Issue AUGUST 2015
SHOP TALK Continued
We are very sad to announce that Giles Andrew McQuade MVB – Veterinary
promotion. Dion is now the owner of a Stihl and Rosie will be retiring at the end of Surgeon.
chainsaw, so there'll be no excuse for a lack of the year. They have played a significant firewood this winter! Andrew graduated from University College role in the practice and many vets, both Dublin in 2014 and joined OVL in early 2015. Rumentrace Magnesium Capsules
past and present, have them to thank for Andrew grew up in the city of Belfast, but having their training and support. We would all Rumentrace Magnesium Capsules can be a completed his veterinary studies was keen to like to thank them for their hard work and useful source of Magnesium supplementation pursue a career in rural mixed practice. Being an for cattle in situations where dusting the pasture dedication to the practice over the past 24 avid rugby player, surfer and photographer, New or hay with magnesium oxide is difficult or years and we are sure they will make the Zealand was the obvious choice and Southland impractical, water reticulation infrastructure most of their well-deserved retirement.
has more than enough to keep him occupied. does not allow water trough treatment and However, after breaking his ankle playing rugby access to free water means cows will not drink Here are a few words from Giles & Rosie….
after only a few weeks in the country, Andrew water from treated troughs.
We arrived in Otautau with our baby has since decided to stick to non-contact sports. Rumentrace Magnesium Capsules release
son in October 1991, having emigrated Andrew enjoys the variety of work here at OVL magnesium at a constant rate over a 9 – 12
to NZ from the UK in 1989. The practice and has also become the in-house computer week period and must be administered a few
is now vastly different to what it was guru for the more technologically challenged of days ahead of when they are required. The
then, partly due to the changing Western us at the clinic!
capsules provide around 2 grams of available Southland farming scene and also due to
magnesium per day; the daily available magnesium requirement for a springer dairy major changes within the NZ veterinary
cow is 2.3g. These figures do not take into profession. Giles became the third of
account the antagonistic interference in the three male vets supported by one nursing
rumen by minerals such as potassium and so receptionist, one part-time accounts lady,
Magnesium Capsules should be considered a and a considerably smaller building. Rosie
supplement to augment dietary magnesium started part-time small animal work in
intake and ‘insurance' to minimise the seasonal risk of metabolic disease.
1993 and was unusual in being a female
vet and also in working only part-time.
BEARIN™ Prolapse Harness
Another quick mention for the BEARIN™
We have very much enjoyed living and
Prolapse Harness by Rurtec, which is a simple working in this beautiful area with friendly
and effective bearing or uterine prolapse local people and access to a wide range of
retention aid featuring: amenities. Our family has grown while we
• Quick and easy fitting have lived here; our two daughters were
both born in Western Southland and all
• Cross-over tubing design for s Andrew McQuade three of our kids have gone to the local
improved comfort and effectiveness primary school, then local high schools
• High quality components proven to before spreading their wings a bit further.
last in NZ farming conditions.
We have made the decision to retire while we
The harness can be used alone or together with are young enough and hopefully fit enough
the BEARIN™ prolapse retainer. Correctly fitted, to do some other things with our lives. Merial Ancare Drench Promotion
it will not hinder bowel movement or lambing, Congratulations go to Dion White, who was but will exert pressure on key points to reduce
Giles & Rosie Gill
the winner of the recent Merial Ancare drench straining and pain.
I'm still waiting on photo entries for the Snapshot section, so instead you have a photo of the OVL staff members who managed to get to work in the July snowfall. Please email your photos to: The OVL crew on the snow day
Calf Disbudding & Pain Relief
Calf disbudding is an essential farm practice. However, as the Veterinary input showed a significant increase in growth rate process involves burning skin and underlying horn tissue, it is (+0.09kg/day) for the first 15 days following the procedure if they painful and causes inflammation. In NZ, disbudding is commonly received a long-acting anti-inflammatory injection at the time of performed without pain-relief despite clear evidence that it is a disbudding. This weight gain advantage with the use of meloxicam painful procedure; previous studies was not observed with veterinary of unsedated calves disbudded disbudding, where calf growth rates without pain-relief showed were already greater than those increased pain responses such as observed when disbudding was tail flicking, ear twitching, increased performed by farm staff.
lying time and increased levels of Data from the study also indicated stress hormones.
that the combination of sedation and local anaesthetic used by veterinarians A recent NZ study has looked at had the greatest impact on growth the effect of pain relief at the time rates, with faster growth 0-30 days of disbudding on weight gain of post-disbudding compared to those dairy calves. The aim was to look disbudded by farm staff using no pain at the effect on daily weight gain of the addition of a long-acting anti-inflammatory (Meloxicam) at the The study demonstrates that pain time of disbudding. A comparison relief used as part of the disbudding was made between calves procedure has significant benefits disbudded on farm with no local for both the individual calves and anaesthetic and those disbudded by farm productivity and should be a vet with sedation and local anaesthetic.
used routinely. The combination of local anaesthetic, sedation and anti-inflammatory remains the best method of reducing the The results indicated that disbudding without the use of pain relief behavioural and physiological consequences of the pain associated has a significant negative impact on subsequent growth rates in with disbudding.
3-6 week old calves, which can be reduced by the use of local anaesthetic, sedation and anti-inflammatories. This is beneficial If you would like more information about the use of sedation, to the calves in reducing the signs of pain associated with the local anaesthetic and/or anti-inflammatories for calf disbudding or procedure and also beneficial for farm productivity.
information about the disbudding services we can provide, please contact the clinic and speak with one of our vets.
Results indicated that those calves disbudded on farm without Mastitis Cure Rates
Do you see cases of mastitis that don't appear to respond to Poor insertion technique is one of the most common causes
treatment? Do you assume that the antibiotic isn't working and try of infection; one study illustrated that partial insertion of the
an alternative treatment?
intramammary syringe tip into the teat canal resulted in 81% cure rates in infected cows, compared with only 56% when the syringes A recent presentation at the Zoetis Dairy Summit highlighted the were inserted fully.
impact of poor hygiene practices on cows being treated for mastitis. Lack of hygiene when inserting Lactating Cow Intramammary A simple ‘best practice' protocol for the treatment of mastitis with treatments can introduce new bacterial infections resulting in intramammary lactating cow products is as follows:apparent treatment failure or worsening of the original infection. This can lead to superinfection and potentially worse clinical 1. Mark the affected cowimplications than if no treatment had been used.
2. Clean the teat end until the teat wipes wipe clear An Australian study looking at the treatment of high somatic cell count cows during lactation illustrated the importance of hygiene 3. Infuse product with a partially inserted nozzle until the plunger and sterility at the time of treatment. In a group of 428 high is fully depressed somatic cell count cows, 214 were treated with intramammary antibiotics and the remaining 214 were left untreated. 13% of 4. Massage the product up into the canal.
the treatment group developed clinical mastitis within a week of treatment compared to just 2% of the untreated group. The results indicated that treatment resulted in an additional 10% clinical mastitis cases, most likely resulting from new infections introduced at the time of treatment.
Vaginal Prolapse "Bearings"
Vaginal prolapse is a common occurrence in than singles; the extra risk for triplet bearing with both feeding practices, resulting New Zealand breeding flocks, resulting in ewes is considerable.
in distended bladders and straining at medical and welfare implications for those urination. Whilst this association was 2. Time of Shearing
affected and frustration for the farmers found, the risk was relatively small and having to deal with them.
Shearing in the three months prior to the further research is needed.
start of mating has a protective effect, Most bearings occur two to three weeks as does shearing in the second half of The study also identified factors that are
prior to lambing, with around 0.5-1% of pregnancy. The reason for this protective not associated with occurrence of the
ewes affected annually; occasionally, serious effect is not completely understood, but is disease, which may influence management
outbreaks can see up to 10% of ewes likely to be related to the effects of shearing practices that have long been thought to be
affected on individual farms. Losses are not on appetite, physiology and number of protective in the control of bearings.
only through ewe and lamb deaths, but also lambs produced. However, negative 1. Body Condition Score
time/costs associated with treatment and impacts of scanning at these times must the premature culling of recovered ewes. also be considered e.g. reduced scanning No association was found between the An additional cost is the lost productivity percentages secondary to stress near incidence of vaginal prolapse and body on farms where the dietary intake of ewes tupping and ewe metabolic problems.
condition score. This was contrary to is restricted in late pregnancy due to the common belief as farmers often associate 3. Farm Terrain
widespread belief that this will reduce the higher incidences if ewes are well Farm terrain and specifically that of the incidence of the problem.
conditioned or there is abundant feed, lambing paddocks has long been associated particularly around mating time.
with the incidence of
bearings; higher risk of 2. Culling Policies
bearings is associated Culling of female offspring of affected
with hill farms compared ewes did not make any difference to the
to flat type farm terrain. incidence of disease.
Unfortunately, ewes on 3. Tail Length
hill terrain tend to lie
and graze with their There was no association with length of tail.
hindquarters lower than 4. Feed Restriction in Late Pregnancy
their head; lying in such Restricting feed in the latter stages of a position results in pregnancy had no effect on the incidence of positive pressure within vaginal prolapse. Despite anecdotal reports the abdomen which of body condition, levels of feeding during can encourage vaginal autumn and spring, and pasture quality and prolapse. This knowledge quantity having an effect on the incidence can be very useful of bearings, neither this study nor previous when used in conjunction with scanning A recent New Zealand study conducted field observations support this.
data, enabling set stocking of multiple- in Hawkes Bay and Southland aimed to bearing ewes on flat terrain paddocks and identify any environmental, animal and Other practices such as feeding hay or grain particularly flat lambing paddocks.
management factors associated with an in late pregnancy and calcium/magnesium increased risk of vaginal prolapse in the hope 4. Weight Gain
supplements have also been shown to that control measures may be implemented Weight gain between mating and scanning have no effect on the incidence of vaginal to reduce the incidence of the condition. was associated with an increased risk of prolapse.
prolapse. This is thought to be linked to It is widely known that the incidence of placental development and the placenta's If you have previously had problems with vaginal prolapse is higher in ewes bearing subsequent effect on the size of lambs high numbers of bearings in your ewes or multiple lambs and the risk increases at birth; weight loss during this period you are experiencing problems for the first progressively between the first, second may have a negative effect on placental time this season, please contact the clinic and later pregnancies; affected ewes are development resulting in smaller lambs and speak with one of our vets.
therefore at greater risk of recurrence. In at birth and a sparing effect in relation to addition to these known risks, the study bearing risk.
identified further factors as having an effect on the incidence of bearings; 5. Salt Intake & Swede Feeding in Late
1. Multiple lambs
Both of these practices were found to be Risk of prolapse was over five times higher associated with a slight increased incidence for MA ewes scanned with multiple lambs of bearings. It is thought that this is linked to the high levels of water intake associated
DOG & CAT SECTION
Working Dog Nutrition 2. Assess body condition regularly
The body condition of all your dogs should be assessed Working dogs are athletes and their ability to on a weekly basis to ensure that they are maintaining perform is dependent on adequate nutrition to condition; if they are losing or gaining condition, • Pre-Lamb
meet their daily energy and nutrient requirements.
feeding levels should be adjusted accordingly.
o FEC Ewes to assess need for drench 3. Time meals correctly
o Vaccinate Ewes and consider second Energy requirements will vary greatly with the type of work being undertaken; the semi-retired Working dogs should be fed after their days work Iodine/LSD/Healthy Ewe drench farm dog that spends the majority of its time on or more than four hours before work in order to o Investigate any abortions the back of the quad bike will have very different maximise digestion and reduce the likelihood of a requirements to a huntaway out mustering all day twisted stomach.
o Autopsy early lamb deaths for and feeding levels should reflect this.
Dogs should have free access to water at all times.
What are the dietary requirements of working dogs?
Consuming adequate calories to meet daily High-quality commercial diets such as Hill's Science o FEC Ewes to assess need for drench energy expenditure can be a challenge in some Diet Adult Active are specifically formulated for working o Administer tailing vaccine if ewes working dogs, highlighting the importance of a dogs and their nutritional requirements. A clinical trial not 5-in-1 vaccinated pre-lamb highly digestible, energy dense diet to prevent performed in 2013 with high country working dogs in loss of lean body weight. peak work showed that working dogs fed Hill's Active had o Scabby Mouth Vaccine improved performance compared with dogs maintained (Scabiguard/Phenax® Classic) Working dogs at peak work should have a diet on biscuits & farm-kill. Dogs fed Hill's Active maintained with high metabolisable energy (4,000-5,500kcal/ o FEC replacement hoggets their body weight with greater ease and their average kg on a dry matter basis); fat has the highest body condition score improved over the 8-week period o Palpate/Blood test rams for B.ovis energy density and so a diet high in fat (15-30%) of the trial.
enables the working dog to eat smaller meals whilst still meeting their energy requirements. If you have concerns about the condition of your dogs • Pre-Wean
It is also important to remember that pregnant or have previously struggled to maintain weight on o Drench for Lambs.
and lactating bitches have additional energy individuals, please come in to the clinic and speak with requirements and should ideally be fed a diet one of our vets. A change in diet may make all of the designed for growth e.g. a commercial puppy difference going in to spring.
• Early Calving
Like athletes, working dogs have increased dietary Puppy Preschool Classes
o Mineral Check cows protein requirements (22-33%) which is used by o Calcium enriched, high energy the body for structural repair and maintenance. A The first 8 to 16 weeks is the perfect time to begin to diet that has insufficient protein and energy can socialize and train your new puppy. Otautau Vets offers Starter Drench for old or thin cows lead to poor performance, poor condition, weight a 3 week course that will educate both owners and at calving +/- heifers loss and muscle and ligament injuries.
puppies on how to ensure your puppy grows into a o Consider worm drench for young/ healthy, sociable and well balanced adult.
A highly digestible diet (>80%) is also extremely old/thin cows or Bulk Milk test to important; diets with higher digestibility will have assess herd worm infection level a greater proportion of their nutrients reaching the tissues. The higher digestibility also has the prior to drenching advantage that a greater proportion of the food is o Magnesium Oxide and Limeflour digested and used by the body and so less comes supplementation post-calving out the other end! o First BVD vaccine for yearlings (if Working dogs also require anti-oxidants in not vaccinated as calves), followed their diet to neutralise the harmful by-products by booster vaccination 4 weeks of energy metabolism; Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium and β-carotene are all important later (no closer than 4 weeks prior components in a working dog diet.
Amongst other things, puppies will be taught to ‘sit', to mating). Booster vaccination for ‘stay', ‘lie down' and walk on a lead, all in a relaxed and enjoyable environment. Owners will also be given any pre-vaccinated heifers/cows (no Feeding Plan for Working Dogs
information on a wide range of topics including feeding, closer than 4 weeks prior to mating) toilet training, vaccinating, dental care, worming and 1. Ensure that you are feeding the correct neutering.
amount of food
Energy and nutrient requirements will vary o Mineral check cows and R2's At the end of the 3 weeks, puppies will graduate with greatly with the intensity and duration of the o Metricheck & treat cows 14 days a free bag of goodies kindly supplied by Hill's Pet Food.
work your dogs are performing and feeding post-calving; batch checking and levels should reflect this. If you are feeding If you're at all interested, please give us a call to book a high-quality commercial diet, feeding treating cows early will maximise your pup into the next class.
guidelines should be available to help you time for recovery pre-mating – Andrew McQuade
o Plan/discuss heifer synchrony and anoestrus cow programmes THIS NEWSLETTER IS AVAILABLE ON SUBSCRIPTION FROM OTAUTAU VETS o Preventative treatment for bloat.
LTD. NO PART MAY BE REPRODUCED WITHOUT THEIR PERMISSION. THE INFORMATION IT CONTAINS IS PROVIDED IN GOOD FAITH, BUT READERS ARE ADVISED TO CHECK THE RELIABILITY OF ANY INFORMATION BY CONTACTING OTAUTAU VETS BEFORE ACTING ON IT. • Investigate illthrift problems; FEC, trace elements, Johne's Disease Best Wishes from the vets: S Giles Gill BVM&S, Louise F Ingram BVMS (Hons) MACVSc, Jen E Gordon MA • Pour-on drench for yearlings VetMB, Rosemary R Gill BVM&S, Teressa A Skevington BVSc, Ashleigh S Braithwaite DVM, Julia E Nuttall • Review Copper & Selenium status of BVSc, Ruby A Davidson BVetMed, Jennifer Campbell BVMS, Jenny Paterson BVSc, Sam M Hutchinson BVMS BSc, Andrew C McQuade MVB, Louise C Fieten BVMS and Emma J Parkinson BVMS. hinds pre-fawning.
71 Main Street, PO Box 77 Otautau, Southland, New Zealand Phone: 03 225 8134 Fax: 03 225 [email protected] 455597 FOB CMYK Proof version b
Single-cell mRNA transfection studies: Delivery, kinetics and statistics by numbers Carolin Leonhardt a, 1, Gerlinde Schwake a,1, Tobias R. Stögbauer, PhDa, Susanne Rappl a, Jan-Timm Kuhr, PhDb, Thomas S. Ligon, PhDa, Joachim O. Rädler, PhDa,⁎ aFaculty of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany bInstitut für theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany
Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. International Journal of Dermatology Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2004 Pharmacology and therapeutics Treatment of vitiligo PHARMACOLOGY and THERAPEUTICS Treatment of vitiligo with broadband ultraviolet B and vitamins Philip Don, MD, Aurel Iuga, MD, Anne Dacko, MD, and Kathleen Hardick, BA From the Department of Dermatology,