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Insect repellents

West Nile Virus
Insect Repellents and DEET Tips:
Deciding on Their Use

Chemical repellents are effective at reducing bites from insects that can transmit disease. But their useis not without risk of health effects, especially if repellents are applied in large amounts or improperly.
This information will help you decide when and if a repellent is right for you.
Two active ingredients found in repellents are DEET (the label might say N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) and
permethrin. Most insect repellents contain one of these active ingredients. DEET comes in many
different concentrations, with percentages as low as five percent or as high as 100 percent. In general,
the higher the concentration, the higher the protection, but the risk of negative health effects goes up,
too. Use the lowest concentration that you think will provide the protection you need.
Products with up to 30 percent DEET will provide adequate protection under most conditions.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that repellents used on children two years -12 years
of age contain no more than 10 percent DEET.
DEET has been widely used for many years. Skin reactions (particularly at concentrations of 50 percent
and above)
and eye irritation are the most frequently reported health problems. Some reports of central
nervous system problems, more frequently reported in children than adults, range from slurred speech
and confusion to seizures and coma. Cases of serious reactions to products containing DEET have
been related to misuse of the product, such as swallowing, applying over broken skin, and using for
multiple days without washing skin in between.
Unlike DEET, permethrin repellents are for use on clothing only, not on skin. Permethrin kills insects
that come in contact with treated clothes. Permethrin repellents can cause eye irritation, particularly if
label directions have not been followed. Animal studies indicate that permethrin may have some
cancer-causing potential. Permethrin is effective for two weeks or more if the clothing is not washed.
Keep treated clothing in a plastic bag when not in use.
If you decide to use any kind of chemical repellent, carefully read and follow all label directions
before each use
. On the labels, you will find important information about how to apply the repellent,
whether it can be applied to skin and/or clothing, special instructions for children, hazards to humans,
physical or chemical hazards and first aid.
Deciding whether you want to use a repellent depends on a combination of things, including where
you are, how long you will be outside and how bad the bugs are. Every situation is different. Use
the following questions to make a "profile" that fits your situation – this might help you decide if you
want to use a repellent, and if so, which kind.
When will you be outside? Where will you be?
Some pests are more active at certain times – for example, many mosquitoes are most activebetween dusk and dawn. In addition, some places are more likely to have higher mosquitonumbers.
How long will you be outside?
Are you doing some gardening, going on a hike, camping for a week? The longer you are out, the
more protection you need. Some people exposed to high numbers of mosquitoes for long periods
of time use a two-part approach. With this approach, about 30 percent DEET in a controlled release
formula is applied on exposed skin, and clothing is treated with permethrin. If, on the other hand,
you are going to do some yard work or have a mid-day picnic when mosquito activity is low and you
decide to use an insect repellent, even lower concentrations can provide sufficient protection from
mosquito bites for a few hours.
The more DEET a repellent contains the longer time it can protect you from mosquito bites.
A higher percentage of DEET in a repellent does not mean that your protection is better—just that it
will last longer. DEET concentrates higher than 50% do not increase the length of protection.
A general guide for DEET product use based on a recent study is as follows:
A product containing 23.8% DEET provided an average of 5 hours of protection
from mosquito bites.
A product containing 20% DEET provided almost 4 hours of protection.
A product with 6.65% DEET provided almost 2 hours of protection.
Products with 4.75% DEET and 2% soybean oil were both able to provide
roughly 1 1/2 hours of protection.
Remember: If you decide to use a repellent, use only what and how much you need for your
Applying insect repellent to children requires special precautions. For example, repellent should
never be applied to children's hands because they put their hands in their mouths. The American
Academy of Pediatrics recommends that repellents appropriate for use on children from 2 years
to 12 years of age should contain no more than 10 percent DEET. In addition, provide a physical
barrier on children such as long sleeves and long pants.
According to CDC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, most guidelines cite that it is
acceptable to use repellents containing DEET on children over two years of age. Other experts
suggest that it is acceptable to apply repellent with low concentrations of DEET to infants over two
months old. For children less than two years of age, parents should consult their pediatrician.
Keep repellents out of the reach of children and read all instructions on the label before applying.
DO MOSQUITOES PICK YOU OUT IN A CROWD? You may consider using a repellent if you get a lot more bites than people around you do.
DEET TIPSThe Mississippi State Department Of Health recommends taking these precautions when usingrepellents that contain DEET: Products with up to 30 percent DEET will provide adequate protection under most conditions. Do Not allow children to apply DEET themselves.
Do Not apply DEET directly to children. Apply to your own hands and then put it on the child.
When applying DEET, avoid the child's eyes, lips, and hands.
Avoid prolonged and excessive use of DEET. Use sparingly to cover exposed skin only.
Do Not apply repellents in enclosed areas.
Do Not apply directly on your face, especially near the eyes, nose or mouth.
Do Not use on skin that is damaged by sunburn, cuts, bruises or skin conditions, such as DEET may be applied to clothing but can damage some synthetic fabrics and plastics.
Wash treated skin and clothing after returning indoors.
There are no reports of adverse events following use of repellents containing DEET in pregnant or breastfeeding women.
If you believe you or a child is having an adverse reaction to a repellent containing DEET, wash the treated area immediately and contact your health care provider or local poison control center.
National Poison Control Center: 1-800-222-1222
Remember that the use of DEET is only one way to reduce the risk of mosquito bites.
The State Health Department also encourages other precautions — such as wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts when in areas of high mosquito activity. Also, eliminateitems on your property in which standing water can collect and serve as a breeding ground for mosquitoes.
Fight The Bite 570 East Woodrow Wilson • Post Office Box 1700 • Jackson, Mississippi 39215-1700 (601) 576-7400 • WNV Hotline 1-877-WST-NILE or 1-877-978-6453 • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC):


Ch02_p 45.78

Modern Organocopper Chemistry. Edited by Norbert Krause Copyright > 2002 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH ISBNs: 3-527-29773-1 (Hardcover); 3-527-60008-6 (Electronic) 2Transmetalation Reactions Producing Organocopper Reagents Paul Knochel and Bodo Betzemeier Organocopper reagents constitute a key class of organometallic reagents, with nu-merous applications in organic synthesis [1]. Their high reactivities and chemo-selectivities have made them unique intermediates. Most reports use organocopperreagents of type 1 or 2, which are prepared from organolithiums. This trans-metalation procedure confers optimal reactivity, but in many cases it permitsonly the preparation of relatively unfunctionalized organocopper reagents. Morerecently, substantial developments have been taking place in transmetalations toorganocopper reagents starting from organometallic species that tolerate the pres-ence of functional groups [2], while synthetic methods permitting the preparationof functionalized organolithiums and organomagnesium compounds have alsobeen developed. All organometallics in which the metal M is less electronegativethan copper, and all organometallic species of similar electronegativity but withweaker carbon-metal bonds, are potential candidates for transmetalation reac-tions [3]. Thus, reaction conditions allowing the transmetalation of organo-boron,-aluminium, -zinc, -tin, -lead, -tellurium, -titanium, -manganese, -zirconium and-samarium compounds have all been found, resulting in a variety of new organo-copper reagents of type 3. Their reactivity is dependent on the nature of the origi-nal metal M, which in many cases is still intimately associated with the resultingorganocopper reagent (Scheme 2.1) [3–5].

RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM ISSUE 01 - DECEMBER 2015 ISSN 2465-6542ISBN 9789557971001 RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM at BCAS Mount Campus 18th December 2015 from 9.15 am onwards ISSUE 01 - DECEMBER 2015 Subject - Disclaimer The material in this publication has been supplied by the authors through the Research Symposium Co-ordinator as the final approved document. Neither the British College of Applied