintenance Control Manual :A document that describes the operator's procedures necessary to ensure that al scheduled and unscheduled maintenance is performed on the operator's aircraft on time and in a control ed and satisfactory manner. (255) Maintenance Procedures Manual: A document endorsed by the head of the maintenance organization which details the maintenance organization's structure and management responsibilities, scope of work, description of facilities, maintenance procedures and quality assurance or inspection systems. (256) Maintenance Release: A document which contains a certification confirming that the maintenance work to which it relates has been completed in a satisfactory manner, either in accordance with the approved data and the procedures described in the maintenance organization's procedures manual or under an equivalent system. (257) Major Alteration: Major alteration means an alteration not listed in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propel er specifications – (1) that might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, power plant, operations, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or (2) that cannot be done by elementary operations. (258) Major Repair : Major repair means a repair: (1) that if improperly done might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, power plant, operations, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or (2) that is not done according to accepted practices or Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions cannot be done by elementary operations. (259) Manoeuvring Area : That part of an aerodrome to be used for the takeoff, landing and taxi ng of aircraft, excluding aprons. (260) Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL): A list established for a particular aircraft type by the organization responsible for the type design with the approval of the State of Design containing items, one or more of which is permitted to be unserviceable at the commencement of a flight. The MMEL may be associated with special operating conditions, limitations or procedures. The MMEL provides the basis for development, review, and approval by the Authority of an individual operator's MEL. (261) Maximum Mass: Maximum certificated take-off-mass. (262) May: A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1.(a)(3) that indicates that discretion can be used when performing an Proclamation described in a rules and standards. (263) Medical Certificate: The evidence issued by the Authority that the license holder meets specific requirements of medical fitness. It is issued fol owing an evaluation by the Licensing AUTHORITY of the report submitted by the designated medical examiner who conducted the examination of the applicant for the license. (264) Minimum Equipment List (MEL): A list approved by the Authority which provides for the operation of aircraft, subject to specified conditions, with particular equipment inoperative, prepared by an operator in conformity with, or more restrictive than, the Master Minimum Equipment List established for the aircraft type. (265) Minister: This term means the Minister of Transport. (266) Modification: The alteration of an aircraft/aeronautical product in conformity with an approved (267) Movement Area: That part of an aerodrome to be used for takeoff, landing and taxi ng of aircraft, consisting of the maneuvering area and the apron(s). (268) Navigable Airspace: The airspace above the minimum altitudes of flight prescribed in these Model rules and standards (Part 8) and includes airspace needed to insure safety in the takeoff and landing of aircraft. (269) Navigation of Aircraft: A function which includes the piloting of aircraft. (270) Night: The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between sunset and sunrise. Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre of the sun's disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in the morning when the centre of the sun's disc is 6 degrees below the horizon. (271) Obstruction Clearance Plane: A plane sloping upward from the runway at a slope of 1:20 to the horizontal, and tangent to or clearing al obstructions within a specified area surrounding the runway as shown in a profile view of that area. In the plane view, the centreline of the specified area Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions coincides with the centreline of the runway, beginning at the point where the obstruction clearance plane intersects the centreline of the runway and proceeding to a point at least 1,500 feet from the beginning point. Thereafter, the centreline coincides with the takeoff path over the ground for the runway (in the case of takeoffs) or with the instrument approach counterpart (for landings), or where the applicable one of these paths has not been established, it proceeds consistent with turns of at least 4,000 foot radius until a point is reached beyond which the obstruction clearance plane clears al obstructions. This area extends lateral y 200 feet on each side of the centreline at the point where the obstruction clearance plane intersects the runway and continues at this width to the end of the runway; then it increases uniformly to 500 feet on each side of the centreline at a point 1,500 feet from the intersection of the obstruction clearance plane with the runway; thereafter, it extends lateral y 500 feet on each side of the centreline. (272) Ornithopter: A heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the reactions of the air on planes to which a flapping motion is imparted. (273) Operational Flight Plan: The operator's plan for the safe conduct of the flight based on considerations of aircraft performance, other operating limitations, and relevant expected conditions on the route to be fol owed and at the aerodromes or heliports concerned. (274) Operations Manual: A manual containing procedures, instructions and guidance for use by operational personnel in the execution of their duties. (275) Operator: A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in an aircraft operation. (ICAO). Any person who causes or authorizes the operation of an aircraft, such as the owner, lessee, or bailee of an aircraft. (276) Operational Control: The exercise of Authority over the initiation, continuation, diversion or termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight. (277) Operations Manual: A manual containing procedures, instructions and guidance for use by operational personnel in the execution of their duties. (278) Operations Specifications: Part of an operator's certificate (air operator certificate, approved training organization certificate, approved maintenance organization certificate, etc.) that is used to administer safety standards and define the provisions and limitations within which the operator may conduct business operations. Operations specifications are issued by the Authority and considered a legal, contractual agreement between the Authority and the operator. (279) Overhaul: The restoration of an aircraft/aeronautical product using methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Authority, including disassembly, cleaning, and inspection as permitted, repair as necessary, and reassembly; and tested in accordance with approved standards and technical data, or in accordance with current standards and technical data acceptable to the AUTHORITY, which have been developed and documented by the State of Design, holder of the type certificate, supplemental type certificate, or a material, part, process, or appliance approval under Parts Manufacturing Authorization (PMA) or Technical Standard Order (TSO). (280) Overpack: An enclosure used by a single shipper to contain one or more packages and to form one handling unit for convenience of handling and stowage. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (281) Package: The complete product of the packing operation consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport. (282) Packaging: Receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment. (283) Passenger Aircraft: An aircraft that carries any person other than a crew member, an operator's employee in an official capacity, an authorized representative of an appropriate national Authority or a person accompanying a consignment or other cargo. (284) Passenger Exit Seats: Those seats having direct access to an exit, and those seats in a row of seats through which passengers would have to pass to gain access to an exit, from the first seat inboard of the exit to the first aisle inboard of the exit. A passenger seat having "direct access" means a seat from which a passenger can proceed directly to the exit without entering an aisle or passing around an obstruction. (285) Performance Criteria: A simple, evaluative statement on the required outcome of the competency element and a description of the criteria used to judge if the required level of performance has been achieved. (286) Person: A natural or juridical person. (287) Pilot in Command: The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time. The pilot designated by the operator, or in the case of general aviation, the owner, as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of the flight. (288) Pilot Time: That time a person:- Serves as a required pilot; Receives training from an authorized instructor in an aircraft, or an approved flight simulation training device; or Gives training as an authorized instructor in an aircraft, or an approved flight simulation training device. (289) To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight time. (290) Pressure Altitude: An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the Standard Atmosphere (as defined in Annex 8). (291) Primary Standard: A standard defined and maintained by a State Authority and used to calibrate secondary standards. (292) Powered-Lift: A heavier-than-air aircraft capable of vertical takeoff, vertical landing, and low speed flight that depends principal y on engine-driven lift devices or engine thrust for lift during these flight regimes and on nonrotating airfoil(s) for lift during horizontal flight. (293) Power Plant: An engine that is used or intended to be used for propel ing aircraft. It includes turbo superchargers, appurtenances, and accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (294) Practical Test: See Skil test. (295) Pre-flight Inspection: The inspection carried out before flight to insure that the aircraft is fit for the intended flight. (296) Prescribed: A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1.(a)(8) that means the Authority has issued written policy or methodology which imposes either a mandatory requirement, if the written policy or methodology states "shal ," or a discretionary requirement if the written policy or methodology states "may." (297) Pressurized Aircraft: For aviation personnel-licensing purposes, means an aircraft that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude, whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet MSL. (298) Preventive Maintenance: Simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of smal standard parts not involving complex assembly operations. (299) Problematic use of Substances: The use of one or more psychoactive substances by aviation personnel in a way that: (i) Constitutes a direct hazard to the user or endangers the lives, health or welfare of others; and/or (i ) Causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or physical problem or disorder. (300) Proclamation: The Civil Aviation Proclamation No.616/2008 of Ethiopia (301) Prohibited Area: An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. (302) Propeller: A device for propel ing an aircraft that has blades on a power plant driven shaft and that, when rotated, produces by its Action on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation. It includes control components normal y supplied by its manufacturer, but does not include main and auxiliary rotors or rotating airfoils of power plants. (Part 1) (303) Proper Shipping Name: The name to be used to describe a particular article or substance in al shipping documents and notifications and, where appropriate, on packaging. (304) Psychoactive Substances: Alcohol, opiods, canabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psychostimulants, hal ucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas coffee and tobacco are excluded. (305) Public Aircraft: An aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government or of any political jurisdiction thereof, including the Government of Ethiopia, but not including any government owned aircraft engaged in operations which meet the definition of commercial air transport operations. (306) Quality Assurance: Quality assurance, as distinguished from quality control, involves activities in the business, systems, and technical audit areas. A set of predetermined, systematic Actions which are required to provide adequate confidence that a product or service satisfies quality requirements. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (307) Quality Control: The regulatory inspection process through which actual performance is compared with standards, such as the maintenance of standards of manufactured aeronautical products, and any difference is acted upon. (308) Quality System: Documented organizational procedures and policies; internal audit of those policies procedures; management review and recommendation for quality improvements. (309) Radiotelephony: A form of radio communication primarily intended for the exchange of information in the form of speech. (310) Rated Air Traffic Controller: An air traffic control er holding a license and valid ratings appropriate to the privileges to be exercised. (311) Rating: An authorization entered on or associated with a license or certificate and forming part thereof, stating special conditions, privileges or limitations pertaining to such license or certificate. (312) Rebuild: The restoration of an aircraft/aeronautical product by using methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Authority, when it has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected as permitted, repaired as necessary, reassembled, and tested to the same tolerances and limits as a new item, using either new parts or used parts that conform to new part tolerances and limits. (313) Reference Standard: A standard that is used to maintain working standards. (314) Re-issue of a License, Rating, Authorization or Certificate: The administrative Action taken after a license, rating, authorization or certificate has lapsed that re-issues the privileges of the license, rating, authorization or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfil ment of specified requirements. (315) Renewal of License, Rating, Authorization or Certificate: The administrative Action taken within the period of validity of a license, rating, authorization or certificate that al ows the holder to continue to exercise the privileges of a license, rating, authorization or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfil ment of specified requirements. The restoration of an aeronautical product to an airworthy condition as defined by the appropriate airworthiness requirements. (ICAO Annex 8); (i ) The restoration of an aeronautical product to an airworthy condition to ensure that the aircraft continues to comply with the design aspects of the appropriate airworthiness requirements used for the issuance of the type certificate for the respective aircraft type, after it has been damaged or subjected to wear. (ICAO Annex 6 definition). (317) Repetitive Flight Plan (RPL): A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly operated individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATC units. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (318) Reporting Point: A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of the aircraft can be reported. (319) Required Inspection Items: As used in Part 5, maintenance items and/or alterations that must be inspected by a person other than the one performing the work, and include at least those that could result in a failure, malfunction, or defect endangering the safe operation of the aircraft, if not properly performed or if improper parts or materials are used. (320) Required Navigation Performance (RNP): A statement of the navigation performance necessary for operations with a defined airspace. (321) Rest Period: A period free of al restraint, duty or responsibility for persons identified in these rules and standards conducting commercial air transport operations or work under a certificate or approval from the Authority. (322) Restricted Area: An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions. (323) Rotorcraft: A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight by the reactions of the air on one or more rotors. (324) Rotorcraft Flight Manual: A manual, associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations within which the rotorcraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crew members of the safe operation of the rotorcraft. (325) Rotorcraft Load Combinations: Configurations for external loads carried by rotorcraft:- Class A—external load fixed to the rotorcraft, cannot be jettisoned, and does not extend below the landing gear, used to transport cargo. (i ) Class B—external load suspended from the rotorcraft, which can be jettisoned, and is transported free of land or water during rotorcraft operations. (i i) Class C—external load suspended from the rotorcraft, which can be jettisoned, but remains in contact with land or water during rotorcraft operation. (iv) Class D—external load suspended from the rotorcraft for the carriage of persons. (326) (326) Route sector: A flight comprising take off, departure, cruise of not less than 15 minutes, arrival, approach and landing phases. (327) Runway: A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of (328) Runway-Holding Position: A designated position intended to protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxi ng aircraft and vehicles shal stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (329) Safety-Sensitive Personnel: Persons who might endanger aviation safety if they perform their duties and functions improperly including, but not limited to, crew members, aircraft maintenance personnel and air traffic control ers. (330) Safety Management System (SMS): An systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures. (331) Safety Recommendation: A proposal of the accident investigation Authority of the State conducting the investigation, based on information derived from the investigation made with the intention of preventing accidents or incidents. (332) Secondary Standard: A standard maintained by comparison with a primary standard. (333) Serious Incident: An incident involving circumstances indicated that an accident nearly occurred. (334) Serious Injury: An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which: Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days from the date the injury was received; (i ) Results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or (i i) Involves lacerations which cause severe hemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or (iv) Involves injury to any internal organ; or (v) Involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body (vi) Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation. (335) Shall: A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1. (a)(1) that indicates a mandatory requirement. (336) Signal area: An area on an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals. (337) Signature: An individual's unique identification used as a means of authenticating a record entry or record. A signature may be hand-written, electronic, or any other form acceptable to the Authority. (338) Skill Test: A competency test on the areas of operations for a license, certificate, rating, or authorization that is conducted by having the applicant respond to questions and demonstrate manoeuvres in flight, or in an approved flight simulation training device, or in a combination of these. (339) Small Aeroplane: An aeroplane having a maximum certified takeoff mass of less than 5,700 kg. (340) Solo Flight: Flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft, or that flight time during which the student act as a PIC of a gas bal oon or an airship requiring more than one flight crewmember. (341) Spare Parts: Any parts, appurtenances, and accessories of aircraft (other than aircraft engines and propel ers), of aircraft engines (other than propel ers), of propel ers, and of appliances, maintained for instal ation or use in an aircraft, aircraft engine, propel er, or appliance, but which at the time are Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions not instal ed therein or attached thereto. (342) Special Aircraft Jurisdiction of Ethiopia: This includes: Civil aircraft of Ethiopia; and (i ) Any other aircraft within the jurisdiction of Ethiopia, while the aircraft is in flight, which is from the moment when al external doors are closed fol owing embarkation until the moment when one such door is opened for disembarkation or, in case of a forced landing, until the competent authorities take over the responsibility of the aircraft and the persons and property aboard. (343) Special VFR Flight: A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control zone in meteorological conditions below VMC. (344) Specialised Maintenance: Any maintenance not normal y performed by an AMO (e.g., tire retreating, plating, etc.). (345) Specific Operating Provisions: the Specific Operating Provisions describe the ratings (Class and/or Limited) in detail and wil contain or reference material and process specifications used in performing repair work, along with any limitations applied to the maintenance organisation. The accountable manager and the Authority sign this document. (346) Standard: An object, artifact, tool, test equipment, system, or experiment that stores, embodies, or otherwise provides a physical quantity, which serves as the basis for measurement of the quantity. It also includes a document describing the operations and process that must be performed in order for a particular end to be achieved. (347) State of Design: The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the type design. (348) State of Manufacture: The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the final assembly of the aircraft. (349) State of Occurrence: The State in the territory of which an accident or incident occurs. (350) State of the Operator: The State in which the operator's principal place of business is located, or, if there is no such place of business, the operator's permanent residence. (351) State of Origin: As relating to dangerous goods, the State in which dangerous goods were first loaded on an aircraft. (ICAO Annex 18) (352) State of Registry: The State on whose register an aircraft is entered. (353) Substantial Damage: Damage or failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and which would normal y require major repair or replacement of the affected component. Engine failure or damage limited to an engine if only one engine fails or is damaged, bent fairings or cowling, dented skin, smal punctured holes in the skin or fabric, ground damage to rotor or propel er blades, and damage to landing gear, wheels, tires, flaps, engine accessories, brakes, or wingtips are not considered "substantial damage" for the purpose of this substantial damage relating to an aircraft accident. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (354) Synthetic Flight Trainer: See Flight simulation training device. (355) Taxiing: Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding takeoff and landing. (356) Taxiway: A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxi ng of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including: Aircraft stand taxilane. A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft stands only. (i ) Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron. (i i) Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designed to al ow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit taxiways thereby minimizing runway occupancy times. (357) Technical Log: A document carried on an aircraft that contains information to meet ICAO requirements; a technical log contains two independent sections: a journey record section and an aircraft maintenance record section. (358) Takeoff Decision Point: The point used in determining takeoff performance of a Class 1 helicopter from which, an engine failure occurring at this point, either a rejected takeoff may be made or a takeoff safely continued. (359) Technical Instructions: The latest effective edition of the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (Doc. 9284-AN/905), including the supplement and any addendum, approved and published by decision of the Council of the ICAO. The term "Technical Instructions" is used in this Part. (360) Terminal Control Area: A control area normal y established at the confluence of ATC routes in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes. (361) Terrain Awareness Warning System: A system that provides the flight crew with sufficient information and alerting to detect a potential y hazardous terrain situation and so the flight crew may take effective Action to prevent a control ed flight into terrain (CFIT) event. (362) Threat: As relating to flight, events or errors that occur beyond the influence of the flight crew, increase operational complexity and which must be managed to maintain the margin of safety. (ICAO Annex 1) (363) Threat Management: The process of detecting and responding to the threats with countermeasures that reduce or eliminate the consequences of threats, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft. (ICAO Annex 1) (364) Total Estimated Elapsed Time: For IFR flights, the estimated time required from takeoff to arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure wil be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated with the Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions destination aerodrome, to arrive over the destination aerodrome. For VFR flights, the estimated time required from takeoff to arrive over the destination aerodrome. (365) Traceability: A characteristic of a calibration, analogous to a pedigree. A traceable calibration is : achieved when each Measurement Device and Working Standard, in a hierarchy stretching back to the National Standard, was itself properly calibrated, and the results properly documented. The documentation provides the information needed to show that al calibrations in the chain of calibrations were properly performed. (366) Track: The projection on the earth's surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which path at any point is usual y expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic or grid). (367) Traffic Avoidance Advice: Advice provided by an air traffic services unit specifying manoeuvres to assist a pilot to avoid a col ision. (368) Traffic Information: Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to other known or observed air traffic which may be in proximity to the position or intended route of flight and to help the pilot avoid a col ision. (369) Training Manual: A manual containing the training goals, objectives, standards syl abi, and curriculum for each phase of the approved training course. (370) Training Procedures Manual: A manual containing procedures, instructions and guidance for use by personnel of an Approved Training Organization in the execution of their duties in meeting the requirements of the certificate. (371) Training Specifications: A document issued to an Aviation Training Organization certificate holder by the Ethiopia that specifies training program requirements and authorizes the conduct of training, checking, and testing with any limitations thereof. (372) Training Program: Program that consists of courses, courseware, facilities, flight training equipment, and personnel necessary to accomplish a specific training objective. It may include a core curriculum and a specialty curriculum. (373) Transfer Standard: Any standard that is used to compare a measurement process, system, or device at one location or level with another measurement process, system or device at another location or level. (374) Transition Altitude: The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is control ed by reference to altitudes. (375) Training Time: The time spent receiving from an authorized instructor flight training, ground training, or simulated flight training in an approved flight simulation training device. (376) Training to Proficiency: The process of the check aviation personnel administering each prescribed manoeuvre and procedure to a pilot as necessary until it is performed successful y during the training period. (377) Type Certificate: A document issued by a Contracting State to define the design of an aircraft type Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions and to certify that this design meets the appropriate airworthiness requirements of that State. (378) Undesired Aircraft State: Occurs when the flight crew places the aircraft in a situation of unnecessary risk. (ICAO Annex 1) (379) UN Number: The four-digit number assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods to identify a substance or a particular group of substances. (380) Unit Load Device: Any type of freight container, aircraft container, aircraft pal et with a net, or aircraft pal et with a net over an igloo. (381) Unmanned Free Balloon: A non-power-driven, unmanned, lighter-than-air aircraft in free flight. (382) Validation: The Action taken by the Authority as an alternative to issuing its own license, in accepting a license issued by another Contracting State as the equivalent of its own license for use on aircraft registered in Ethiopia. (383) Validation of a Certificate of Airworthiness: The Action taken by a Contracting State, as an alternative to issuing its own Certificate of Airworthiness, in accepting a Certificate of Airworthiness issued by any other Contracting State as the equivalent of its own Certificate of Airworthiness. (384) VFR: The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules. (385) VFR flight: A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules. (386) Visibility: Visibility for aeronautical purposes is the greater of: (i) The greatest distance at which a black object of suitable dimensions, situated near the ground, can be seen and recognized when observed against a bright background; (i ) The greatest distance at which lights in the vicinity of 1,000 candelas can be seen and identified against an unlit background. (387) Visual Meteorological Conditions: Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than specified minima. (388) VMC: The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions. (389) Wet Lease: The lease of an aircraft with crew and other back-up. (390) Will: A rule of construction in Part 1.1.1.1 (a)(4) that indicates an Action incumbent upon the Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions REPEALS AND SAVINGS PROVISIONS (a) Any rules and standards, directive, order or practice inconsistent with this rules and standards, is not applicable with respect to matters provided for by these rules and standards (b) A license, certificate or any other authorization issued to an operator prior to the entry into force of these rules and standards shal continue in force as if it was issued under these rules and standards, until it expires or is cancel ed by the Authority. A person who was operating as an operator, before the entry into force these rules and standards shal comply with these rules and standards within twelve months after the entry into force of these rules and standards. SI UNIT OF MEASUREMENT (1) The International System of Units developed and maintained by the General Conference of Weight and Measures (CGPM) shal , subject to the provision of subsection (2)(a) & (b) below, be used as the standard system of units of measurement for al aspects of civil aviation air and ground operations in Ethiopia. (a) The prefixes and symbols of listed in table 2.1 of IS 1.9 to these rules and standards shal be used to form names and symbols of the decimal multiples and sub-multiples of SI units. (b) The non-SI units listed in table 2.2 of IS 1.9 to these rules and standards shal be used either in lieu of, or in addition to SI units as primary units of measurement but only as specified in table 2.3. (c) The non-SI units listed in table 2.3 of IS 1.9 to these rules and standards shal be permitted for temporary use as alternative units of measurement but only for those specific quantities listed in table 2.4 of IS 1.9 to these rules and standards. (d) The application of units of measurement for certain quantities used in civil aviation air and ground operations shal be in accordance with table 2.4. (e) Al persons involved in civil aviation air and grounds operations shal ensure that means and provisions for design, procedures and training are established for operations in environment involving the use of standard and non-SI alternatives of specific units of measurements, or the transition between environments using different units, with due consideration to human performance. The use in International Civil Aviation Operations of the alternative non-SI units listed in table 2.3 shal be terminated on the dates to be specified by ICAO. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions [THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK] Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions IS: 1.2.1.8 LIST OF PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES The fol owing are deemed to be psychoactive substances: (2) Opioids; (3) Cannabinoids; (4) Sedatives and hypnotics; (5) Cocaine and other stimulants (except caffeine); (6) Hal ucinogens; and (7) Volatile solvents. LEGAL ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS These sample sanction guidance tables provide approaches to assessment of sanctions for violations of these rules and standards. These tables describe civil penalties as minimum, moderate, or maximum for a single violation of a particular rules and standards, in accordance with Article 78/2 and article 78/3 the Proclamation. These terms are defined as in the fol owing tables. Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions TABLE 1. RANGE OF CIVIL PENALTIES Party Committing Violation Amount of Civil Penalty Moderate: [101,000-129,999] Minimum: [Birr 100,000] Aerodrome Operators Maximum: [80,000-100,000] Moderate: [51,000-79,999] Minimum: [50,000] Air Carrier Personnel Maximum:[80,000-100,000] Moderate: [51,000-79,999] Minimum: [50,000] General Aviation Owners, Operators, Maximum:[80,000-100,000] Moderate: [51,000-79,999] Minimum: [50,000] General Aviation personnel Maximum:[80,000-100,000] Moderate: [51,000-79,999] Minimum: [50,000] Approved Maintenance Organizations Maximum: [80,000-100,000] Moderate: [51,000-79,999] Minimum: [50,000] Approved Training Organizations Maximum: [80,000-100,000] Moderate: [51,000-79,999] Minimum: [50,000] TABLE 2. SANCTIONS Sanction per Violation AIR OPERATORS AND AIRPORT OPERATORS Maintenance Manual (a) Failure to maintain current manual Suspend until manuals are current to 7 day suspension and thereafter until manuals are made current (b) Failure to provide adequate instructions & procedures Moderate to maximum civil penalty (c) Failure to distribute manual to appropriate personnel Moderate civil penalty (d) Release of aircraft without required equipment Maximum civil penalty to 7-day suspension Failure to comply with Airworthiness Directives Moderate to maximum civil penalty Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation Operations Specifications (a) Failure to comply with inspection and overhaul Maximum civil penalty to 7-day suspension time limitations (b) Operations contrary to operations specifications Maximum civil penalty Failure to provide adequately for proper servicing, Maximum civil penalty to suspension until maintenance, repair, and inspection of facilities and proper servicing maintenance, repair, and inspection of facilities and equipment is provided Failure to provide or maintain a maintenance & Maximum civil penalty to suspension until inspection organization appropriate maintenance and inspection organization is provided Training Program (a) Failure to have or maintain an effective training program Maximum civil penalty to suspension until compliance is demonstrated (b) Failure to train specific personnel adequately Moderate to maximum civil penalty Failure to insure that maintenance release is Moderate to maximum civil penalty completed and signed Performance of maintenance by unauthorized Maximum civil penalty Failure to perform or improper performance of Maximum civil penalty 10. Failure to revise aircraft data after repair Moderate to maximum civil penalty 11. Records and Reports (a) Failure to make accurate mechanical interruption Moderate to maximum civil penalty (b) Failure to make available reports of major alterations Moderate to maximum civil penalty (c) Failure to make accurate mechanical reliability reports Moderate to maximum civil penalty (d) Failure to keep maintenance records Maximum civil penalty to 7-day suspension and thereafter until aircraft is in airworthy conditions (e) Failure to make required entry in aircraft log Moderate to maximum civil penalty (f) Failure to make available pilot records Moderate to maximum civil penalty (g) Failure to make available load manifests Moderate to maximum civil penalty Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation 12. Operation of an un airworthy aircraft (a) Technical non-conformity to type certificate, but no Minimum civil penalty likely effect (potential or Actual) on safe operation (b) Non-conformity which may have an adverse effect Moderate civil penalty on safety of operation (c) Non-conformity which has an adverse effect (Actual Maximum civil penalty or potential) on safe operation 13. Serving alcoholic beverages to or boarding a person Maximum civil penalty who appears to be intoxicated 14. Failure to make available a seat on the flight deck for Maximum civil penalty Authority inspectors conducting an en route inspection 15. Using an unqualified crewmember Maximum civil penalty 16. Improperly returning an aircraft to service Maximum civil penalty 17. Illegal carriage of controlled substance with knowledge of carrier, i.e., knowledge of management personnel 18. Security Violations (a) Failure to properly screen baggage or each passenger Maximum civil penalty (b) Un authorized access to airport operations area Maximum civil penalty (c) Failure to comply with air carrier security program, Maximum civil penalty including failure to detect weapons, incendiary and other dangerous devices (d) Management personnel coerce, condone, or encourage falsification of records/reports (e) Deliberate failure to maintain employee records Maximum civil penalty (f) Failure to chal enge Moderate civil penalty (g) Failure to test screeners or test equipment Moderate civil penalty (h) Failure to properly train Moderate civil penalty (i) Unintentional failure to maintain screener test records Minimum to moderate civil penalty (j) Improper use of dosimeters Minimum civil penalty (k) Failure to display identification Minimum to moderate civil penalty (l) Failure to manage/control identification system Maximum civil penalty (m) Failure to conduct background check Minimum to moderate civil penalty Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation (n) Failure to detect test objects Maximum civil penalty (o) Failure to comply with approved or current Maximum civil penalty security program (p) Failure of the law enforcement officer to respond in Maximum civil penalty PERSONNEL OF AIR CARRIERS Maintenance performed by un authorized personnel (a) Without a license Maximum civil penalty (b) Exceeding limitations 30 to 45 day suspension Failure to properly perform maintenance 30 to 120 day suspension Inspection personnel (a) Failure to make required inspection 30 to 60 day suspension (b) Making improper inspection 30 to 120 day suspension (c) Improperly releasing an aircraft to service 30 to 60 day suspension Records and reports (a) Failure to make entries in aircraft log 15 to 60 day suspension (b) Failure to make entries in worksheets 15 to 30 day suspension (c) Failure to sign off work or inspection performed 15 to 30 day suspension (d) Failure to complete and sign maintenance release 15 to 30 day suspension (e) Falsification of records or reports Releasing aircraft for service without required 30 to 60 day suspension (a) Failure to use pre-flight cockpit checklist 15 to 30 day suspension (b) Failure to check aircraft logs, flight manifests, weather, 30 to 90 day suspension (a) Failure to adhere to taxi clearance or instruction 30 to 60 day suspension (b) Col ision while taxi ng 30 to 120 day suspension 30 to 180 day suspension Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation (d) Taxi ng with passenger standing 30 to 60 day suspension (a) Takeoff against instruction or clearance 60 to 120 day suspension (b) Takeoff below weather minima 60 to 120 day suspension (c) Takeoff in overloaded aircraft 60 to 120 day suspension (a) Deviation from clearance or instruction 30 to 90 day suspension (b) Operating VFR within clouds 90 day suspension to revocation (c) Operation of un airworthy aircraft 30 to 180 day suspension (d) Un authorized departure from flight desk 15 to 30 day suspension (e) Operating within restricted or prohibited area, or within 30 to 90 day suspension positive control area without clearance (f) Operating without required equipment 15 to 120 day suspension (g) Fuel mismanagement/exhaustion 30 to 150 day suspension 10. Approach to landing (a) Deviation from clearance or instruction in terminal area 30 to 90 day suspension (b) Approach below weather minimums 45 to 90 day suspension (c) Exceeding speed limitation in airport traffic areas 30 to 60 day suspension (a) Landing at wrong airport 90 to 180 day suspension (b) Deviation from instrument approach procedure 30 to 90 day suspension (c) Overweight landing 30 to 90 day suspension (d) Hard landing 15 to 60 day suspension (e) Short or long landing 30 to 180 day suspension (f) Wheels up landing 30 to 180 day suspension (g) Failure to comply with preferential runway system Maximum civil penalty to 15 day suspension 12. Un authorized admission to flight deck 30 to 90 day suspension 13. Failure to close and lock cockpit door Maximum civil penalty to 30 day suspension Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation 14. Acting as flight crewmember while under the Emergency revocation influence of liquor or other psychoactive substances, or alcoholic beverage consumption within 8 hours 15. Denial of authorized entry to flight deck 30 to 60 day suspension 16. Flight and duty time limitations 15 to 90 day suspension 17. Operation without required license, certificate or (a) Medical certificate 15 to 60 day suspension (b) Lack of type rating 180 day suspension to revocation (c) Missed proficiency check 30 to 90 day suspension (d) Lack of current experience 30 to 90 day suspension (e) Failure to have current certificate or license in possession Moderate civil penalty to 7 day suspension 18. Operation with known physical disability III. INDIVIDUALS AND GENERAL AVIATION— OWNERS, PILOTS, MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL, APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANISATIONS, APPROVED TRAINING ORGANISATIONS Owners and operators other than required (a) Failure to comply with airworthiness directives Moderate to maximum civil penalty (b) Failure to perform or improper performance of Moderate to maximum civil penalty maintenance, including required maintenance (c) Failure to make proper entries in aircraft logs Minimum to moderate civil penalties (d) Operation of aircraft beyond annual, 100-hour, or Minimum to moderate civil penalty progressive inspection (e) Operation of un airworthy aircraft Moderate to maximum civil penalty (f) Falsification of any record Aviation Maintenance Organizations (a) Failure to provide adequately for proper servicing, Moderate to maximum civil penalty maintenance repairs, and inspection (b) Failure to provide adequate personnel who can perform, Maximum civil penalty to 7-day suspension and supervise, and inspect work for which the station is rated thereafter until adequate personnel are provided Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation (c) Failure to have enough qualified personnel to keep up Maximum civil penalty to 7-day suspension with the volume of work and thereafter until certificate holder has enough qualified personnel (d) Failure to maintain records of supervisory and inspection Moderate to maximum civil penalty (e) Failure to maintain performance records and reports Moderate to maximum civil penalty (f) Failure to ensure correct calibration of al inspection and Minimum to maximum civil penalty test equipment is accomplished at prescribed intervals (g) Failure to set forth adequate description of work Minimum to maximum civil penalty (h) Failure of mechanic to make log entries, records, or Moderate to maximum civil penalty (i) Failure to sign or complete maintenance release Minimum to moderate civil penalty (j) Inspection of work performed and approval for return to Maximum civil penalty to 30 day suspension service by other than a qualified inspector (k) Failure to have an adequate inspection system that Moderate civil penalty to 30 day suspension produces satisfactory quality control and thereafter until an adequate inspection system is attained. (l) Maintaining or altering an article for which it is rated, Maximum civil penalty to 30day suspension without using required technical data, equipment, or facilities (m) Failure to perform or properly perform maintenance, Moderate civil penalty to 30 day suspension repairs, alterations, and required inspections (n) Maintaining or altering an airframe, power plant, propel er, Maximum civil penalty to revocation instrument, radio, or accessory for which it is not rated (o) Failure to report defects or un airworthy conditions to the Moderate to maximum civil penalty AUTHORITY in a timely manner (p) Failure to satisfy housing and facility requirements Moderate civil penalty to suspension until housing and facility requirements are satisfied (q) Change of location, housing, or facilities without advance Moderate civil penalty to suspension written approval until approval is given (r) Operating as a certificated repair station without a repair Maximum civil penalty station certificate (s) Failure to permit Authority to inspect Maximum civil penalty to suspension until Authority is permitted to inspect. 3. General Aviation Maintenance Personnel (a) Failure to revise aircraft data after major repairs or 30 to 60 day suspension (b) Failure to perform or improper performance of 30 to 120 day suspension Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation (c) Failure of mechanic to properly accomplish inspection 30 to 60 day suspension (d) Failure of mechanic to record inspection Minimum civil penalty to 30 day suspension (e) Failure of Inspection Authorization holder to properly 60 to 180 day suspension of Inspection accomplish inspection (f) Failure of Inspection Authorization holder to record Moderate civil penalty to 30 day suspension of Inspection Authorization (g) Maintenance performed by person without a certificate Moderate to maximum civil penalty (h) Maintenance performed by person who exceeded 15 to 60 day suspension certificate limitations (i) Improper approval for return to service Moderate civil penalty to 60 day suspension (j) Failure to make maintenance record entries Moderate civil penalty to 60 day suspension (k) Failure to set forth adequate description of work Minimum civil penalty to 30 day suspension (l) Falsification of maintenance records 4. Student Operations (a) Carrying passengers (b) Solo flight without endorsement 45 to 90 day suspension (c) Operation on international flight 60 to 90 day suspension (d) Use of aircraft in business 90 to 120 day suspension (e) Operation for compensation or hire Flight instructors (a) False endorsement of student pilot certificate (b) Exceeding flight time limitations 30 to 90 day suspension (c) Instruction in aircraft for which he/she is not rated 30 to 90 day suspension Operational violations (a) Operation without valid airworthiness or registration 30 to 90 day suspension (b) Failure to close flight plan or file arrival notice Administrative Action to minimum civil penalty (c) Operation without valid pilot certificate (no certificate) Maximum civil penalty (d) Operation while pilot certificate is suspended Emergency revocation (e) Operation without pilot or medical certificate in personal Administrative Action to 15 day suspension (f) Operation without valid medical certificate 30 to 180 day suspension Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation (g) Operation for compensation or hire without commercial 180 day suspension to revocation pilot certificate (h) Operation without type or class rating 60 to 120 day suspension (i) Failure to comply with special conditions of medical 90 day suspension to revocation (j) Operation with known physical deficiency 90 day suspension to revocation (k) Failure to obtain preflight information 30 to 90 day suspension (l) Deviation from ATC instruction or clearance 30 to 90 day suspension (m) Taxi ng, takeoff, or landing without a clearance where 30 to 90 day suspension ATC tower is in open (n) Failure to maintain radio communications in airport traffic 30 to 60 day suspension (o) Failure to comply with airport traffic pattern 30 to 60 day suspension (p) Operation in terminal control area without or contrary to a 60 to 90 day suspension (q) Failure to maintain altitude in airport traffic area 30 to 60 day suspension (r) Exceeding speed limitations in traffic area 30 to 60 day suspension (s) Operation of un airworthy aircraft 30 to 180 day suspension (t) Failure to comply with Airworthiness directives 30 to 180 day suspension (u) Operation without required instruments and/or equipment 30 to 90 day suspension (v) Exceeding operating limitations 30 to 90 day suspension (w) Operation within prohibited or restricted area, or within 30 to 90 day suspension positive control area (x) Failure to adhere to right of way rules 30 to 90 day suspension (y) Failure to comply with VFR cruising altitudes 30 to 90 day suspension (z) Failure to maintain required minimum altitudes over structures, persons, or vehicles over: i. Congested area 60 to 180 day suspension i . Sparsely populated area 30 to 120 day suspension (aa) Failure to maintain radio watch while under IFR 30 to 60 day suspension (bb) Failure to report compulsory reporting points 30 to 60 day suspension (cc) Failure to display position lights 30 to 60 day suspension (dd) Failure to maintain proper altimeter settings 30 to 60 day suspension (ee) Weather operations: Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation i. Failure to comply with visibility minimums in control ed 60 to 180 day suspension i . Failure to comply with visibility minimums outside 30 to 120 day suspension control ed airspace i i. Failure to comply with distance from clouds 60 to 180 day suspension requirements in control ed airspace iv. Failure to comply with distance from clouds 30 to 120 day suspension requirements outside of control ed airspace (ff) Failure to comply with IFR landing minimums 45 to 180 day suspension (gg) Failure to comply with instrument approach procedures 45 to 180 day suspension (hh) Careless or reckless operations: i. Fuel mismanagement/exhaustion 30 to 150 day suspension i . Wheels up landing 30 to 60 day suspension i i. Short or long landing 30 to 90 day suspension iv. Landing on or taking off from closed runway 30 to 60 day suspension v. Landing or taking off from ramps or other improper 30 to 120 day suspension vi. Taxi ng col ision 30 to 90 day suspension vi . Leaving aircraft unattended with motor running 30 to 90 day suspension vi i. Propping aircraft without a qualified person at controls 30 to 90 day suspension (i ) Passenger operations i. Operation without approved seat belts 30 to 60 day suspension i . Carrying passengers who are under the influence of 60 to 120 day suspension drugs or alcohol i i. Performing acrobatics when al passengers are not 60 to 90 day suspension equipped with approved parachutes IV. SECURITY VIOLATIONS BY INDIVIDUALS (a) Failure to declare unloaded firearm Minimum civil penalty (b) Loaded firearm Moderate to maximum civil penalty (c) Incendiary/explosive Up to maximum civil penalty and/or criminal referral Non-passengers: No intent to board (a) Possession of firearm (unloaded, unloaded with ammunition accessible, or loaded) or other dangerous or deadly weapon (including stun guns): Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation i. At screening point with no aggravating circumstances Minimum civil penalty i . At screening point with aggravating circumstances Moderate to maximum civil penalty i i. In sterile area with no aggravating circumstances Minimum to moderate civil penalty iv. In sterile area with aggravating circumstance Moderate to maximum civil penalty (b) Possession of incendiary/explosive at screening point or Moderate to maximum civil penalty in sterile area with no intent to board a flight. and/or criminal referral (c) Artful concealment of firearm (loaded or unloaded), other Maximum civil penalty and/or criminal referral dangerous or deadly weapon (including stun guns), or incendiary/explosive at screening point or in sterile area. Passengers: Intent to board (a) Possession of dangerous or deadly weapon (including stun guns, mace, etc., but excluding firearms and incendiary/ explosives)that would be accessible in flight in air transportation: i. At screening point with no aggravating circumstances Minimum civil penalty i . At screening pint with aggravating circumstances Moderate to maximum civil penalty i i. In sterile area or aboard aircraft with no aggravating Minimum to moderate civil penalty iv. In sterile area or aboard aircraft with aggravating Moderate to maximum civil penalty (b) Possession of firearm that would be accessible in flight in air transportation with firearm unloaded, without accessible ammunition: (i) At screening point with no aggravating Minimum to moderate civil penalty (i ) At screening pint with aggravating circumstances Maximum civil penalty (i i) In sterile area or aboard aircraft with no aggravating Moderate civil penalty (iv) In sterile area or aboard aircraft with aggravating Maximum civil penalty (c) Possession of firearm that would be accessible in flight in air transportation with firearm loaded, or with accessible ammunition: Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions Sanction per Violation i. At screening point with no aggravating circumstances Moderate to maximum civil penalty i . At screening pint with aggravating circumstances Maximum civil penalty i i. In sterile area or aboard aircraft with no aggravating Moderate to maximum civil penalty iv. In sterile area or aboard aircraft with aggravating Maximum civil penalty (d) Artful concealment of dangerous or deadly weapon Maximum civil penalty and/or criminal referral (including stun guns, but excluding firearms and incendiary/explosives) at screen point, in sterile area, or aboard aircraft. (e) Possession of incendiary/explosive at screening point, in Maximum civil penalty and/or criminal referral sterile area, or aboard aircraft that would be accessible in flight in air transportation. (f) Artful concealment of firearm or incendiary/ explosive at Maximum civil penalty and/or criminal referral screening point, in sterile area, or aboard aircraft. 1 - Aerodrome Certification (a) Operating an aerodrome as category A and B without certificate Maximum civil penalty 2.- Obligations of aerodrome operator (a) Non Compliance with conditions that are Maximum civil penalty (b) Non Competence of operational and maintenance personnel Maximum civil penalty (c) Failure to operate and maintain an aerodrome as per the authority issued directive Moderate civil penalty (d) failure to comply Safety management system as per the aerodrome manual and sms manual (e) Lack of proper Storage of inflammable and other dangerous goods Minimum civil penalty (f) Failure to comply prohibited Safety measures against fire Minimum civil penalty (g) Access to and operations within restricted area of aerodrome without authorization Maximum civil penalty (h) Failure to use established path for entry into or exit from restricted area of the aerodrome (i) Test-running of aircraft engine out of a designated place for the purpose (j) Performing prohibited acts on an aerodrome Minimum civil penalty (k) Failure to remove obstructions from aerodrome Moderate civil penalty (l) Failure to establish and maintain an aerodrome environment management programme Minimum civil penalty (m) Failure to protect navigation aids Minimum civil penalty (n) Failure to comply operator responsibilities Maximum civil penalty (o) prohibiting Staff of Authority to access aerodrome Minimum civil penalty Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions (p) Failure to Notify and report information that may affect the authority, ATC unit and pilot on time e r ate civil penalty (q) Failure to perform Special inspections and report for the authority Maximum civil penalty (r) Failure to post hazard warning notices Minimum civil penalty 3 - Aerodrome manual (a) failure to amend aerodrome manual Minimum civil penalty 4 – Wildlife hazard management (a) bringing, permitting or grazing of animals in restricted area of aerodrome Moderate civil penalty (b) failure to implement Wildlife hazard management Moderate civil penalty 5 - Obstacle restrictions and removal (a) Failure to implement requirements for obstacle limitation Moderate civil penalty (b) Failure to remove obstacles in the vicinity of an aerodrome (c) Failure to ensure the implementation of standardized marking and lighting on obstacles Minimum civil penalty 6 - Aeronautical ground lighting (a) Failure to operate or maintain an aerodrome provided runway lighting, without secondary power Maximum civil penalty (b) Failure to provide Aeronautical beacons Maximum civil penalty 7 - Aerodrome visual aids (a) Failure to instal Wind direction indicators Minimum civil penalty (b) Failure to ensure Visual aids for denoting obstacles are frangible and have required height 8 - Aerodrome operational services, equipment, installations and facilities (a) Failure to supply standardized aviation fuel to aircraft Minimum civil penalty (b) Failure to establish an aerodrome emergency plan Minimum civil penalty (c) Failure to form emergency planning committee Minimum civil penalty (d) Failure to have fixed emergency operation centre and command post Minimum civil penalty (e) Failure to have disabled aircraft remove plan Minimum civil penalty (f) Failure to ensure availability of ground servicing of aircraft Minimum civil penalty (g) Failure to control aerodrome vehicle operation Moderate civil penalty (h) Construction and instal ation of equipment on operational areas that are not used for air navigation Minimum civil penalty (i) Failure to provide fencing or suitable barrier on the aerodrome Minimum civil penalty (j) Failure to establish and maintain fire prevention programme for the aerodrome Maximum civil penalty (k) Failure to control ground vehicles access to aerodrome movement area Minimum civil penalty 9 - Aerodrome maintenance (a) failure to maintain pavements Maximum civil penalty (b) failure to establish system for preventive maintenance of visual aids Minimum civil penalty (c) Failure to ensure construction or maintenance activity is not done during periods of low visibility Minimum civil penalty Part 1 - General Polices, Procedures and Definitions 10 - Electrical systems (a) failure to have electrical power supply systems for air navigation facilities Maximum civil penalty 11 - Aeronautical information to be reported to aeronautical information services (a) Failure to ensure al Information related to aerodrome are available to users of aerodromes Minimum civil penalty (b) Failure to take action for occurrences of operational significance other than electronic aids and Minimum civil penalty communication facilities (c) Failure to take action for occurrences that affect electronic aids and communication facilities Minimum civil penalty (d) Failure to report accurate aeronautical data Minimum civil penalty 12 – Miscellaneous (a) Operating an aerodrome without matching facilities and characteristics needs of the aircraft for the Minimum civil penalty aerodrome intended (b)Failure to ensure the presence of dangerous light in the vicinity of the Aerodrome (c) Failure to Light en-route obstacles Minimum civil penalty (d) Failure of Obligation to insure aerodrome Minimum civil penalty (e) General penalty Maximum civil penalty VI . OTHER PROCLAMATIONS (a) Entering sterile area after failing to submit to screening – Minimum civil penalty (b) Entering sterile area after failing to submit to screening – Moderate to maximum civil penalty (c) Imparting or conveying false information concerning an Maximum civil penalty attempt to do an act that would be a crime prohibited by the Proclamation] (d) Threatening overt act or other intent to use or dangerously Maximum civil penalty and/or criminal referral display firearm, incendiary/explosive, or other deadly or dangerous weapon (including stun guns) (e) Violation of article 76 of the Proclamation Criminal referral

Source: http://www.motr.gov.et/documents/93744/105152/PART+1.pdf/206d2fab-084f-40be-8f2d-0cb0b16aa364

conbook-verlag.de

»Der Umstand, dass alles, Tier und Mensch, nach der Lust verlangt und strebt, ist ein Zeichen, dass sie in gewissem Sinne das höchste Gut ist.« Aristoteles, ›Nikomachische Ethik‹ 322 v. Chr. Nachdem wir uns nun ausgiebig damit beschäftigt haben, wie sich in Griechenland Leib und Seele auf angenehme Weise zusammenhalten lassen, kommen wir zu allerhand leiblichem, bevor letztlich die Seele

ame.nd.edu

Polymeric Micelles – The Future of Oral Drug Delivery Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 Abstract This work examines current advancements in polymeric micelles as a method for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The oral route presents several barriers to drug delivery that the chosen vesicle must overcome. Polymeric micelles have several physical properties, including molecular weight and copolymer block composition, which can be tailored to alter the vesicle structure and overcome these barriers. Examination of current research demonstrates the ability of polymeric micelles to respond to external stimuli, such as pH, allowing for controlled release of encapsulated drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. Lastly, with patients preferring the oral drug delivery route to the intravenous delivery route, it was shown that polymeric micelles can achieve the same desired pharmacological dose via either delivery method. These factors make polymeric micelles appear to be a viable option for future oral drug delivery applications. 1. Introduction 1.1 Clinical Relevance