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National Youth Council Tel : (65) 6734 4233 Blk 490 Lorong 6 Toa Payoh Fax : (65) 6737 2025 HDB Hub Biz Three #04-10 Copyright 2014, National Youth Council All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication), republished, uploaded, posted, transmitted or otherwise distributed in any way without the prior written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act (Cap. 63). ISBN: 978-981-09-1833-0 Published by the National Youth Council
At NYC, we believe in a world where young people are respected and heard, and have the ability to influence and make a difference to the world. Together with our partners, we develop a dynamic and engaging environment where young people are inspired to dream and committed to action.
Inspired and Committed Youth We connect with young Singaporeans so that their collective voices can advocate and enable positive change as an: AdvocateAggregate youth voices and represent the interests of young Singaporeans nationally and internationally Enabler Enable young people to pursue their aspirations and be positive contributors to Singapore through our programmes and grants Partner Congregate youth leaders and youth organisations to jointly develop a vibrant youth ecosystem NYC was set up by the Singapore Government on 1 November 1989 as the national co-ordinating body for youth affairs in Singapore. NYC is also Singapore's focal point for international youth affairs.
Mr Lawrence Wong, Minister for Culture, Community and Youth & Second Minister, Ministry of Communications and Information, is the Chairman of the 13th Council. The Council comprises members from various government ministries, youth organisations, academic institutions, voluntary welfare organisations, media and private sector organisations.
The National Youth Survey (NYS) studies the major concerns and issues of schooling and working youths in Singapore. It is a time-series survey that tracks and provides updated analyses of national youth statistics and outcomes to inform policy and practice. Till date, NYS has been conducted in 2002, 2005, 2010, and 2013. NYS represents a milestone in youth research in Singapore. With its resource-based approach, the NYS focuses on the support youths require for societal engagement (i.e., social capital) and individual development (i.e., human capital). Findings and analyses from each cycle of NYS are subsequently published as YOUTH.sg: The State of Youth in Singapore (YOUTH.sg). This edition of YOUTH.sg consists of two separate publications. The present publication is the statistical handbook, which contains statistics collated from NYS 2013 to provide readers with an overview of the state of youth in Singapore.
Accompanying this publication is a compilation of research articles which explore emergent trends and issues of youths. Contributors comprise NYS's academic collaborators (A/Ps Ho Kong Chong, Irene Ng, and Ho Kong Weng), NYC, and other contributors (A/P Lim Sun Sun, Health Promotion Board, Ministry of Manpower, and National Arts Council).
NOTES
Numbers may not add up to the totals due to rounding.
Survey population figures for NYS 2005, 2010, and 2013 may vary slightly due to sample weighting.
1. About the National Youth Survey 2. Youth in Singapore 3. Social Support 4. Social Participation 5. Values & Attitudes 6. Education & Employment About the National Youth Survey The NYS is a time-series study that focuses on the major concerns and issues of schooling and working youths in Singapore. Till date, the NYS has been conducted in 2002, 2005, 2010, and 2013. The NYS represents a milestone in Singapore's youth research with its resource-based approach that focuses on the support youths require for societal engagement (social capital) and individual development (human capital). Social capital refers to the relationships within and between groups, and the shared norms and trust that govern these interactions (Putnam, 2000; World Bank, 2011). Human capital on the other hand refers to the skills, competencies, and attitudes of individuals which in turn create personal, social, and economic wellbeing (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2001; World Economic Forum, 2013).
Social and human capital are closely linked. For example, investment in social capital shapes the social networks of individuals, which in turn influences the extent to which human capital is developed. Likewise, human capital development may influence the extent to which individuals are able to contribute to the social networks they are embedded in (Schuller, 2001). Based on these social and human capital theories, the National Youth Indicators Framework (NYIF) (Ho & Yip, 2003) was formulated to provide a comprehensive, systematic, and theoretically-grounded assessment of youths in Singapore. The NYIF draws from the existing research literature, policy-relevant indicators, and youth development models.
It spans six domains of social and human capital. Table I summarises the framework.
National Youth Indicators Framework Human Capital
(Putnam, 2000; World Bank, 2011) (OECD, 2001; World Economic Forum, 2013) Social networks and the norms of reciprocity Knowledge, skills, and competencies embodied in and trustworthiness that arise from them.
individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social, and economic wellbeing.
• Social support • Social participation • Values & attitudes The power of relationships The human potential of young people TABLE II.
Profile of NYS Respondents Permanent Resident Divorced / Separated / Widowed Taoism / Traditional Chinese Beliefs HDB 5 rooms, executive, and above Private flat and condominium Private house and bungalow Research Method for National Youth Survey 2013 NYS 2013 adopted a random (i.e., probability-based) sampling method to ensure responses are representative of the resident youth population aged 15 to 34 years old. The fieldwork period spanned September to December 2013. A pilot test was conducted prior to the commencement of fieldwork and the survey was available in English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. IPSOS Singapore, a research house commissioned by NYC, undertook data collection and fieldwork management.
Youths were invited to complete the survey over the internet via a mailed household letter with assigned login credentials. In order to reduce mode effects3 and preserve the value of unbiased sampling procedures (Groves, 2006), and in consideration of the declining survey cooperation and response rates4 over the past decade5, a random probability-based listing of 22,000 households was adopted. The adoption of this survey mode was made after careful consideration of the target respondents and survey questions6, given that Singapore's youths have a near-100% internet and smartphone penetration rate (Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA), 2013) and are highly mobile. This survey mode reduces geographical and time restrictions as well as interviewer bias and allows for more honest disclosures (Bowling, 2005; Lind et al., 2013). Two rounds of mail and phone reminders were used. Minority and underrepresented groups were approached at their respective households to complete the survey using a computing device. A total of 2,843 youths were successfully surveyed, of which 141 were surveyed at their households. This yielded a cooperation rate of 30% and a response rate of 14%, comparable with recent surveys7. This provided a confidence interval of 1.8% at the 95% confidence level with a youth population size of 1,073,400. 40% of respondents were randomly contacted to ensure response veracity. Responses adhered closely to the youth population. Table II presents the profile of respondents from NYS 2013, 2010, 2005, and 2002. Figures referenced in all tables in
the publication (with the exception of figures from NYS 20028) were weighted according to interlocking matrices of
age, gender, and race of the respective youth populations.
1 Youth population refers to the most recent available data from the 5 For example, Pew Research (2012) reported declines in cooperation Department of Statistics (DOS) — age, gender, race, and dwelling (DOS, (40% in 2000 to 14% in 2012) and response (28% in 2000 to 9% 2013) as well as nationality, marital status, and religion (DOS, 2010).
in 2012) rates. Lower response rates do not necessarily equate to 2 The 30–34 age band was included from NYS 2010.
lower data quality (Groves, 2006; American Association for Public 3 Although mode effects may not be completely eliminated, steps Opinion Research, n.d.), and recent studies have found minimal were taken to reduce the effects of the adopted survey mode differences between samples of lower and higher response rates through the use of a random sampling procedure, mailed household (e.g., Curtin et al., 2000; Keeter et al., 2006; Holbrook et al., 2007).
invitations, multiple completion reminders, approaching minorities 6 General population surveys which employ multiple modes of responses and underrepresented groups at their households, and random have found that internet-based respondents tend to be younger and verification of survey respondents. The final survey dataset adhered more educated, with responses peaking at night (e.g., Chan, 2011).
closely to the Singapore youth population.
7 Recent local surveys (e.g., NYS 2010; Institute of Public Policy, 4 The American Association for Public Opinion Research defined 2011 & 2013; and National Volunteer & Philanthropy Centre, 2013) response rate as "the number of complete interviews with reporting reported response rates ranging from 8% to 30%. units divided by the number of eligible reporting units in the sample" 8 Figures from NYS 2002 were not weighted due to the nonstandard and cooperation rate as "the proportion of all cases interviewed of all eligible units ever contacted". More information is available at American Association for Public Opinion Research. (n.d.). Response Rate — Institute of Policy Studies. (2011). IPS Perception of Policies in Singapore An Overview. Retrieved from http://www.aapor.org/Response_Rates_An_ Survey 5: Presidential Election Survey 2011. Retrieved from http://lkyspp.
Bowling, A. (2005). Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. Journal of Public Health, 27(3), 281–291.
Institute of Policy Studies. (2013). IPS Perception of Policies in Singapore Survey 6: Perceptions of Singles on Marriage and Having Children. Retrieved Chan, H. W. (2011). Census of population 2010 - Increased use of Internet in census submission. Statistics Singapore Newsletter. Retrieved from Keeter, S., Kennedy, C., Dimock, M., Best, J., & Craighil , P. (2006). Gauging the impact of growing nonresponse on estimates from a national RDD Curtin, R., Presser, S., & Singer, E. (2000). The effects of response rate telephone survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(5), 759 –779.
changes on the index of consumer sentiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64(4), 413–428.
Lind, L. H., Schober, M. F., Conrad, F. G., & Reichert, H. (2013). Why do survey respondents disclose more when computers ask the questions? Public Department of Statistics. (2010). Census of Population. Retrieved from Opinion Quarterly, 77(4), 888 – 935.
National Volunteer & Philanthropy Centre. (2013). Individual Giving Survey 2012. Retrieved from http://nvpc.org.sg/Portals/0/Documents/Research%20 Department of Statistics. (2013). Yearbook of Statistics Singapore. Retrieved Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2001). The Wel -being of Nations: The Role of Human and Social Capital. Organisation Groves, R. M. (2006). Nonresponse rates and nonresponse bias in household for Economic Cooperation and Development.
surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(5), 646-675.
Pew Research Centre. (2012). Assessing the Representativeness of Public Ho, K. C., & Yip, J. (2003). YOUTH.sg: The State of Youth in Singapore. Opinion Surveys. Retrieved from http://www.people-press.org/2012/05/15/ Singapore: National Youth Council.
Holbrook, A. L., Krosnick, J. A. and Pfent, A. (2007). The causes and Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The col apse and revival of American consequences of response rates in surveys by the news media and community. Simon and Schuster.
government contractor survey research firms. In J. M. Lepkowski, C. Tucker, J. M. Brick, E. D. de Leeuw, L. Japec, P. J. Lavrakas, M. W. Link & R. L. Sangster Schul er, T. (2001). The complementary roles of human and social capital. (Eds.), Advances in Telephone Survey Methodology. NJ: Wiley. Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1), 18 –24.
Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore. (2013). Annual Survey on World Bank. (2011). Social Capital. The World Bank Group. Retrieved from Infocomm Usage in Households and Individuals in 2012. Retrieved from http:// World Economic Forum. (2013). The Human Capital Report. World Economic Forum.
YOUTH IN SINGAPORE Since the inception of NYS 2002, youths have seen dramatic changes to Singapore society. Youths today reside in a more diverse environment with a higher proportion of minorities and migrants. Youths also straddle multiple communities and report higher levels of affluence and education. Youth Population in Singapore Singapore is an island city-state with a land area of 716 sq km. It has an overall population of 5.5 million and a resident population of 3.9 million as at 2014 (Department of Statistics (DOS), 2014). Among its resident population, the majority race is the Chinese, which makes up 74% of the population. This is followed by the Malays (13%) and Indians (9%). Singapore's resident1 youth population (aged 15 to 34 years old) has increased over the past 40 years. Much of
the growth occurred between 1970 and 1980, before reaching a plateau in the subsequent decades (see Chart I).
Overall population and youth population in Singapore (1970–2010) Resident and non-resident Resident population Source: Department of Statistics (2000 & 2010) 1 Resident population consists of Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents.
As Singapore's resident youth population growth has not kept pace with the overall population, the median
age of the resident population has doubled, from 20 years in 1970 to 39 years in 2013 (DOS, 2014). This has
resulted in the decline in proportion of resident youth population (see Chart II). Correspondingly, the proportion
of permanent residents among youths have increased (from 13% in 2000 to 18% in 2010), alongside that of
minorities (from 23% in 2000 to 28% in 2010). Taken together, these trends point towards a greater level of
diversity that exists among Singapore's youths today.
CHART II.
Proportion of youth in Singapore (1970–2010) population as a proportion of resident and non-resident Source: DOS (2000 & 2010) As social diversity and inequality increase, there is a tendency for trust to erode within and across ethnic groups in the short-to-medium term (Putnam, 2007; Portes & Vickstrom, 2011), particularly if there is a lack of frequent, socially diverse interaction (Stolle et al., 2008). Considering the multicultural and multiracial nature of Singapore society, it is therefore crucial that youths develop deep, meaningful relationships that span multiple social groups and communities to maintain social trust and cohesion in the face of increasing diversity and social stratification.
Youth Development in Singapore In addition to population demographics, the local youth development Youths are at the forefront of the changing economy scene has also seen changes over the past decade. Youths today are more likely to be members of multiple communities and As a country with no natural resources, Singapore has long are at the forefront of a rapidly changing economy.
focused on building a highly educated workforce as part of its human capital strategy in a globalised economy (Osman-Gani, Youths are members of multiple communities 2004). This push may be seen in the proportion of university graduates among resident non-students aged 25–34 years Youths belong to multiple communities, from families and old, which had almost doubled from 31% in 2002 to 49% in friends, schools and workplaces, to religious communities and 2012 (Teo, 2013).
welfare groups. This exposes youths to the effects of socialisation through sharing and transmission of social norms and values. The majority of youths have also benefited from Singapore's These socialisation processes are crucial to building networks strong economic growth and development. The proportion of of shared norms and trust (i.e., social capital) of youths. With heads of households aged 25 to 34 years old residing in private a stronger focus on the overall development and community estates increased from 7% in 2000 to 14% in 2010 (DOS, 2000; involvement of youths through national initiatives and programmes 2010) while the median income of youths aged 25 to 34 years such as the Youth Expedition Project, Youth Corps Singapore, old increased from $2,000–$2,999 in 2000 to $3,000–$3,999 and Values-in-Action, youths will have a myriad of opportunities in 2013. However, the median income of youths aged 15 to to participate in a variety of communities.
24 years old remained unchanged at $1,500–$1,999 over the same period (DOS, 2000; Ministry of Manpower (MOM), 2013).
Radically altering the social processes associated with social groups is the proliferation of internet use among Singapore's Globalisation has increased income and wealth inequalities, raising youths, who report a near-100% internet penetration rate new challenges for social mobility, the nature of meritocracy, and (IDA, 2013). The internet lowers barriers of access and enables the dignity of workers. This threatens Singapore's long-standing new forms of engagement, allowing youths to participate in a social compact which has associated hard work with material greater variety of communities. Social media exposes youths success (Yeoh, 2007; Chan, 2014; Leong & Kang, 2012). to information that both aligns and diverges from their own (Kahne et al., 2012) and is associated with larger and more These challenges are not unique to Singapore's youths. diverse social networks, particularly among those of higher Developed countries such as the United States of America socioeconomic status (Hampton & Ling, 2013). similarly grapple with the effects of globalisation. Singapore is responding by restructuring its economy to achieve a just and Social media also allows youths with common interests to form equitable society, a process that will take considerable time and online communities that would have been otherwise difficult to effort on the part of the government as well as citizens. This is establish, such as platforms for political and civic engagement an opportunity for Singapore's youths to develop their col ective (Lin et al., 2010). It has also been used to mobilise individuals resilience and wellbeing by being engaged in society to shape for specific causes. For example, during the haze crisis of 2013, the norms that will guide Singapore in the generations to come. youths tapped on local friendship and online communities to solicit excess masks and mobilise volunteers to distribute masks to the needy (Liu, 2013). Such positive civic engagement both online and offline will be crucial as Singapore matures as a society. Overview of Handbook This chapter introduced Singapore's youth landscape. The next Lin, W. Y., Cheong, P. H., Kim, Y. C., & Jung, J. Y. (2010). Becoming citizens: Youths' civic uses of new media in five digital cities in East Asia. Journal of three chapters will cover the social capital of youth. That is, the Adolescent Research, 25(6), 839-857.
quality of youths' social support (such as relationships with family and friends and time spent on non-school/work activities), Liu, E. (2013, August 9). Not your typical misfit. Today. Retrieved from http://www.todayonline.com/singapore/not-your-typical-misfit social participation (such as involvement in social groups and leadership, civic engagement, and internet and social media Ministry Of Manpower. (2013). Gross Monthly Income From Work. Retrieved use), and values and attitudes (such as life goals and attitudes towards family, marriage, and society). The subsequent chapters will relate to the human capital of youth. This includes youths' Osman-Gani, A. M. (2004). Human capital development in Singapore: An attitudes and aspirations towards education and employment analysis of national policy perspectives. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(3), 276-287.
and their subjective, physical, and financial wellbeing. Portes, A., & Vickstrom, E. (2011). Diversity, social capital, and cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 461-479.
Putnam, R. D. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the Chan, R. (2014, February 11). Income + wealth inequality = More trouble twenty‐first century. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30(2), 137-174.
for society. The Straits Times. Retrieved from http://www.straitstimes.com/the-big-story/budget-2014/story/income-wealth-inequality-more-trouble- Stol e, D., Soroka, S., & Johnston, R. (2008). When does diversity erode trust? Neighborhood diversity, interpersonal trust and the mediating effect of social interactions. Political Studies, 56(1), 57-75.
Department of Statistics. (2000). Census of Population 2000. Retrieved from http://www.singstat.gov.sg/Publications/publications _and_papers/cop2000/ Teo, Z. (2013). Educational profile of Singapore resident non-students, 2002 – 2012. Department of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.singstat.gov.
sg/publications/publications_and_papers/education_and_literacy/ssnmar13- Department of Statistics. (2010). Census of Population 2010. Retrieved Yeoh, L. K. (2007, October). Rethinking a new social compact for Singapore. Ethos, 3. Retrieved from https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/ethos/ Department of Statistics. (2014). Population Trends 2014. Retrieved from Hampton, K. N., & Ling, R. (2013). Explaining communication displacement and large-scale social change in core networks: A cross-national comparison of why bigger is not better and less can mean more. Information, Communication & Society, 16(4), 561-589.
Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore. (2013). Infocomm Usage in Households and by Individuals. Retrieved from http://www.ida.gov.
sg/ /media/Files/Infocomm%20Landscape/Facts%20and%20Figures/SurveyReport/2012/2012HHmgt.pdf Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Lee, N. J., & Feezel , J. T. (2012). Youth online activity and exposure to diverse perspectives. New Media & Society, 14(3), 492-512.
Leong., C. H. & Kang, S. H. (2012). Report on Singapore Perspectives 2012. Institute of Policy Studies, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore. Retrieved from http://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/ips/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/06/SP2012_report.pdf Support
Social support refers to the
degree of support that youths
receive from their parents,
families, and communities. This
chapter reflects the important
social processes that influence
youth development. It looks at
youths' family environment and
social networks.
The State of Youth in Singapore: Youths' top sources of close friends are SCHOOLS,
WORKPLACES, AND OTHER FRIENDS
AND SOCIAL NETWORKS.
Youths with positive family environments benefit from the support they receive. Such family environments generally respond to youths' needs, challenges them to acquire new skills and knowledge and to be responsible members of the society. In this regard, youths growing up in a more positive family environment tend to be associated with individual wellbeing (National Youth Council, 2010). Findings from NYS 2103 show that youths generally report high levels of family support and challenge.
Friends are another important source of support and resource valuable to individual development. Top sources of close friends for Singapore's youths are schools, workplaces, and through other friends and social networks. Younger youths are more likely to report close friends of a different race and religion, while youths aged 15 to 19 and 30 to 34 are more likely to report close friends of a different nationality. Overall, youths continue to spend much of their time outside of school and work with their families and Friends &
friends, and on online activities. Youths in Singapore generally report having Younger youths spend significantly more time with POSITIVE FAMILY ENVIRONMENTS.
FAMILIES AND FRIENDS
compared to older youths.
No matter what happens,
I know I'll be loved and
Percentage of youths Activities with
We are willing to help each
other out when something
needs to be done
Activities with
I'm given responsibility for
making important decisions
affecting my life
Family Environment Family environment, particularly parent-child interaction, affects youth development. The quality of parent-child interaction may be seen through the extent in which youths are supported and chal enged positively (Csikszentmihalyi & Schneider, 2000). Singapore's youths in 2013 continue to report high levels of family support and chal enge (Tables A1 and A2).
Q. To what extent do you agree with the fol owing statements regarding your family? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="strongly agree", 3="neither agree nor disagree", and 1="strongly disagree".) A1Mean ratings of youths' level of family support over time
(with standard deviations in parenthesis) I feel appreciated for who I am If I have a problem, I get special attention and help from family No matter what happens, I know I'll be loved and accepted We enjoy having dinner together and talking We compromise when our schedules conflict We are willing to help each other out when something needs to be done 15–34 years old A2Mean ratings of youths' level of family challenge over time
(with standard deviations in parenthesis) Individual accomplishments are noticed I'm given responsibility for making important decisions affecting my life I'm expected to do my best I try to make other family members proud I'm encouraged to get involved in activities outside school and work I'm expected to use my time wisely 15–34 years old Alongside families, friends form another anchor of youth development and social support; in particular, close friends whom youths are able to approach for personal advice and help.
Singapore's youths' number of close friends has remained consistent over the years (Table B1),
with the majority of youths having at least two close friends. Youths' number of close friends
declined with age, with older youths reporting a smal er group of friends (Table B2).
Q. Close friends are people you feel at ease with, can talk to about private matters, or call on for help… how many close friends do you have? B1 Youths' number of close friends over time
15–29 years old 15–34 years old B2 Youths' number of close friends by age
Schools form the top source of close friends for youths across all age groups, thus serving as an important source of social capital. This is fol owed by workplaces among older youths, and through friends and social networks (Table B3).
Q. Select up to three ways in which you met your close friends.
B3Youths' sources of close friends by age
Through other friends / social networks Hobby / interest groups Public places / gatherings Sports activities Religious community Through family members / relatives Notes. This is a multiple response item, hence figures will not sum to 100%. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
Younger youths are more likely to report having close friends of a different race and religion. A larger proportion of youths aged 15 to 19 and 30 to 34 are more likely to report having close friends of a different nationality (Table B4). Compared to other races, Chinese youths are less
likely to report having close friends of a different race, while Chinese and Malay youths are less
likely to report having close friends of a different nationality. Overal , the majority of youths report
having close friends of a different religion, regardless of their race (Table B5).
Q. Do you have close friends who are of a different race, nationality, or religion? B4Youths with close friends of a different race, nationality, or religion by age
B5Youths with close friends of a different race, nationality, or religion by race
15–34 years old Non-school/Work Activities The amount of time youths spend on activities outside of school or work have the capacity to shape their development. Overal , youths aged 15 to 34 spend the most time outside of school
or work with their families (Table C1), friends (Table C2), learning (Table C3), and on online
activities in 2013 (Table C7).
Q. On average, how many hours a week do you spend on the fol owing activities outside of school and work? (Please provide your estimate or best guess.) C1Hours spent on activities with parents or other relatives over time
(e.g., going out, having dinner together) 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C2Hours spent on activities with friends over time
(e.g., movies, hanging out, concerts) 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C3Hours spent on learning activities over time
(e.g., reading, studying or doing homework, excluding school hours) 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C4Hours spent on physical activities over time
(e.g., exercising or playing sports) 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C5Hours spent on volunteer activities and/or community projects over time
(e.g., helping in a welfare home or a place of worship, voluntary welfare organisations, grassroots activities) 15–34 years old Note. This scale is new to NYS 2010 and 2013.
C6Hours spent on entrepreneurship activities over time
(e.g., business planning, running stalls, selling items and services online) 15–34 years old Note. This scale is new to NYS 2010 and 2013.
C7Hours spent on online activities over time
(e.g., gaming, chatting, social networking, reading blogs) 15–34 years old Note. This scale is new to NYS 2010 and 2013.
Compared to older youths, younger youths spend significantly more time with their families, friends, and on learning and online activities (Tables C8–C10, C14).
Activities By Age They are also more likely to spend time on physical and volunteer activities
(Tables C11 and C12).
Q. On average, how many hours a week do you spend on the fol owing activities outside of school and work? (Please provide your estimate or best guess.) C8Hours spent on activities with parents or other relatives by age
(e.g., going out, having dinner together) C9Hours spent on activities with friends by age
(e.g., movies, hanging out, concerts) C10Hours spent on learning activities by age
(e.g., reading, studying or doing homework, excluding school hours) C11Hours spent on physical activities by age
(e.g., exercising or playing sports) C12Hours spent on volunteer activities and/or community projects by age
(e.g., helping in a welfare home or a place of worship, voluntary welfare organisations, grassroots activities) C13Hours spent on entrepreneurship activities by age
(e.g., business planning, running stalls, selling items and services online) C14Hours spent on online activities by age
(e.g., gaming, chatting, social networking, reading blogs) Living Arrangements & The living arrangements of youths have general y remained consistent over the past decade Living Arrangements (Tables D1 and D2).
Q. How many persons in each of the fol owing categories currently live with you in your household? D1Living arrangements of unmarried youths over time
Domestic helper/s 15–29 years old 15–34 years old Notes. This is a multiple response item, hence figures will not sum to 100%.
The overall unmarried survey population figures are reflected in this table.
D2Living arrangements of married youths over time
Domestic helper/s 15–29 years old 15–34 years old Notes. This is a multiple response item, hence figures will not sum to 100%.
The overall married survey population figures are reflected in this table.
Unmarried youths are more likely to turn to their mothers for advice concerning personal problems and important life decisions, while married youths are more likely to turn to their spouse (Tables D3 and D4).
Q. Select up to three most important persons you would turn to when you are worried or troubled with a personal problem, with the 1st person being the most important person.
D3First person youths turn to for advice regarding a personal problem
Boy/Girlfriend or Spouse Close or Best Friend 15–34 years old Q. Select up to three most important persons you would turn to for advice on important life decisions, with the 1st person being the most important person. D4First person youths turn to for advice regarding a life decision
Boy/Girlfriend or Spouse Close or Best Friend 15–34 years old ReferencesCsikszentmihalyi, M., & Schneider, B (2000). Becoming adult: How teenagers prepare for the world of work. Chicago: Basic Books. National Youth Council (2010). YOUTH.sg: The State of Youth in Singapore 2010. Singapore: National Youth Council.
Participation
Social participation refers to youths'
involvement in schools, organisations,
local communities, and society,
encompassing both offline and online
participation. The extent to which
youths are engaged and connected
within organisations and society are
important indicators of personal and
societal development.
The State of Youth in Singapore: Youths' popular forms of CIVIC ENGAGEMENT OFTEN
TAKE PLACE ONLINE.
Contacted a government
15 official online, by email, or by
Youths' involvement in social groups has risen over a decade, with text message about an issue
much of the increase driven by monthly and occasional participation. that is important to you
Given the pervasiveness of internet use among Singapore‘s youths, civic engagement of youths take place mostly online. This includes contacting government officials, commenting on an online Commented on an online
news story or blog, and signing online petitions. 15% news story or blog post to
express an opinion about a
political or social issue
Finally, a majority of youths use the internet on a daily basis to get news or information on current affairs or access social networking sites.
Signed a petition online
INVOLVEMENT IN
SOCIAL GROUPS HAS RISEN,
with much of the increase in social group involvement driven by monthly and episodic participation. Youths often use the internet to ACCESS NEWS AND
SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES.
Get news or information
on current affairs on a daily basis.
15−29 years old 15−34 years old Use a social networking
site such as Facebook,
Twitter, or Instagram on a daily basis.
Leadership Involvement Involvement in social groups and leadership exposes youths to new ideas, interests, and skil s. Group interaction and teamwork al ow youths to pick up interpersonal and leadership skil s as well as build self-efficacy and educational aspiration (Zaff et al., 2003; Mahony et al., 2003). Such Group & Leadership associations also develop the social capital of youths, enabling extensive access to resources such as social support or job leads (Wol ebaek & Sel e, 2002; Bekkers et al., 2008).
Singapore's youths' involvement in social groups and leadership has increased over the past
decade (Table A1). Due to changing commitments across life stages, such as entering ful -time
work or parenthood (Oesterle et al., 2004), involvement in social groups and leadership general y
declines with age (Tables A2 to A4). Male youths report higher levels of involvement compared
to female youths (Table A5).
Q. Which of the fol owing social groups have you been involved in the past 12 months? (Check all that apply.)Q. In the past 12 months, have you led one of the fol owing social groups (i.e., held an official title, such as chairman, treasurer, council member, etc)? A1Social group & leadership involvement over time
Group involvement Leadership involvement 15–29 years old 15–34 years old A2Social group & leadership involvement by age
Group involvement Leadership involvement Note. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
A3Social group involvement by age
Welfare & self-help Discussion & forums Note. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
A4Leadership involvement by age
Welfare & self-help Discussion & forums Note. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
A5Social group & leadership involvement by gender
Group involvement Leadership involvement 15–34 years old Compared to a decade ago, more youths today report membership in multiple Frequency Of Social groups and involvement on a monthly and occasional basis (Tables A6 and A7).
Group Involvement Youths involved in social groups on a weekly basis tend to be younger (Table A8)
and are more likely to be members of sports and religious groups (Table A9).
Q. In the past 12 months, how often are you involved in the fol owing social groups? A6Youths' number of social group involvement over time
15–29 years old 15–34 years old A7Frequency of social group involvement over time
15–29 years old 15–34 years old Note. Participation figures are based on the most frequent level of participation of each respondent.
A8Frequency of social group involvement by age
Note. Participation figures are based on the most frequent level of participation of each respondent.
A9Frequency of social group involvement
Welfare & self-help Discussion & forums 15–34 years old Note. Participation figures are based on the overall number of groups (i.e., a participant may be involved in more than one group).
The majority of youths involved in leadership are likely to participate on a weekly basis (Table A10). Youth leaders who are involved on a weekly basis tend to be younger and come
Leadership Involvement from sports and religious groups (Table A11 and A12).
Q. In the past 12 months, how often are you involved in the fol owing social groups? A10Frequency of leadership involvement over time
Note. Participation figures are based on the most frequent level of participation 15–29 years old 15–34 years old of each leader.
A11Frequency of leadership involvement by age
Note. Participation figures are based on the most frequent level of participation of each leader.
Frequency of leadership involvement Welfare & self-help Discussion & forums 15–34 years old Note. Participation figures are based on the overall number of groups (i.e., a participant may lead more than one group).
Civic engagement among youths has increased from 2005 (Table B1). For example, more youths
have signed a petition and contacted a government official in 2013 compared to 2005. Also, older
youths are more likely to engage government officials while younger youths are more likely to
have attended discussions on social or political affairs (Table B2).
Q. Have you performed the fol owing activities related to matters of public concern in the past 12 months (e.g., social or political affairs)? B1Youths' civic engagement over time
Contacted a government official (offline/online) Wrote to a newspaper or magazine (offline/online) Signed a petition (offline/online) Commented on an online forum or blog 15–29 years old 15–34 years old Notes. NYS 2010 figures are not comparable due to a change in scale measure. NYS 2013 expanded upon the four civic engagement measures used in NYS 2005. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
B2Youths' civic engagement by age
Contacted a government official in person, by phone call, or by letter about an issue that is important to you Contacted a government official online, by email, or by text message about an issue that is important to you Signed a paper petition Signed a petition online Sent a "letter to the editor" by regular mail to a newspaper or magazine Sent a "letter to the editor" to a newspaper or magazine online, by email or by text message Commented on an online news story or blog post to express an opinion about a political or social issue Posted pictures or videos online related to a political Attended a discussion on social or political affairs Attended a political rally or speech Attended an organized protest of any kind Worked or volunteered for a political party or candidate Been an active member of any group that tries to influence public policy or government, not including a Worked with fellow citizens to solve a problem in your community Note. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
Internet & Social Media Use The internet penetration rate in Singapore is near 100% (Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore, 2013). Consequently, youths actively use the internet for social networking and
the gathering of news or information on current affairs (Table C1). Across all age groups, the
majority of youths use the internet daily to access social networking sites (Table C2).
Q. How often do you use the Internet (on computers and mobile devices) for the fol owing: C1Youths' internet use
Every few
Get news or information on current affairs Use a social networking site such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram Buy things online Sell things online Look for health-related information such as dieting and fitness Look for information that is hard to talk with others Play online games 15–34 years old C2Youths' daily internet use by age
Get news or information on current affairs Use a social networking site such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram Buy things online Sell things online Look for health-related information such as dieting and fitness Look for information that is hard to talk with others Play online games Note. Sum of ‘several times a day' and ‘about once a day' scale items. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
Youths are most likely to use social media for (i) maintaining contact with friends and family; (ii) seeking information on current affairs; and (iii) getting entertainment (Table C3). Younger youths
are more likely to use social media for entertainment while older youths are more likely to use
social media as a source of information for current affairs (Table C4).
Q. How often do you use social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) for the fol owing: C3Youths' social media use
Every few
Get news or information on current affairs Update information about yourself and activities Share materials such as videos and photos Maintain contact with existing friends and family Make new friends and contacts Create future employment opportunities For entertainment 15–34 years old C4Youths' daily social media use by age
Get news or information on current affairs Update information about yourself and activities Share materials such as videos and photos ‘several times a day' Maintain contact with existing friends and family and ‘about once a day' scale items. The Make new friends and contacts upper-bound survey Create future employment opportunities population figures are For entertainment reflected in this table.
ReferencesBekkers, R., Völker, B., Van der Gaag, M., & Flap, H. (2008). Social networks of Oesterle, S., Johnson, M. K., & Mortimer, J. T. (2004). Volunteerism during participants in voluntary associations. In N. Lin & B. Erickson (Eds.), Social Capital: the transition to adulthood: A life course perspective. Social Forces, 82(3), An International Research Program, (pp. 185-205). NY: Oxford University Press. Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore. (2013). Household Access Wollebaek, D., & Sel e, P. (2002). Does participation in voluntary associations to Internet 2003-2012. Retrieved from http://www.ida.gov.sg/InfocommLand contribute to social capital? The impact of intensity, scope, and type. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 31(1), 32-61.
Mahoney, J. L., Cairns, B. D., & Farmer, T.W. (2003). Promoting interpersonal Zaff, J. F., Moore, K. A., Papil o, A. R., & Wil iams, S. (2003). Implications of competence and educational success through extracurricular activity extracurricular activity participation during adolescence on positive outcomes. participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 409–418.
Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(6), 599-630.
Attitudes
The value orientations of
youths toward their lives,
families and relationships, national identity, and social integration play an important role in building individual and societal development. They offer insights into the degree of trust and cohesion that exist within youths' families, local communities, and the larger society.
The State of Youth in Singapore: The majority of youths report that they would VALUES & ATTITUDES TAKE CARE OF THEIR PARENTS and regard
MARRIAGE AS NECESSARY.
The value orientations of youths have largely remained consistent I would take care of my parents in their 13%
over a decade. Youths continue to value strong family ties, marriage, circumstances allow 86 I would take care of
and remain very willing to take care of their parents in old age. While % my parents
they seek upward social mobility through knowledge and wealth in their old age, acquisition, they also desire to help the less fortunate and contribute matters to 1%
the circumstances my parents or to the Youths' pride in being a Singaporean remain high. Youths also remain generally comfortable with other races and nationalities as It is better not to co-workers or neighbours but express mixed feelings or attitudes towards Singapore encouraging other nationalities to work or study in Singapore or become Singapore citizens, with mean scores approaching the mid-point. It is not necessary 25%
35% It is better to marry
Youths continue to
PRIORITISE STRONG FAMILY RELATIONSHIP.
They also seek to acquire knowledge and wealth.
Youths
REMAIN COMFORTABLE WITH OTHER
2005
Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
Earn lots of money
RACES AND NATIONALITIES AS NEIGHBOURS
but express mixed feelings or attitudes towards Singapore encouraging other nationalities to work or study in Singapore. Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
I am comfortable having
someone of a different
race as a neighbour

Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
I am comfortable having
someone of a different
nationality as a

Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
Singapore should
encourage people of
Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
other nationalities to
come to work or study

in Singapore
The State of Youth in Singapore: The majority of youths report that they would TAKE CARE OF THEIR PARENTS and regard
VALUES & ATTITUDES MARRIAGE AS NECESSARY.
The value orientations of youths may be seen through their life goals. Despite the inclusion of new life goals in 2010 and 2013, the nature of youths' life goals remain largely consistent. Youths The value orientations of youths have largely remained consistent I would take care of my parents in their 13%
prioritise strong family relationships and knowledge acquisition (Table A1). Encouragingly, many
over a decade. Youths continue to value strong family ties, marriage, I would take care of youths regard helping the less fortunate and contributing to society as very important life circumstances allow and remain very willing to take care of their parents in old age. While % my parents
in their old age, goals (Table A2).
they seek upward social mobility through knowledge and wealth acquisition, they also desire to help the less fortunate and contribute matters to 1%
the circumstances my parents or to the Q. How important are the fol owing aspirations or life goals in your life? Youths' pride in being a Singaporean remain high. Youths also remain generally comfortable with other races and nationalities as It is better not to 39% One should marry
co-workers or neighbours but express mixed feelings or attitudes Youths' "Very important" life goals over time towards Singapore encouraging other nationalities to work or study in Singapore or become Singapore citizens, with mean scores approaching the mid-point. It is not necessary 25%
35% It is better to marry
To maintain strong family relationships To have a place of my ownb Youths continue to To acquire new skills and knowledge PRIORITISE STRONG FAMILY RELATIONSHIP.
To have a successful careera They also seek to acquire knowledge and wealth.
To earn lots of money REMAIN COMFORTABLE WITH OTHER
To help the less fortunateb Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
Earn lots of money
RACES AND NATIONALITIES AS NEIGHBOURS
To contribute to societyb but express mixed feelings or attitudes towards Singapore encouraging other nationalities to work or study in Singapore. To have a good personal spiritual/religious life Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
To start my own business To be actively involved in sports I am comfortable having
someone of a different
To discover, design or invent something new race as a neighbour
To be actively involved in the arts Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
To be actively involved in local volunteer work To migrate to another countrya I am comfortable having
To be actively involved in overseas someone of a different
nationality as a
15–29 years old 15–34 years old Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
Note. a. Item added in NYS 2010 Singapore should
b. Item added in NYS 2013 encourage people of
Strong family ties
Learn / acquire skills
other nationalities to
come to work or study

in Singapore
Q. How important are the fol owing aspirations or life goals in your life? A2Youths' life goals
Somewhat
Somewhat
important
To maintain strong family relationships To have a place of my own To acquire new skills and knowledge To have a successful career To earn lots of money To help the less fortunate To contribute to society To have a good personal spiritual/religious life To start my own business To be actively involved in sports To discover, design or invent something new To be actively involved in the arts To be actively involved in local volunteer work To migrate to another country To be actively involved in overseas 15–34 years old Family & Relationships Strong and stable families play a central role in inculcating values in youths, such as filial piety. Attitudes Towards Overal , the trend over a 10-year period remains positive: at least 8 in 10 youths continue to report that they would take care of their parents in old age regardless of the circumstances (Table B1), particularly among younger youths (Table B2).
Q. Which statement best describes your belief towards caring for your parents? B1Youths' attitudes towards parental care over time
I would take care of my parents in their old age, regardless of the circumstances I would take care of my parents in their old age, if my circumstances allow I would leave matters to my parents or to 15–29 years old 15–34 years old B2Youths' attitudes towards parental care by age
I would take care of my parents in their old age, regardless of the circumstances I would take care of my parents in their old age, if my circumstances allow I would leave matters to my parents or to Youths' attitudes towards marriage remain fairly consistent over time. Regardless of age, most Attitudes Towards believe in the necessity of marriage (Tables B3 to B4).
Q. Which statement best describes your belief towards marriage? B3Youths' attitudes towards marriage over time
It is better to marry It is not necessary to marry It is better not to marry 15–29 years old 15–34 years old B4Youths' attitudes towards marriage by age
It is better to marry It is not necessary to marry It is better not to marry National Pride & Social Integration Singaporean youths continue to express high levels of national pride, peaking in 2005 (Table C1).
Youths who are younger, or are Malay or Indian, report higher levels of national pride
(Tables C2 and C3).
Q. How proud are you as a Singaporean? (Based on a 4-pt scale, where 4="very proud" and 1="not proud at al ".) C1Mean ratings of youths' national pride over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Proud of being Singaporean 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C2Mean ratings of youths' national pride by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Proud of being Singaporean C3Mean ratings of youths' national pride by race
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Proud of being Singaporean 15–34 years old Youths remain very comfortable with other races as co-workers and neighbours (Table C4),
Attitudes Towards particularly among youths aged 15 to 24 (Table C5) and minority races (Table C6).
Q. Responses below are based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="strongly agree", 3="neither agree nor disagree", and 1="strongly disagree".
C4Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards other races over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) I am comfortable working together with someone of a different race I am comfortable having someone of a different race as a neighbour 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C5Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards other races by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) I am comfortable working together with someone of a different race I am comfortable having someone of a different race as a neighbour C6Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards other races by race
(with standard deviations in parentheses) I am comfortable working together with someone of a different race I am comfortable having someone of a different race as a neighbour 15–34 years old Youths remain comfortable with other nationalities as co-workers and neighbours but Attitudes Towards express mixed feelings or attitudes towards Singapore encouraging other nationalities to Other Nationalities work or study in Singapore (Table C7), particularly among youths aged 20 to 29 (Table C8).
Q. Responses below are based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="strongly agree", 3="neither agree nor disagree", and 1="strongly disagree".
C7Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards other nationalities over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) I am comfortable working together with someone of a different nationality (i.e., from a different country) I am comfortable having someone of a different nationality as a neighbour Singapore should encourage people of other nationalities to come to work or study I think Singapore should encourage people of other nationalities who are professionals or skilled workers to become Singapore citizens 15–29 years old 15–34 years old C8Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards other nationalities by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) I am comfortable working together with someone of a different nationality (i.e., from a different country) I am comfortable having someone of a different nationality as a neighbour Singapore should encourage people of other nationalities to come to work or study I think Singapore should encourage people of other nationalities who are professionals or skilled workers to become Singapore citizens Education &
Employment
Education consists of institutional and
non-institutional learning. The NYS
focuses on the latter by considering
youths' attitudes, motivations, and
environments that facilitate
personal development.
Employment statistics are readily available through the Labour Force Survey. The NYS complements these statistics by capturing youths' educational and wage expectations in relation to employment as well as their attitudes towards the labour market.
The State of Youth in Singapore: At least half of students have some form of EDUCATION &
EXPOSURE TO CULTURES ABROAD.
Singapore's youths are generally confident of their ability to attain higher education. Also, nearly half of schooling youths report learning and studying as a school-going motivation. In terms of social competencies, youths are most confident of their ability to empathise with others but much less so with public speaking. Youths are more confident of respecting other races and cultures than knowing about them. At least half of schooling youths have also participated in some form of overseas programme over the course of their schooling life.
Singapore's youths emphasise the role of higher education and hard work when it comes to attaining success in life. For example, at least half of youths consider the bachelor's degree as necessary to getting an average or decent job. Also, more than half of youths lean towards the role of hard work in achieving a better life. Finally, the majority of youths have some form of income expectation, with the median expected income ranging from Youths view both $2,001 to $3,000.
HARD WORK AND CONNECTIONS
& LUCK AS NECESSARY
to achieving success in life.
Hard work doesn't Nearly half of students regard In the long run, hard generally bring success — LEARNING AND STUDYING
work usually brings a it's more a matter of luck AS A SCHOOL-GOING MOTIVATION.
Get good grades/qualifications
Improve future prospects
Attitudes & Aspirations Youths attain education for a variety of reasons. Nearly half of schooling youths report School-going Motivations learning as the main school-going motivation (Table A1). Other top motivations include
attaining good qualifications and improving future prospects.
Q. What is your main reason for going to school? A1Schooling youths' school-going motivations
Get good grades / qualifications Improve future prospects Make friends / build social network Compulsory / no choice Gain experience / training Fulfil passion / ambition Notes. This is a multiple response item, hence figures will not sum to 100%. The overall schooling-youth 15–34 years old survey population figures are reflected in this table.
More than 70% of youths are confident about their ability to attain a bachelor's Perceived Educational degree or higher (Table A2).
Q. What is the highest level of education you think you can achieve? A2Youths' perceived educational attainment
Postgraduate degree ITE or equivalent ‘A' level / Int'l Baccalaureate ‘O' or ‘N' level 15–34 years old Overal , youths are confident of working well with other people. Older youths are more Work Competencies confident in their ability to plan compared to younger youths. Male youths are more
confident of their work ability than female youths (Tables B1 and B2).
Q. To what extent do these qualities reflect who you are? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="very much like me", 3="somewhat like me", and 1="not like me at al ".) B1Mean ratings of youths' work competencies by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Being good at planning ahead Leading a team of people Working well with other people B2Mean ratings of youths' work competencies by gender
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Being good at planning ahead Leading a team of people Working well with other people 15–34 years old Youths are most confident of their ability to empathise but less so with public Social Competencies speaking, a trend consistent regardless of age or gender (Tables B3 and B4).
Q. To what extent do these qualities reflect who you are? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="very much like me", 3="somewhat like me", and 1="not like me at al ".) B3Mean ratings of youths' social competencies by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Speaking publicly Adapting to change Being good at making friends Caring about other people's feelings Staying away from people who might get B4Mean ratings of youths' social competencies by gender
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Speaking publicly Adapting to change Being good at making friends Caring about other people's feelings Staying away from people who might get 15–34 years old Youths are more confident of respecting other races and cultures than knowing about them Cultural Competencies (Tables B5 and B6).
Q. To what extent do these qualities reflect who you are? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="very much like me", 3="somewhat like me", and 1="not like me at al ".) B5Mean ratings of youths' cultural competencies by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Respecting the values and beliefs of people who are of different race or culture than I am Knowing a lot about people of other races B6Mean ratings of youths' cultural competencies by gender
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Respecting the values and beliefs of people who are of different race or culture than I am Knowing a lot about people of other races 15–34 years old Overseas Exposure At least half of schooling youths have participated in some form of school-based overseas Overseas Programme programme (Table C1).
Q. Have you participated in the fol owing overseas programmes as a student? C1Schooling youths' school-based overseas programme participation
15–34 years old Notes. This is a multiple response item, hence figures will not sum to 100%. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table. Overall participation is derived by considering respondents who have participated in at least one overseas programme over the course of their schooling life. 1. Youths enrolled in private or foreign institutions.
Approximately half of youths regard a bachelor's degree as necessary to getting Perceived Education a decent job (Table D1).
To Get A Decent Job Q. In your opinion, what level of education / training does a person need to get an average / decent job these days? D1Youths' perceived level of education needed to get a decent job by age
Postgraduate degree ITE or equivalent ‘A' level / Int'l Baccalaureate ‘O' or ‘N' level Youths general y perceive that both hard work & connections and luck are necessary to achieving success in life. Younger youths are more likely to agree with the statement that "hard work usual y brings a better life" compared to older youths (Table D2).
Q. To what extent do you agree with the fol owing statement regarding work and connections? (Based on a 10-pt scale, where 10="hard work doesn't general y bring success - it's more a matter of luck and connections" and 1="in the long run, hard work usual y brings a better life".) D2Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards hard work & connections by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Hard work & connections Income Expectations Approximately 7 in 10 have a minimum level of income per month below which they would not accept a job, with the median expected income ranging from $2,001 to $3,000 (Table E1).
Q. Is there a minimum level of income per month below which you would not accept a job? E1Youths' expected level of income by age
S$10,001 and above S$7,501 - $10,000 S$5,001 – S$7,500 S$3,001 – S$5,000 S$2,001 – S$3,000 S$1,501 – S$2,000 S$1,001 – S$1,500 S$500 – S$1,000 Wellbeing
Subjective, physical, and
economic health are components
of human wellbeing (OECD, 2011).
Subjective wellbeing refers to
how people experience the quality
of their life, both positive and
negative. Subjective wellbeing
indicators include self–esteem and
self-efficacy, life stressors, and life
satisfaction. Physical wellbeing
considers youths' perceived
levels of general health. Economic
wellbeing indicators include
youths' allowances and parental
incomes as well as their attitudes
towards income and rewards.
The State of Youth in Singapore: Youths are most stressed about The subjective wellbeing of youths continue to remain high in the face of increased life stresses. Also, the majority of youths perceive their general health as at least fair. Finally, youths' preference for income differentiation has declined slightly from 2010. Despite a slight dip from past years, youths' LIFE SATISFACTION AND CONFIDENCE
REMAIN HIGH.
15–29 years old 15–34 years old Confidence
in Future
Youths continue to report Youths are slightly SELF-EFFICACY AND SELF-ESTEEM.
LESS INCLINED TOWARDS
They are more likely to report higher levels of self-efficacy INCOME DIFFERENTIATION in 2013.
(i.e., confidence in their ability) than self-esteem (perceived self-worth).
We need larger income differences as incentives for different efforts Incomes should be Subjective Wellbeing Despite a slight dip from past years, youths report high levels of life satisfaction and
happiness (Table A1). Life satisfaction and happiness did not significantly differ across
Life Satisfaction age (Table A2).
Q. Having considered all things in life, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? (Based on a 10-pt scale, where 10="satisfied" and 1="dissatisfied".)Q. Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are? (Based on a 7-pt scale, where 7="very happy" and 1="very unhappy".) A1Mean ratings of youths' life satisfaction & happiness over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Life satisfaction (10-pt scale) Happiness (7-pt scale) 15–29 years old 15–34 years old A2Mean ratings of youths' life satisfaction & happiness by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Life satisfaction (10-pt scale) Happiness (7-pt scale) Singapore's youths report positive levels of confidence in their future and perceived
opportunities to achieve their personal aspirations, peaking in 2010 (Table A3).
Confidence In Future & Youths aged 30 to 34 are more likely to report higher levels of confidence and Perceived Opportunities To perceive opportunities than youths from other age groups (Table A4).
Achieve Aspirations Q. How confident do you feel about your future as a whole? (Based on a 10-pt scale, where 10="very confident" and 1="not confident at al ".)Q. There are enough opportunities in Singapore for me to achieve my personal aspirations in life. (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="strongly agree", 3="neither agree nor disagree", and 1="strongly disagree".) A3Mean ratings of youths' confidence in their future &
perceived opportunities to achieve their aspirations over time (with standard deviations in parentheses) Confidence in future Perceived opportunities to achieve aspirations 15–29 years old 15–34 years old Notes. "Perceived opportunities to achieve aspirations" was recoded as a 5-pt scale for NYS 2010, which adopted a 6-pt scale. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
A4Mean ratings of youths' confidence in their future &
perceived opportunities to achieve their aspirations by age (with standard deviations in parentheses) Confidence in future Perceived opportunities to achieve aspirations Youths general y report high levels of self-esteem (i.e. perceived self-worth) and self-
efficacy (i.e., confidence in their ability), regardless of age (Tables A5 to A8). They
report higher levels of self-efficacy than self-esteem.
Q. To what extent do you agree with the fol owing statements? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="strongly agree", 3="neither agree nor disagree", and 1="strongly disagree".) A5Mean ratings of youths' self-esteem over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Mean ratings of youths' confidence in their future & perceived opportunities to achieve their aspirations over time Self-Esteem (Aggregate) On the whole, I am satisfied with myself (with standard deviations in parentheses) I feel that I have a number of good qualities I feel I do not have much to be proud of Note. The item ‘I feel I do not have much to be proud of' was reversed 15–34 years old coded in the aggregated score.
A6Mean ratings of youths' self-efficacy over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) It is important to think before you act If I work harder, I will achieve better results I am responsible for what happens to me 15–34 years old A7Mean ratings of youths' self-esteem by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Self-Esteem (Aggregate) On the whole, I am satisfied I feel that I have a number of I feel I do not have much to Note. The item ‘I feel I do not have much to be proud of' was reversed coded in the aggregated score.
A8Mean ratings of youths' self-efficacy by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) It is important to think If I work harder, I will achieve I am responsible for what Compared to 2010, youths' overall level of stress has increased (Table A9). Younger
youths are most stressed about their studies, future uncertainty, and emerging adult
responsibilities, while older youths are most stressed about their finances, future
uncertainty, and work (Table A10).
Q. To what extent do you find the fol owing areas of your life to be stressful? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="extremely stressful", 3="moderately stressful", and 1="not at al stressful".) A9Mean ratings of youths' life stressors over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Future uncertainty Emerging adult responsibility Health of family member Family relationships Friendships (including peer pressure, romantic Note. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
15–34 years old Mean ratings of youths' life stressors by age (with standard deviations in parentheses) Future uncertainty Emerging adult responsibility Health of family member Family relationships Friendships (including peer pressure, romantic Note. The upper-bound survey population figures are reflected in this table.
Physical Wellbeing Youths' perception of their general health remain positive, peaking in 2010 (Table B1).
Younger youths report higher levels of perceived general health (Table B2).
Q. All in al , how would you describe your state of health these days? (Based on a 5-pt scale, where 5="very good", 3="fair", and 1="very poor".) B1Mean ratings of youths' perceived general health over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Perceived general health 15–29 years old 15–34 years old B2Mean ratings of youths' perceived general health by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Perceived general health Economic Wellbeing About 7 in 10 schooling youths receive a monthly al owance of $100 or more, remaining
constant between 2002 and 2013 (Table C1). Parents' combined median income has
increased from $1,501–$2,000 to $2,001–$3,000 between 2002 and 2013 (Table C2).
Q. What is the average monthly spending money you receive from your family or guardian? (This does not include school or tuition fees or your own salary.) C1Schooling youths' monthly allowances over time
I do not receive money 15–29 years old 15–34 years old Notes. Respondents who declined giving a response was excluded from the report figures for NYS 2002, 2005, and 2010. Response was mandatory for NYS 2013, which may account for some fluctuation in the overall trend.
Q. What is your parents' combined monthly personal income (from all sources)? C2Parents' combined income over time
Economic Wellbeing 15–29 years old 15–34 years old Note. Respondents who declined giving a response was excluded from the report figures. Youths are slightly less inclined toward income differentiation in 2013, particularly among
younger youths (Tables C3 and C4).
Q. To what extent do you agree with the fol owing statement regarding incomes and rewards? (Based on a 10-pt scale, where 10="we need larger income differences as incentives for different efforts" and 1="incomes should be made more equal".) C3Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards income & rewards over time
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Incomes & rewards 15–34 years old C4Mean ratings of youths' attitudes towards income & rewards by age
(with standard deviations in parentheses) Incomes & rewards Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2011). Compendium of OECD Wel -Being Indicators. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/std/47917288.pdf Our youths today reside in a diverse, globalised, and highly-connected environment. Coupled with Singapore's dramatic growth over the past forty years, the human capital of our youths have flourished. However, such developments are often accompanied by reduced intergenerational mobility and increased wage inequality (Ho, 2007). Realising these challenges, Deputy Prime Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam has assured Singaporeans that the Government is working to ensure that its citizens will "have the chance to fulfil their full potential" (Yahya, 2014a). As policy shifts seek to (i) restructure the economy; (ii) reduce reliance on foreign labour; and (iii) emphasise vocational education to meet the needs of both industry and workers (Bin Yahya, 2014b; See, 2014), the manner in which youths respond to these challenges will shape the society to come. Encouragingly, our youths appear well-placed to overcome these challenges. They continue to value and prioritise strong family relationships, desire to care for their parents at old age, and spend a good proportion of their time with their families. They also maintain close friendships despite the prevalence of social media. These provide the necessary support and developmental networks in the face of increased stress and lowered wellbeing. In addition, with the support of the government and a more developed youth sector, our youths are more educated, developed and equipped. Youths will play a critical role in contributing to the good of Singapore. More youths are engaged in society and more desire to learn and acquire new skills. Already, youth-led initiatives have sought to bridge societal divides and contribute to the less fortunate. With growing interest in NYC programmes such as the Youth Expedition Project and Youth Corps Singapore, this underscores the growing awareness and interest youths have for their society. These healthy developments will further serve to empower youths to build an equitable and just Singapore.
Bin Yahya, F. (2014a, March). Budget 2014 and economic restructuring in Singapore. IPS Update. Retrieved from http://lkyspp.nus.
edu.sg/ips/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/03/Budget-2014-and-Economic-Restructuring-in-Singapore.pdf Bin Yahya, F. (2014b, August 29). Tharman lists ways to address inequality. The Straits Times. Retrieved from http://news.asiaone.
com/news/singapore/tharman-lists-ways-address-inequality Ho, K. W. (2007, October). Wage inequality, intergenerational mobility and education in Singapore. Ethos, 3. Retrieved from https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/ethos/Issue%203%20Oct%202007/Pages/Wage-Inequality-Intergenerational-Mobility-and-Education-in-Singapore.aspx See, S. (2014, May 26). Committee looking into how poly, ITE grads can progress upwards without degree. Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/specialreports/parliament/news/committee-looking-into/1122918.html National Youth Council Tel : (65) 6734 4233 Blk 490 Lorong 6 Toa Payoh Fax : (65) 6737 2025 HDB Hub Biz Three #04-10

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Diagnostic Study Report Pharmaceutical Cluster - CUTTACK & BHUBANESWAR Sri Bijaya Kumar Panda, CDA Sri Digambar Satapathy, CDA & Sri Biranchi Narayan Sahoo, CDA Cluster Development Cell, Industries Directorate, Orissa & UNIDO, MSME Cluster Development Programme Pharmaceutical Industry - Structure and Performance Evolution - A Global Perspective International Scenario

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NIH Public AccessAuthor ManuscriptNat Rev Genet. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2010 November 1. NIH-PA Author Manuscript Published in final edited form as: Nat Rev Genet. 2010 May ; 11(5): 367–379. doi:10.1038/nrg2775. Synthetic Biology: Applications Come of Age Ahmad S. Khalil1 and James J. Collins1,2,*1 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center forBioDynamics, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA