Marys Medicine

Diabetes


GUIDELINE SUMMARY 2010
VA/DoD CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
With support from: The Office of Quality and Performance, VA, Washington, DC
Quality Management Division, United States Army MEDCOM
QUALIFYING STATEMENTS
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and The Department of Defense (DoD) guidelines are based on the best information available at the time of publication. They are designed to provide information and assist in decision-making. They are not intended to define a standard of care and should not be construed as one. Also, they should not be interpreted as prescribing an exclusive course of management. Variations in practice will inevitably and appropriately occur when providers take into account the needs of individual patients, available resources, and limitations unique to an institution or type of practice. Every healthcare professional making use of these guidelines is responsible for evaluating the appropriateness of applying them in any particular clinical situation. UPDATE - Aug 2010
Version 4.0
Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus This update of the Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus was developed under the auspices of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) pursuant to directives from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). VHA and DoD define clinical practice guidelines as: "Recommendations for the performance or exclusion of specific procedures or services derived through a rigorous methodological approach that includes: Determination of appropriate criteria such as effectiveness, efficacy, population benefit, or patient satisfaction; and Literature review to determine the strength of the evidence in relation to these criteria." Target Audience
This guideline is designed for primary care providers, diabetes educators, and other diabetes team specialists. While each module is designed for use by primary care providers in an ambulatory care setting, the modules can also be used to coordinate and standardize care within subspecialty teams and as a teaching tool for students and house staff. This guideline applies to adult patients (18 years or older) with diabetes mellitus receiving treatment in the VA or DoD health care system. Focus of Version 4.0 of the Diabetes Mellitus Guideline
The principles of risk stratification and shared decision-making regarding glycemic control in patients with diabetes have not changed since the 2003 version of this guideline. They continue to emphasize evidence from clinical epidemiology, risk stratification and collaboration with the patient's personal preferences in developing individual target goals for glycemic control (HbA1c). Additionally, the VA/DoD guidelines have always emphasized the balance between benefit and harm in setting target goals. Recognizing the lack of evidence resulted in the VHA not adopting a performance measure of ‘one size fits all' regarding HbA1c target (i.e., <7%). This approach has now been validated by the results of two recently reported landmark clinical trials (ACCORD, VADT). Based on the available evidence, the current update to the guideline continues to strongly recommend that the decision for glycemic control target should be based on the individual patient's characteristics, the severity and duration of disease, and the expressed preferences of the individual patient. Other significant updates, based on new evidence, include the following: Evidence based recommendations regarding Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CISS) and glycemic control for hospitalized patients are included in Module G. Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) recommendations are now based on recent studies that provide evidence to support previous recommendations. Screening and diagnosis now includes the use of the HbA1c test. Although the guideline continues to recommend FPG as a preferred test, it suggests including HbA1c as a screening test in situations where a fasting state is not possible. However, a single HbA1c test requires confirmation through a FPG for diagnosis of diabetes due to methodological, epidemiological and individual variations in HbA1c test results. A conservative approach continues to be recommended for pharmacotherapy regarding unknown, but potential harms from recently introduced medications that do not have an extensive track record. The Self-Management and System Management Module has been updated. New evidence addressing ways to organize and deliver diabetes care have been added. (e.g., Group visits, telemedicine, case management). Introduction Page 2 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus The Eye Care Module incorporates current evidence using digital imaging as a method of screening for retinopathy Finally, similar to the sections of the guideline addressing management of dyslipidemia and hypertension, the original Module [R] for management of renal disease has now been replaced by a summary of the recently published VA/DoD guideline for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Development Process
This VA/DoD Diabetes Mellitus guideline update builds on the 2003 version. The development process follows a systematic approach described in "Guideline-for-Guidelines," an internal working document of the VA/DoD Evidence-Based Practice Working Group that requires an ongoing review of the work in progress. Appendix A (see the full guideline) clearly describes the guideline development process followed for this guideline. Development of the 1997 and 1999 Diabetes Mellitus Guidelines (Versions 1.0 and 2.0) The initial Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Diabetes guideline development process was undertaken from August 1996 through March 1997. The list of more than 70 developers/contributors included VHA professionals, senior representatives from key federal health-related agencies: Diabetes Division of the National Institutes for Diabetes (DDNID); Digestive and Kidney Diseases (DKD); Division of Diabetes Translation; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); Office of Managed Care; Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA); and the Pharmacoeconomic Center (PEC) of the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as private sector experts provided by the VHA External Peer Review Program contractor. Many participants held senior leadership positions in the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). The 1997 VHA Diabetes Mellitus Guideline and algorithm (version 1.0) drew heavily from existing ADA, National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), and National Kidney Foundation (NKF) practice guidelines for diabetes mellitus. The 1997 Guideline integrated the recommendations developed by VHA's Medical Advisory Panel (MAP) to the Pharmacy Benefits Management Strategic Health Group examining the pharmacological management of persons with diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Consumer input was also included in the guideline revision. The perspective of beneficiaries and their family members sensitized panelists to patient needs. The 1997 VHA Diabetes Mellitus Guideline represented the first comprehensive guideline for this disease by a federal agency or national healthcare system in which risk stratification was both explicit and evidence-based. The 1997 VHA Guideline was reviewed at a joint meeting of the NDEP Steering Committee and the Diabetes Mellitus Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee (DMICC) on October 21, 1997. The DMICC report acknowledged the flexibility of the VHA guideline in that they explicitly indicated the need for individual provider assessments and patient preferences, and authorized the use of the NDEP logo to reflect the collaboration with the NDEP executive steering committee members. The 1997 VHA Diabetes Mellitus Guideline was a "seed document" that was updated and adapted by the joint VHA/DoD Diabetes Guideline Development Group over a six-month period from January to June 1999. As with the original Working Group, the charge of the VHA/DoD group was to provide evidence-based action recommendations whenever possible; hence, major clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies published from March 1997 through March 1999 in the areas of diabetes, hypertension, lipid management, renal disease, foot and eye care, and diabetes education were reviewed. The updated version 2.0 was reviewed and published in December 1999. The 2003 VA/DoD Diabetes Mellitus Guideline Update (Version 3.0) was initiated in March 2002 and continued through January 2003. The development process followed the steps described in "Guideline for Guideline," just as this current version does. The Working Group updated the evidence-based action recommendations whenever possible; hence, major clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies published from March 1999 through March 2002 in the areas of diabetes, hypertension, lipid management, renal disease, foot and eye care, and diabetes education were reviewed. The updated version 3.0 was reviewed and published in January 2003. Two module of the Introduction Page 3 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus guideline (Management of Dyslipidemia and Management of Hypertension) have been replaced by a summary of two new VA/DoD full guidelines on these topics. Development of the 2010 Diabetes Mellitus Guideline Update (Version 4.0) The development of the 2010 Diabetes Mellitus Guideline Update (version 4.0) was initiated in January 2009 and continued through June 2010. The Offices of Quality and Performance and Patient Care Services of the VA and the Army Medical Command of the DoD identified clinical leaders to champion the guideline development process. During a preplanning conference call, the clinical leaders defined the scope of the guideline and identified a group of clinical experts from the VA and DoD to form the Working Group (WG). For this guideline update the WG participants were drawn from the fields of primary care, endocrinology, internal medicine, nursing and diabetes education who were also from diverse geographic regions, and both VA and DoD healthcare systems. At the start of the update process, the clinical leaders, guideline panel members, outside experts, and experts in the field of guideline and algorithm development were consulted to determine which aspects of the 2003 guideline required updating. These consultations resulted in the determinations that guided the update efforts: (1) update any recommendations from the original guideline likely to be affected by new research findings; (2) provide information and recommendations on health systems changes relevant to diabetes care; (3) address content areas and models of treatment for which little data existed during the development of the original guideline; and (4) review the performance and lessons learned since the implementation of the original guideline. After orientation to the guideline scope and to goals that had been identified, the WG developed ten (10) researchable questions within the focus area of the guideline and identified associated key terms. This ensured that the guideline development work outside of meetings focused on issues that practitioners considered important. This also produced criteria for the literature search and selection of included studies that formed the body of evidence for this guideline update. These literature searches were conducted covering the period from January 2002 through June 2009 and focused on the topics identified by the research questions. Electronic searches were supplemented by reference lists and additional citations suggested by experts. The identified and selected studies on those issues were critically analyzed, and evidence was graded using a standardized format. The evidence rating system for this document is based on the system used by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). If evidence exists, the discussion following the recommendations for each annotation includes an evidence table identifying the studies that have been considered, the quality of the evidence, and the rating of the strength of the recommendation which is presented in brackets following each guideline recommendation [SR] (see Table: Evidence Rating System). Evidence Rating System
A strong recommendation that clinicians provide the intervention to eligible patients. Good evidence was found that the intervention improves important health outcomes and concludes that benefits substantially outweigh harm. A recommendation that clinicians provide (the service) to eligible patients. At least fair evidence was found that the intervention improves health outcomes and concludes that benefits outweigh harm. No recommendation for or against the routine provision of the intervention is made. At least fair evidence was found that the intervention can improve health outcomes, but concludes that the balance of benefits and harms is too close to justify a general recommendation. Recommendation is made against routinely providing the intervention to asymptomatic patients. At least fair evidence was found that the intervention is ineffective or that harms outweigh benefits. The conclusion is that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routinely providing the intervention. Evidence that the intervention is effective is lacking, of poor quality, or conflicting, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. SR = Strength of recommendation Introduction Page 4 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Where existing literature was ambiguous or conflicting, or where scientific data was lacking on an issue, recommendations are based on the clinical experience of the Working Group. Although several of the recommendations in this guideline are based on weak evidence, some of these recommendations are strongly recommended based on the experience and consensus of the clinical experts and researchers of the Working Group. Recommendations that are based on consensus of the Working Group include a discussion of the expert opinion on the given topic. No [SR] is presented for these recommendations. A complete bibliography of the references in this guideline can be found in Appendix D to the full guideline. This Guideline is the product of many months of diligent effort and consensus building among knowledgeable individuals from the VA, DoD, and a guideline facilitator from the private sector. An experienced moderator facilitated the multidisciplinary Working Group. The draft document was discussed in two face-to-face group meetings. The content and validity of each section was thoroughly reviewed in a series of conference calls. The final document is the product of those discussions and has been approved by all members of the Working Group. The list of participants is included in Appendix B to the full guideline. The guideline and algorithms are designed to be adapted by individual facilities in consideration of local needs and resources. The algorithms serve as a guide that providers can use to determine best interventions and timing of care for their patients in order to optimize quality of care and clinical outcomes. Although this guideline represents the state of the art practice on the date of its publication, medical practice is evolving and this evolution requires continuous updating of published information. New technology and more research will improve patient care in the future. The clinical practice guideline can assist in identifying priority areas for research and optimal allocation of resources. Future studies examining the results of clinical practice guidelines such as these may lead to the development of new practice-based evidence. Introduction Page 5 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Management of Diabetes Mellitus Guideline Update Working Group
David Aron, MD, MS Alan Douglass, MD Curtis Hobbs, MD – Co-chair John R. Downs, MD Jack E. Lewi, MD Mercedes Falciglia, MD James McCrary, D.O. Linda Haas, PhC, RN, CDE Robert Vigersky, MD Debbie Khachikian, Pharm D Susan Walker, PhD, RN, CDE Leonard Pogach, MS, MBA – Co-chair Ruth Weinstock, MD, PhD Office of Quality and Performance, VHA
Quality Management Division
US Army Medical Command
Carla Cassidy, RN, MSN, NP Ernest Degenhardt, MSN, RN, ANP-FNP Angela V. Klar, MSN, RN, ANP-CS FACILITATOR
Oded Susskind, MPH Healthcare Quality Informatics:
Martha D'Erasmo, MPH Rosalie Fishman, RN, MSN, CPHQ Additional contributor contact information is available in Appendix B of the full guideline Introduction Page 6 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Guideline Key Elements
• Consider screening all adults (age >45) for diabetes
Prevention
• Encourage aerobic exercise and diet to achieve weight loss and
prevent the progression of prediabetes to diabetes Secondary
• Achieve individualized HbA1c target through diet, exercise,
Prevention
medication, and patient self-management diabetes education • Reduce and control blood pressure to improve quality and length
of life, and prevent micro- and macrovascular complications • Control cholesterol to reduce risk for cardiovascular disease
Tertiary
• Screen periodical y for kidney disease
Prevention
• Screen for retinopathy every 12-24 months based on ophthalmic and clinical findings • Screen annually for lower extremity complications and risk
• Consider aspirin therapy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular fatal
Preventive
Measures
• Advise about tobacco use cessation
• Provide influenza vaccination in season
• Provide pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, if indicated
• Empower patients to make informed decisions about their self-
management
care of diabetes
& Education
Introduction Page 7 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus TABLE OF CONTENTS
MODULE D – CORE
MODULE S - SCREENING FOR DIABETES
MODULE G - GLYCEMIC CONTROL
MODULE E– EYE CARE
MODULE F – FOOT CARE
MODULE M – SELF-MANAGEMENT AND EDUCATION
Module D: Core Page 8 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus MODULE D – CORE
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Children with diabetes should be referred to a pediatric diabetic team (a pediatric endocrinologist, if available, or a management team with substantial experience in the management of children with diabetes) for consultative care. 2. All female patients with pre-existing diabetes and reproductive potential should be educated about contraceptive options, and strongly encouraged to plan and prepare for pregnancy, and to optimize their glycemic control prior to attempting to conceive. 3. Women with diabetes who are planning pregnancy should be educated about the different options of diabetes management during the pregnancy and referred to a maternal fetal medicine provider before, or as early as possible, once pregnancy is confirmed. 4. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) should be screened for diabetes 6-12 weeks postpartum and should follow-up with subsequent screening for diabetes or prediabetes (See Module S: Screening) 5. Diabetes mellitus (DM) management should be evaluated in the context of the patient's total health status. 6. Urgent or semi-urgent medical conditions, including severe hypo- or hyperglycemia, must be treated before long-term disease management principles are applied. 7. Determine and document if diabetes mellitus is type 1 or 2.
Aspirin Therapy

8. Prescribe aspirin therapy (75 to 325 mg/day) for all adult patients with diabetes type 2 and evidence of cardiovascular disease. [A] 9. Consider beginning aspirin therapy (75 to 325 mg/day) in patients age ≥ 40 with type 2 diabetes and one or more other cardiovascular risk factors. [B] 10. Consider individual evaluation for aspirin therapy for patients age 30 to 40 with type 2 DM, with other cardiovascular risk factors, or with type 1 DM for duration of disease longer than 2 years. [I] 11. When considering the value of antiplatelet therapy, the risks of hemorrhagic stroke or gastrointestinal bleeding must be balanced against the benefits of prevention of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. [I] Management of Diabetes
1. If the individualized HbA1c is not at target, refer to Module G – Glycemic Control.
2. Measure blood pressure on every diabetes visit. If systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is >90 mmHg, refer to the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management
of Hypertension.
3. Measure fasting lipids (TC, HDL-C, TG and calculated LDL-C) if not done within one year. If the patient has elevated cholesterol or lipids, refer to the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Dyslipidemia (Lipids).
4. Screen for proteinuria and assess kidney function if not done within one year. If the patient develops micro- or macroalbuminuria or decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), refer to the VA/DoD
Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).
5. Screen for retinopathy if not done within two years. If the patient has symptoms, or a previous exam showed a high-risk for visual loss or retinopathy, refer to Module E – Eye Care.
6. Complete a foot-risk assessment if not done within one year. If the patient has risk factors or an active lesion, refer to Module F – Foot Care.
Module D: Core Page 9 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus 7. If the patient needs additional nutritional or lifestyle education, refer to Module M – Self-Management
and Education.
8. If the patient is a candidate for an influenza vaccine, administer it in season. (See CDC recommendations)
9. Administer pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine if indicated. (See CDC recommendations) 10. If the patient is using tobacco, refer to the VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Tobacco Use Cessation.
For complete management of Hypertension see: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension in the Primary Care Setting ator For complete management of Dyslipidemia see: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Dyslipidemia ao For complete management of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) see: VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease atr Module D: Core Page 10 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Module D: Core Page 11 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Consider aspirin therapy Screen for use of tobacco and If patient is using tobacco advise to quit Provide influenza vaccination (in season) Review all the following and set priorities [ I ] Individualized HbA1c not at target? Glycemic Control Module G
SBP> 140 or DBP > 80 mmHg? Hypertension VA/DoD HTN Guideline
No lipids evaluation within one year?Elevated cholesterol or lipids? Lipid Control VA/DoD Lipid Guideline
No kidney evaluation within one year?Microalbuminuria or elevated creatinine? Kidney Disease VA/DoD CKD Guideline
No eye evaluation within two years? orSymptoms or high risk for visual loss? or Eye Care Module E
History of retinopathy? No foot risk assessment within one year ?or Risk factors present or active lesion? Foot Care Module F
Need additional nutritional or lifestyle education? and Education Module M
Follow up as indicated Module D: Core Page 12 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Table D1. Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) (a), (b)
Casual Plasma
or, Hemoglobin A1c (c)
Glucose (d)
Diabetes
FPG >126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) on two occasions Mellitus
glucose ≥200 mg/dL HbA1c is ≥ 6.5% and
(11.1 mmol/L) plus FPG >126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) HbA1c ≥7% on two occasions FPG ≥100 and <126 mg/dL on two occasions
HbA1c > 5.7% and FPG ≥100 and <126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L)
FPG <100 mg/dL (a) Fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 hours.
(b) FPG is the preferred test for diagnosis, but either of the two listed is acceptable. In the absence of unequivocal
hyperglycemia with acute metabolic decompensation, one of these two tests should be done on different days (c) Using a clinical laboratory (not a Point of Care) methodology standardized to the National Glycohemoglobin
Standardization Program (NGSP) (d) Casual means any time of day without regard to time since the last meal; classic symptoms include polyuria,
polydipsia, and unexplained weight loss. (e) Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) is no longer recommended in routine clinical practice because it is an
imprecise test with poor reproducibility. The World Health Organization suggests continued use of the OGTT for patients with blood glucose values in the "uncertain range." Also, the OGTT does seem to better predict macrovascular complications. Patients with one or more of the following risk factors have a higher risk of being diagnosed with diabetes: [see also Module S: Screening, Annotation A] Table D-2. Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
• Age ≥40 years
• Family history (First-degree relative with DM)
• Member of a high-risk population (e.g. African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian
American, and Pacific Islander) • Prediabetes (i.e., history of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance tests) * • Hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg)* • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level ≤ 40 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and triglyceride (TG) level ≥ 250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)* • Presence of vascular disease (coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral)* • Overweight or Obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2)* • Abdominal obesity* • Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)* • History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) • History of delivering babies weighing >9 pounds • Other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., acanthosis nigricans, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)) • Schizophrenia • Patients treated with certain atypical antipsychotics or antidepressants • Habitual physical inactivity * Associated with insulin resistance Module S: Screening for Diabetes Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus MODULE S - SCREENING FOR DIABETES
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
Screening 1. Screening for pre-diabetes or diabetes should be considered for all adults age ≥45. [B] 2. Screening for pre-diabetes or diabetes should be considered in younger adults who are overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2) or are at high risk for DM based upon established risk factors (see Table S-1) at 1-3 year intervals. [B] 3. Screening for pre-diabetes or diabetes should occur at a frequency of 1-3 years. More frequent screening can be performed depending upon prior HbA1c or FPG results, and patient or clinician preferences. [I] 4. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is the preferred diagnostic test for pre-diabetes and DM and is also a component of diagnostic testing. 5. HbA1c can be used to screen for pre-diabetes or diabetes when obtaining a blood sample in a fasting state is undesirable, but fasting plasma glucose test is required for the purpose of diagnosis. [B] The HbA1c test should be performed using clinical laboratory methodology standardized to the NSGP (not a Point of Care). 6. A diagnosis of DM is made if any of the following: [B] Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is ≥126 mg/dL on at least two occasions; or A single HbA1c reading of ≥ 6.5%, confirmed with a FPG ≥126 mg/dL. These tests can be
done on the same or different days; or
HbA1c is ≥ 7% on two occasions using a clinical laboratory methodology standardized to the NSGP (not a Point of Care); or Symptoms of hyperglycemia, and a casual (random) glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL on two occasions. However, casual (random) plasma glucose is not recommended as a routine screening test. 7. A diagnosis of pre-diabetes is made if any of the following: [B] Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) readings with result < 126 mg/dL, but ≥100mg/dL on two occasions. HbA1c readings with result ≥5.7%, and confirmed with a FPG ≥100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dl.
The FPG can be obtained at the same time as the HbA1c.
8. Although the oral glucose tolerance test can also be used for the diagnosis of diabetes, it is not recommended to be used in the primary care setting. [C] 9. Random plasma glucose is not recommended as a routine screening test. [C] Prevention of Diabetes 10. Patients with pre-diabetes should be counseled about the risks of progression to diabetes and the rationale for implementing preventive strategies. [A] Individuals with risk factors for diabetes who are not diagnosed with pre-diabetes should also be counseled and educated about how to reduce risks. 11. Lifestyle modifications to prevent diabetes, including regular aerobic exercise and a calorie-restricted diet to promote and maintain weight loss, should be instituted in patients with pre-diabetes. [A] 12. An individualized goal to achieve and sustain weight loss of ≥ 5 percent of body weight should be set for patients with risk factor for diabetes and a BMI ≥ 25. [A] 13. When lifestyle modifications have been ineffective at preventing a sustained rise in glucose, the patient may be offered pharmacologic therapy with a metformin or an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (e.g., acarbose) to delay progression from pre-diabetes to a diagnosis of diabetes. [A] Module S: Screening for Diabetes Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus ALGORITHM
Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus MODULE G - GLYCEMIC CONTROL
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
1. HbA1c should be measured in patients with diabetes at least annually, and more frequently (up to 4 times per year) if clinically indicated, to assess glycemic control over time. 2. Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) may be used to monitor glycemic control and adjust treatment in the following conditions: 3. Patients, for whom SMBG is appropriate, should receive instruction on the proper procedure, the importance of documenting results, and basic interpretation and application of results to maximize glycemic control. 4. SMBG results should be discussed with the patient to promote understanding, adjust treatment regimens, and facilitate treatment adherence. [B] 5. Remote electronic transmission of SMBG data should be considered as a tool to assess glycemic 6. The frequency of SMBG in patients using insulin should be individualized based on the frequency of insulin injections, hypoglycemic reactions, level of glycemic control, and patient/provider use of the data to adjust therapy. [C] 7. A combination of pre-and postprandial tests may be performed, up to 4 times per day. [C] 8. The schedule of SMBG in patients on oral agents (not taking insulin) should be individualized, and continuation justified based upon individual clinical outcomes. Consider more frequent SMBG for the following indications: • Initiation of therapy and/or active adjustment of oral agents • Acute or ongoing illness • Detection and prevention of hypoglycemia when symptoms are suggestive of such, or if there is documented hypoglycemia unawareness • Detection of hyperglycemia when fasting and/or post-prandial blood glucose (PPG) levels are not consistent with HbA1c. GLYCEMIC TARGET RANGE
1. Treat diabetes more aggressively early in its course. [B] 2. The target range for glycemic control should be individualized, based on the provider's appraisal of the risk-benefit ratio and discussion of the target with the individual patient. [C] 3. Providers should recognize the limitations of the HbA1c measurement methodology reconciling the differences between HbA1c readings and self-monitoring results on a case-by-case basis. 4. Setting the initial target range should consider the following: (see Table G-1) The patient with either none or very mild microvascular complications of diabetes, who is free of major concurrent illnesses, and who has a life expectancy of at least 10-15 years, should have an HbA1c target of <7 percent, if it can be achieved without risk. [A] Any patient with diabetes should have a HbA1c target of <9 percent to reduce symptoms of hyperglycemia. [C] The patient with longer duration diabetes (more than10 years) or with comorbid conditions, and who require combination medication regimen including insulin, should have an HbA1c target of < 8 percent. [A] Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus The patient with advanced microvascular complications and/or major comorbid illness, and or a life expectancy of less than 5 years is unlikely to benefit from aggressive glucose lowering management and should have a HbA1c target of 8-9 percent. [A] Risk of hypoglycemia should be considered in recommending a target goal. [B] 5. Risks of a proposed therapy should be balanced against the potential benefits, based upon the patient's medical, social, and psychological status. 6. The patient and provider should agree on a specific target range of glycemic control after discussing the risks and benefits of therapy. 7. The patient should be assessed for knowledge, performance skills, and barriers (e.g., psychosocial, personal, or financial), and if necessary referred to a primary care case manager or endocrine/diabetes clinic to address barriers for achieving treatment goals. CONSULTATION/ REFERRAL
1. The indications to consider a consultation or referral to specialty include patients who: • Have type 1 DM; especially patients with history of hospitalizations for metabolic complications and/or patients who are receiving intensive insulin therapy) • Have new-onset insulin-requiring DM • Have marked insulin resistance • Have contraindications or intolerances to medications typically used in managing diabetes • Have recurrent episodes of incapacitating hypo- and/or hyperglycemia • Have poor recognition of hypoglycemia and who have a history of severe hypoglycemic reactions (including coma, seizures, or frequent need for emergency resuscitation) • Have visual and/or renal impairment • Have psychosocial problems (including alcohol or substance abuse) that complicate management • Have HbA1c > 9.0 percent and are considered for aggressive management on an expedited basis. • Are not achieving glycemic control despite comprehensive treatment with complex regimen of combination pharmacotherapy including insulin • Require evaluation or management beyond the level of expertise and resource level of the primary TREATMENT OPTIONS
1. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) must receive insulin replacement therapy.
2. Patients with type 2 diabetes, or diabetes of undetermined cause who exhibit significant or rapid
weight loss and/or persistent non-fasting ketonuria, have at least severe relative insulin deficiency and will require insulin therapy on an indefinite basis. 3. All patients with type 1 DM should be managed by a provider experienced in managing type 1 DM in a multidisciplinary approach or by a diabetic clinic team with multidisciplinary resources (e.g., diabetologist, diabetes nurse, educator/manager, and registered dietitian) for institution and adjustment of insulin therapy. 4. When expeditious referral is not possible, the primary care provider should institute "survival" insulin therapy comprised of total daily insulin (TDI) 0.5 units/kg/day; half as basal insulin and half as meal time insulin. 5. Patients with diabetes should be regularly assessed for knowledge, performance skills, and barriers to self-management. 6. Patients with recurrent or severe hypoglycemia should be evaluated for precipitating factors that may be easily corrected (e.g., missed meals, incorrect administration of insulin [dosage or timing], and exercise). 7. If psychosocial, personal, or financial barriers are identified, additional resources should be consulted, as applicable (e.g., mental health, medical social work, or financial counselors). 8. Individual treatment goals must be established with the patient based on the extent of the disease, comorbid conditions, and patient preferences. Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Non-pharmacological Therapy
1. Institution of dietary modification and exercise alone is usually the appropriate initial management in patients with new onset type 2 diabetes, depending upon severity of symptoms, psychosocial evaluation, patient motivation, and overall health status. Encourage diet and exercise and lifestyle modifications. 2. Use various approaches (e.g., individual or group, counseling, coaching, motivational interviewing) to promote healthful behaviors, such as healthful diet, adequate physical activity, and smoking cessation. 3. If treatment goals are not achieved with diet and exercise alone, drug therapy should be initiated while encouraging lifestyle modifications. 1. When selecting an agent, consideration must be given to efficacy, contraindications, drug interactions, and side effects. Educate patient about treatment options and arrive at a shared treatment plan with consideration for patient preferences. [I] 2. Insulin should be considered in any patient with extreme hyperglycemia or significant symptoms; even if transition to therapy with oral agents is intended as hyperglycemia improves. (See Section on insulin for further details.) [B] 3. Metformin (preferred) or sulfonylureas (SU) should be given as first line agents unless there are contraindications. [A] 4. Alternative monotherapy agents such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), meglitinides, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) agonists should be reserved for patients who have contraindications to or are unable to tolerate metformin or SU. [B] 5. Patients and their families should be instructed to recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and its management. [I] Combination Therapy
6. Metformin + sulfonylurea is the preferred oral combination for patients who no longer have adequate glycemic control on monotherapy with either drug. [A] 7. Other combinations (TZDs, AGIs, meglitinides, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 agonists) can be considered for patients unable to use metformin or a sulfonylurea due to contraindications, adverse events, or risk for adverse events (see Appendices G-2 and G-3). [B] 8. Addition of bedtime NPH or daily long-acting insulin analog to metformin or sulfonylurea should be considered, particularly if the desired decrease in HbA1c is not likely to be achieved by use of combination oral therapy. [A] 9. Patients and their families should be instructed to recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and its management. [I] Insulin Therapy
10. Use of insulin therapy should be individualized, and managed by a healthcare team experienced in managing complex insulin therapy for patients with type 1 DM. [I] 11. Use intermediate- or long-acting insulin to provide basal insulin coverage. [B] 12. Insulin glargine or detemir may be considered in the NPH insulin-treated patient with frequent or severe nocturnal hypoglycemia. [B] 13. Use regular insulin or short-acting insulin analogues for patients who require mealtime coverage. 14. Alternatives to regular insulin (aspart, lispro, or glulisine) should be considered in the following • Demonstrated requirement for pre-meal insulin coverage due to postprandial hyperglycemia AND concurrent frequent hypoglycemia • Patients using insulin pump. Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII)
1. CSII therapy should only be initiated and managed by an endocrinologist/diabetes team with expertise in insulin pump therapy. 2. CSII therapy should only be considered in patients who have either documented type 1 diabetes [history of DKA, low c-peptide or evidence of pancreatic autoimmunity] or be insulin deficient with a need for intensive insulin therapy to maintain glycemic control and are not able to maintain it using multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy. This may include patients with: Poor glycemic control (including wide glucose excursions with hyperglycemia and serious hypoglycemia and those not meeting HbA1c goal) despite an optimized regimen using MDI in conjunction with lifestyle modification. [A] Marked dawn phenomenon (fasting AM hyperglycemia) not controlled using NPH at bedtime, glargine or detemir. [B] Recurrent nocturnal hypoglycemia despite optimized regimen using glargine or detemir. [B] Circumstances of employment or physical activity, for example shift work, in which MDI regimens have been unable to maintain glycemic control. [I] 3. Patients using CSII should have: Demonstrated willingness and ability to play an active role in diabetes self-management to include frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), and to have frequent contact with their healthcare team. Completed a comprehensive diabetes education program. 4. The use of CSII over MDI regimens is not recommended in most patients with type 2 diabetes. [D] Hospitalized Patients
1. In patients with known DM, it is reasonable to document the DM diagnosis in the medical record. Because of the potential harm from omission of insulin in patients with type 1 DM, it is suggested that the type of DM also be documented. [I] 2. In order to identify potentially harmful hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, blood glucose monitoring may be ordered in hospitalized patients with diagnosed DM and/or hyperglycemia (BG > 180 mg/dl) on admission. There is no evidence to support a given frequency of monitoring. Therefore, the frequency of monitoring should be based upon clinical judgment taking into account the management of diabetes, the reason for admission, and the stability of the patient. [I] 3. Due to safety concerns related to potential adverse events with oral anti-hyperglycemic medications, it is prudent to thoughtfully review these agents in the majority of hospitalized patients. It may be reasonable to continue oral agents in patients who are medically stable and have good glycemic control on oral agents at home. [I] 4. For patients with DM and/or hyperglycemia who are not medically stable or who are poorly controlled with oral anti-hyperglycemic medications at home, initiating insulin therapy should be considered. It is appropriate to continue pre-hospitalization insulin regimens, but reasonable to reduce the dose in order to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia. In the ICU, continuous intravenous insulin infusion is recommended. Scheduled subcutaneous insulin is appropriate in the non-ICU setting and may include a long-acting basal insulin as well as nutritional insulin for those eating discrete meals or receiving enteral nutrition. A supplementary correction (sliding) scale is also recommended but correction scale insulin regimens as sole therapy are discouraged. [B] 5. Insulin should be adjusted to maintain a BG < 180 mg/dl with the goal of achieving a mean glucose around 140 mg/dl. Evidence is lacking to support a lower limit of target blood glucose but based on a recent trial suggesting that blood glucose < 110 mg/dl may be harmful, we do not recommend blood glucose levels < 110 mg/dl. [A] Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus 6. Insulin therapy should be guided by local protocols and preferably "dynamic" protocols that account for varied and changing insulin requirements. A nurse-driven protocol for the treatment of hypoglycemia is highly recommended to ensure prompt and effective correction of hypoglycemia. [I] 7. To minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia after discharge it is reasonable to provide hospitalized patients who have DM and knowledge deficits, or patients with newly discovered hyperglycemia, basic education in "survival skills". [I] 8. Patients who experienced hyperglycemia during hospitalization but who are not known to have DM should be re-evaluated for DM after recovery and discharge. [B] RESPONSE TO THERAPY
1. The patient with recurrent or severe hypoglycemia should be evaluated for precipitating factors that may be easily correctable (e.g., missed meals, exercise, incorrect administration of insulin—dosage or timing). 2. If the patient does not achieve his/her target range, the provider should identify barriers to patient adherence to the treatment regimen (e.g., miscommunication, lack of education or understanding, financial/social/psychological barriers, and cultural beliefs). 3. If barriers are identified referral to a case manager or behavioral/financial counselor should be considered as appropriate. 4. Treatment goals should be periodically reassessed based upon patient specific factors, including changes in the patient's health status, adverse drug reactions, adherence to therapy, and preferences. 1. Patients should be scheduled for appropriate follow-up to evaluate response, tolerability to therapy, goal re-assessment, and management of acute and chronic problems: • The frequency of follow-up visits for patients with diabetes who are meeting treatment goals and who have no unstable chronic complications should be individualized • When there is a sudden change in health status or when changes are made to the treatment regimen, follow-up within one month or sooner may be appropriate 2. Treatment goals should be periodically reassessed based upon patient-specific factors, including changes in the patient's health status, adverse drug reactions, adherence to therapy, and preferences. Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus M ANAGEM ENT OF DIABETES M ELLITUS
M odule G - Glycemic Control
Patient with diabetes mellitus (DM) Assess glycemic control Determine glycemic control target by: I . Determine recommended target using risk stratification criteria, [C] andII. Adjust the glycemic target according to patient factors, [D] andIII. Set a target range after discussion with patient [E] Consider referral for Is patient high-risk? comprehensive evaluation and medication therapy? Institute/adjust insulin Consider referral Assure appropriate intervention to address patient adherence Initiate/adjust therapy [R efer to T able G2 ] Reinforce self management education Consider referral for diet and DM education Sequential treatment for type 2 DM
1 Life Style modification, diet and excercise Continue DM management 2 Monotherapy with oral agent or insulin Return to Module D 3 Combination (add second oral agent)4 Insulin with daytime oral agent5. Insulin alone6. Referral Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus M ANAGEM ENT OF DIABETES M ELLITUS
M odule G - Glyce mic Control
Determine if there are side effects or contraindications to current treatment Are there problems with patient adherence? Provide appropriate intervention to address patient adherence Continue current treatment control target be Adjust therapy if there are side effects or contraindications to current therapy Adjust target level Adjust medication therapy as indicated; consider side effects and contraindications Reinforce self management and education Continue DM management Return to Module D Module G: Glycemic Control Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Table G-1. Determination of Target HbA1c Level (1) (2)
Major Comorbidity (d) Microvascular Complications Absent or Mild (a) >10 years of life Present (e)
5 to 10 years of life Marked (f)
<5 years of life (1) Based upon the DCCT referent standard. Clinicians need to evaluate the methodology used at their site. (2) Reflects a "goal" over time. Intensification of therapy should be undertaken based upon individual clinical circumstances and treatment option. (a) Mild microvascular disease is defined by early background retinopathy, and/or microalbuminuria, and/or mild
(b) Moderate microvascular disease is defined by pre-proliferative (without severe hemorrhage, intra-retinal microvascular
anomalies [IRMA], or venous bleeding) retinopathy or persistent, fixed proteinuria (macroalbuminuria) and/or demonstrable peripheral neuropathy (sensory loss). (c) Advanced microvascular disease is defined by severe non-proliferative (with severe hemorrhage, IRMA, or venous
bleeding), or proliferative retinopathy and/or renal insufficiency (serum creatinine level > 2.0 mg/dL), and/or insensate extremities or autonomic neuropathy (e.g., gastroparesis, impaired sweating, or orthostatic hypotension). (d) Major comorbidity includes, but is not limited to, any or several of the following active conditions: significant
cardiovascular disease, severe chronic kidney disease, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe chronic liver disease, recent stroke, and life-threatening malignancy. (e) Major co-morbidity is present, but is not end-stage and management achievable.
(f) Major co-morbidity is present and is either end-stage or management is significantly challenging.
* Further reductions may be appropriate, balancing safety and tolerability of therapy.
Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Figure G1. Sequential Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Establish A1C goals Severe hyperglycemia Unrecognized type 1 DM Glycemic goals not achieved -Basal + bolus insulin Oral agent not tolerable or Basal insulin= NPH or long- A1c > 2% above target Bolus insulin= Regular or -DPP-4 inhibitors rapid-acting analog †+/- oral hypoglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes Glycemic goals not achieved Recommended Combination
Therapy
-Biguanide+ Sulfonylurea
-Biguanide + Insulin
-Sulfonylurea + Insulin
Alternative Combination Therapy*‡
*Listed alphabetically; not in order of preference
‡If applicable, refer to VA www.pbm.va.gov or http://vaww.pbm.va.gov or DoD guidance/
criteria for further recommendations on use of these agents

Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus APPENDIX G-1
Measurements of Glycemic Control
The correlation between tests of glycemic control and HbA1c, even using the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) reference standard, may differ by methodology, age, race, and by comorbid conditions. Certain HbA1c measurements may also be unreliable in the presence of the following conditions: hemolytic anemia, uremia, chronic kidney disease or pregnancy. HbA1c is higher for a given level of glycemic control in older individuals and minority patients than in Caucasians. The measurement of HbA1c is subject to red cell survival, and the composition of red cell hemoglobin Measurements of Glycemic Control
1. For long-term glycemic control (past 3 months), HbA1c is the preferred method unless the patient has a clinical condition (acute blood loss, iron deficiency anemia, significant chronic renal insufficiency, severe anemia.) 2. Clinical laboratories should use methodologies that are certified to the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP). However, even use of certified assays does not mean that a laboratory result is directly comparable to the NGSP reference standard, or that there is no interference from hemoglobinopathies. 3. Relative to the DCCT standard, some methods (such as HPLC) tend to overestimate, while immunoassays tend to underestimate true HbA1c values ("bias"). 4. Clinicians should recognize that any HbA1c value from any laboratory has measurement error associated with it (the intra-assay coefficient of variation). In order to achieve NGSP certification an HbA1c value must be within ±8% of the referent standard in 2010, and ±6% in 2011. This has implications for the way HbA1c levels are interpreted as to whether a patient has or has not achieved their glycemic control target. As an example, an HbA1c value of 7% could vary by up to 0.5% within the same assay. The NGSP web site should be accessed for the most up-to-date information (ngsp.org). 5. Target values for glycemic control do not have to be a whole number since HbA1c is a continuous risk factor. It should be understood that achieving the goals must not occur at the expense of safety; that small differences from goal may not have significant impact upon absolute risk reduction of complications. Also, goals can and should be modified (upward or downward) as clinical circumstances or patient preferences warrant. 6. Point of Care (POC) HbA1c methodologies are available. However, in June 2009 the NGSP noted the following: "There was much concern regarding the lack of data on POC methods, the fact that these methods are CLIA-waived means that users of the methods are not required to participate in the CAP survey. Nonetheless these methods are widely used, especially in the developing world, and therefore it is important to know how well they are performing in the field." Local facilities should develop their own policies for supervision of POC in practice and inform clinicians of the likely variance between these test results and those obtained in the clinical laboratory. This information needs to be communicated to clinicians using the tests. Glucose Measurements
• Single point measurement of blood sugar can be determined from venous samples and capillary glucose
measurements. Only venous samples should be used for the diagnosis of DM. Capillary blood sugar measures can be used for home monitoring. • The most common user error associated with self-managed blood glucose (SMBG) is inadequate sample size. Depending upon the meter used, this error can lead to a significant discrepancy between the actual and recorded blood glucose. A user's technique and maintenance procedures should be reviewed annually or as indicated. Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus APPENDIX G-2
FDA Approved Combination Therapy
raglutide
Metformin
Acarbose
Miglitol
rosiglitazone
Sitagliptin/

Saxagliptin
Exenatide

Liraglutide
Pramlintide
** Rosiglitazone + insulin not recommended † Sitagliptin is approved for use with insulin ‡ In Type 2 diabetes, insulin + pramlintide may be used with or without a concurrent sulfonylurea agent and/or metformin. Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus APPENDIX G-3
Pharmacotherapy Table*
Drug Class‡
Potential for
Reduction §
Clinical Considerations
Adverse Events
Insulin (prandial)
• Use well established • Hypoglycemia Short-acting • Most effective at lowering • Hypersensitivity elevated glucose • Dosing can be individualized Rapid-acting analog • Beneficial effect on triglycerides • Injection site • Contraindicated in those with hypersensitivity to insulin • Precaution in concomitant use with potassium-lowering drugs or drugs sensitive to serum potassium level • Dose adjustment needed for renal and hepatic impairment Long-acting analog • Inexpensive (human insulin); moderately expensive (analogs)
Premixed
NPH/Regular
Biphasic insulin protamine/lispro (75/25, 50/50) Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus • Use well-established • Hypoglycemia 2nd generation significant risk • No difference in long-term • Hypersensitivity efficacy or failure rate has been demonstrated among the • Contraindicated in those with eruption, etc.). hypersensitivity • Use in patients with sulfonamide allergy is not specifically contraindicated in product labeling, however, a risk of cross- (chlorpropamide, reaction exists in patients with allergy to any of these compounds; avoid use when previous reaction has been severe. • Concomitant use of glyburide and bosentan is contraindicated Glyburide not recommended if Clcr <50mL/min hypoglycemia or disulfuram • The majority of the glycemic reaction (rare) if benefits are realized at half- used with alcohol maximal dose. Higher doses should generally be avoided. Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Biguanides
• Use well-established • Potential for • May restore ovulation in premenopausal anovulatory females patients for whom the drug is • Monitor renal function prior to and at least annually thereafter • Transient dose- • Weight neutral or slight weight • Decrease LDL-C Contraindicated in: o Renal dysfunction (serum creatinine ≥ 1.5mg/dL [males]; ≥ 1.4mg/dL [females] or abnormal creatinine clearance , o Acute or chronic metabolic • Temporarily discontinue metformin at the time of or prior to intravascular iodinated radio contrast studies and withhold for 48 hours after the procedure. Reinstitute only after renal function has been reevaluated and found to be normal. • Temporarily discontinue for surgical procedures (except minor procedures not associated with restricted intake of food or fluids). Do not restart until oral intake has resumed and renal function has been evaluated as normal. • Do not use if patient is ≥80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced; do not titrate to maximum dose. • In general, avoid metformin in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease • Patients should be warned against excessive acute or chronic alcohol use. • Discontinue metformin in the presence of cardiovascular collapse • Patients with unstable or acute congestive heart failure who are at risk of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia are at increased risk of lactic acidosis Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus • Allows for flexible meal dosing Inhibitors
• Dose taken with first bite of each abdominal pain, flatulence) which • If patient misses or adds a meal, omit or add a dose respectively • Use not recommended if serum creatinine > 2.0mg/dl • Contraindicated in the presence of intestinal complications (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, colonic ulceration, intestinal obstruction, digestion or absorption disorders) • Acarbose is contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis (miglitol pharmacokinetics are not altered in cirrhosis and may be used) • Weight neutral • Serum transaminase should be checked every 3 months during first year of treatment and periodically thereafter • To reverse hypoglycemia (usually only in setting of combination therapy),treat with oral glucose, not sucrose • Moderately expensive • Allows for flexible meal dosing • Taken 1-30 minutes before a meal • Hypoglycemia • Unknown long-term outcomes so than SU in context of • If patient misses or adds a meal, omit or add a dose respectively • Do not use in patients who have failed sulfonylurea therapy or combine with sulfonylurea • Co-administration of repaglinide with gemfibrozil is contraindicated • Use repaglinide cautiously in hepatic impairment or severe renal impairment • Use nateglinide cautiously in moderate to severe hepatic impairment Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus • Contraindicated in New York Heart Association Class III and IV Do not initiate in patients with active liver disease or ALT > 2.5 x the upper limit of normal Slow onset of action (6-12 weeks for full effect) Exacerbate heart May restore ovulation in premenopausal anovulatory Rosiglitazone not recommended in combination with insulin • Not recommended in symptomatic • Periodic monitoring of serum • Increase HDL-C (3-5mg/dL) • Very expensive GLP-1 agonists
• Unknown long-term outcomes (nausea, vomiting, • Not recommended in patients • In combination -Prior history of pancreatitis -Creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min, end stage renal disease, may increase the or receiving dialysis - Gastrointestinal disease, severe (eg, gastroparesis) Instruct patients to contact their provider if they experience persistent severe abdominal pain acute, including which may be accompanied by vomiting (may indicate pancreatitis; post marketing cases, Discontinue use if pancreatitis fatalities, have • Not a substitute for insulin in insulin requiring patients. Do not • Anaphylaxis, use in type 1 diabetes for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis hypersensitivity • Use with caution in patients receiving oral medications that require rapid gastrointestinal • Very expensive Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Amylin analogs
• Used as adjunctive therapy in those who have failed to achieve • Hypoglycemia adequate glycemic control despite individualized insulin therapy Use in patients receiving ongoing care under the guidance of a healthcare professional skilled in the use of insulin and supported by the services of diabetes team • Unknown long-term outcomes • Increased injection burden • Slight weight loss • Black Box Warning: increased risk of insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia (usually seen within 3 hours following a pramlintide injection). Appropriate patient selection, careful patient instruction, and insulin dose adjustments are critical elements for reducing this risk. • Contraindicated in those with confirmed diagnosis of gastroparesis or hypoglycemia unawareness • Pramlintide should NOT be considered if patient: - Has HbA1c > 9% - Has shown poor compliance with insulin regimen - Requires drugs that stimulate gastrointestinal motility - Has had recurrent episodes of severe hypoglycemia requiring assistance within past 6 months - Pediatric patients • Do not mix pramlintide and insulin in the same syringe; must be administered as separate injections • Administer subcutaneously into abdominal or thigh areas at sites distinct from concomitant insulin injections (do not administer into arm due to variable absorption) • Administer concomitant oral agents, where rapid GI absorption is a critical determinant of effectiveness, at least 1 hour prior to or 2 hours after pramlintide injection • When drawing up doses from vial, inadvertent calculation of dose based on "units" rather than mL has resulted in overdose of pramlintide Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Dipeptidyl
• Weight neutral • Hypersensitivity peptidase-4
Dose adjustment needed for renal • Unknown long-term outcomes increased risk of upper respiratory • Very expensive * Table is not intended to be inclusive of all clinical considerations and adverse events, but rather to highlight some of the major points ‡ Drug Classes are listed according to number of years since approval of the first agent in that class § Patients who are drug therapy naïve or have higher baseline HbA1c values may have a greater reduction in HbA1c than values shown in the table Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Appendix G-4
Comparison of Insulin Preparation a, b
Duration
Compatible Mixed
Appearance / Role
Prandial (bolus) Insulin
RAPID-ACTING
Aspart
(Novolog)
Lispro (Humalog)
Clear / covers insulin needs Glulisine (Apidra)
at the time of the injection. subcutaneous use only (but not in IV or infusion pump) Regular (Novolin
Clear / covers insulin needs R, Humulin R) for meals eaten within 30-60 minutes. Basal Insulin
INTERMEDIATE-ACTING
NPH
(Novolin N,
Cloudy / covers insulin needs for about half the day or overnight. Often used, when needed, with rapid- or short-acting insulin LONG-ACTING
Glargine (Lantus)
Clear / covers insulin needs with other insulins for about 1 full day. Often combined, when needed, Detemir (Levemir)
with rapid- or short-acting with other insulins Pre-Mixed Products
70%NPH/30% Regular (Novolin 70/30, Humulin70/30) 50%NPH/50% regular (Humulin 50/50) with other insulins Cloudy / generally taken 75% intermediate/25% lispro (Humalog mix 75/25) twice a day before 50% intermediate/50% lispro (Humalog mix 50/50) 70 % insulin aspart protamine recombinant; 30% insulin aspart recombinant (Novolog mix 70/30) 50 % insulin aspart protamine recombinant; 50% insulin aspart recombinant (Novolog mix 50/50) a Adapted from Facts and Comparisons 4.0; available atand Web MD available atccessed 16 June 2009. b The time course of action is intended as a general guide as many factors may influence these parameters (e.g., type of preparation, dose, site of administration, and patient related variables). c The effects of mixing insulin aspart with insulins produced by manufacturers other than Novo Nordisk has not been studied. d No pronounced peak; small amounts of insulin glargine are released slowly, resulting in a relatively constant concentration/time profile over 24 hours. Module G: Glycemic Control: Appendices Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus MODULE E– EYE CARE
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Patients with an acute change in vision or a change in ocular function should be urgently referred to an eye care provider. 2. Patients with early diabetes onset (age <30 years) or type 1 diabetes at a later age should have an initial examination when the time from diabetes diagnosis is >3 years. [B] 3. Patients who are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and have not had an eye exam within the past 12 months should have a retinal examination performed within 6 months. [B] 4. A retinal examination (e.g. dilated fundus examination by an eye care professional or retinal imaging with interpretation by a qualified, experienced reader) should be used to detect retinopathy. [A] 5. Patients who have had no retinopathy on all previous examinations may be screened for retinopathy every other year (biennial screening). More frequent retinal examinations in such patients should be considered when risk factors associated with an increased rate of progression of retinopathy are present. [B] 6. Patients with existing retinopathy should be managed in conjunction with an eye care professional and examined at intervals deemed appropriate for the level of retinopathy. [I] Module E – Eye Care Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Module E – Eye Care Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus MODULE F – FOOT CARE
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
The goal of Module F – Foot Care is to identify patients who are at high-risk for the development of foot ulcers and lower extremity amputations (LEA). Patients are identified through a foot risk assessment that stratifies them into either high-risk or low-risk for lower extremity (LE) complications. Once the patient is identified as high-risk, he/she is referred to a foot care specialist for a more intensive follow-up plan that includes patient education, appropriate footwear, and other specialty referrals, as needed. Screening and Assessment
1. Visual inspection should be performed in high-risk patients at each routine primary care visit.
Inspection includes screening for breaks in the skin, erythema, trauma, pallor on elevation, dependent rubor, and changes in foot size/shape, nail deformities, extensive callus, tinea pedis, and pitting edema. 2. A foot risk assessment should be performed and documented annually to evaluate for skin
breakdown, LE arterial disease, and foot deformity; assess protective sensation; determine prior history of ulcers or amputations; and evaluate footwear. High-risk patients are defined as having at least one of the following characteristics:
• Lack of sensation to Semmes-Weinstein 5.07 monofilament at one or more noncallused plantar • Evidence of LE arterial disease (absence of both dorsalis pedis and tibialis posterior pulses, dependent rubor with pallor on elevation, history of rest pain or claudication, and prior history of LE bypass surgery) • Foot deformities (specifically hammer toes, claw toe, Charcot's arthropathy, bunions, and metatarsal head deformities) • End stage renal disease • History of foot ulcer or non-traumatic LEA 3. Patients with limb-threatening conditions should be referred to the appropriate level of care for
evaluation and treatment. 4. High-risk patients or those with limb-threatening conditions (e.g., systemic infection, acute
ischemia/rest pain, foot ulceration, puncture wound, ingrown toenail, and hemorrhagic callus with or without cellulites) should be referred to a foot care specialist for a more intensive treatment program of in-depth patient education concerning foot care practices, hygiene, and footwear. 5. Patients with circulatory symptoms that limit their lifestyle should be referred to a vascular specialist
to determine the appropriateness of surgical intervention on a patient-specific basis. Vascular procedures should be justified based on outcomes of vascular interventions. 6. Patients with minor foot wounds or lesions should be referred to a foot care specialist (i.e., podiatrist,
vascular surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, and other healthcare providers) with demonstrated training, competence, and licensure in foot care for evaluation and treatment. 7. Patients with uncomplicated minor lesions (e.g., onychomycosis, painful corns, dry skin, athlete's
foot, minor calluses, uncomplicated nail trimming and improper foot hygiene) may be provided with local wound care and offload pressure, as indicated, with follow-up on a specified schedule. 8. Footwear prescriptions should be determined based upon the individual structural and clinical
findings. Patients and families should be educated on preventive foot care and footwear including daily foot inspection and preventive care; skin, nail, and callus care; what to report and whom to call regarding any foot injury or abnormality; and footwear. Module E – Eye Care Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus ALGORITHM
Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Module F - Foot Care
and no foot evaluation Perform and document visual inspection of feet Perform foot risk assessment:1. Assess for protective sensation2. Assess for lower extremity vascular disease3. Evaluate for foot deformities and skin integrity4. Prior history of foot ulcer or amputation? [ B ] Are any of the following present? - Systemic infection - Acute ischemia or rest pain - Foot ulceration Refer to appropriate level of care for - Puncture wound evaluation and treatment - Ingrown toenail - Hemorrhagic callus with or without cellulitis [ C ] Is patient at high-risk Is there a minor wound Refer to foot care specialist for a foot problem? for evaluation and treatment Confirm follow-up by foot care specialist if indicated and compliance by patient Perform and document patient for preventive foot care and footwear Perform visual inspection and peripheral sensation evaluation at each routine primary care visit Continue DM management Return to Module D Module E – Eye Care Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Person with DM and minor wounds or f oot lesion and no high risk f actors Perf orm wound assessment Prov ide local wound care Of f load pressure and weight as Ref er to f oot care specialist f or wound care treatment Is this a minor f oot Treat as appropriate Does patient need Treat as appropriate nail or callus care? Consider ref erral to podiatrist Conf irm f ollow-up by f oot care specialist if indicated and compliance by patient Perf orm and document patient education f or prev entiv e f oot care and f ootwear Perf orm v isual inspection and ev aluate peripheral sensation at each routine primary care v isit Continue DM management Return to Module D Module E – Eye Care Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus MODULE M – SELF-MANAGEMENT AND EDUCATION
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is considered necessary by most healthcare organizations to assist persons with diabetes in their day-to-day self-management and with making informed self-care choices. DSME includes providing the patient with behavioral strategies to help him/her establish and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Comprehensive education programs should address the patient's fluctuating diabetes clinical state over a lifetime and provide clinically relevant knowledge and skills to facilitate implementation of ever-changing treatment plans. 1. Education in core competencies, also known as "survival skills," should be provided to all patients newly diagnosed with diabetes. Core competency education includes: response to acute complications (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia); how and when to take medication(s); self-monitoring of blood glucose, basic diet guidelines; sick day management; and guidance on when and how to seek further treatment or medical advice. 2. Comprehensive education on self-management and diet should be provided to all patients newly diagnosed with diabetes. Education should be individualized and tailored to the patient's needs. Education can be provided through an in-house comprehensive diet consultation for Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT), or a comprehensive DSME program recognized by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). If neither of these options is available, comprehensive DSME should be provided at the provider's facility. 3. Upon completion of the initial DSME/MNT education, behavioral goals should be set and a follow-up visit schedule determined by the healthcare team and patient. 4. Information sources (e.g., books, pamphlets and web sites) and points of contact for organizations and other relevant resources should be provided to all patients. 5. Assessment of the following factors should be completed to determine the extent of the patient's educational and skills deficit and his/her ability for self-management: knowledge of the diabetes disease process, treatment goals, management skills, cultural influences, health beliefs/behavior, attitudes, and socioeconomic factors and barriers. 6. At follow-up, the patient's understanding of, and knowledge about, DM should be reviewed. The healthcare team should consider referring the patient to case management or other specialized care, if the patient exhibits poor glycemic control, has high-risk factors, or fails to demonstrate good knowledge of self-care. The healthcare team should coordinate the patient's care with caregivers to whom the patient has been referred and obtain updates on the patient's condition and needs. 7. The healthcare team should always be ready to respond to the patient's ad hoc inquiries about new treatments, problems, or concerns. 8. As the patient's DM control and status improves or declines, the healthcare team should readjust the follow-up schedule for less- or more-frequent visits. Continuing education may be necessary, based on the patient's needs. 9. There is a wide variety of means to provide self-management education and to promote self- management behaviors. The use of approaches such as group visits and telehealth should be considered in providing education. Chose the method most consistent with the patient, clinical, and organizational contexts. Module M– Self Management and Education Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Module M– Self Management and Education Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus APPENDIX C:
ACRONYM LIST
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor American Association of Diabetes Education American Diabetes Association albumin excretion rate alpha glucosidase inhibitor urine albumin/creatinine ratio angiotensin receptor blocker atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease aspartate amino transferase/amino alanine transferase ratio bedtime insulin daytime sulfonylurea coronary artery disease alcohol abuse screening test mnemonic Calcium channel blocker continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention certified diabetes educator coronary heart disease congestive heart failure fast-acting carbohydrates creatinine clearance cerebrovascular accident cardiovascular disease diastolic blood pressure Diabetic Control and Complication Trial dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers diabetic ketoacidosis diabetes mellitus NIH-funded Diabetes Prevention Program dipeptidyl peptidase-4 Diabetes Quality Indicator Project diabetes self-management education estimated glomerular filtration rate electrocardiogram end stage renal disease fasting blood glucose fasting plasma glucose gestational diabetes mellitus glomerular filtration rate glycosylated hemoglobin gastrointestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 Hemoglobin marker (A1c) Health Care Financing Administration hydrochlorthiazide high density lipoproteins high density lipoproteins - cholesterol High pressure liquid chromatography Page 42 Version 4.0 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus Impaired fasting glucose Impaired glucose tolerance Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative low density lipoproteins low density lipoproteins-cholesterol lower extremity amputation multiple daily injections myocardial infarction medical nutrition therapy National Cholesterol Education Program National Committee for Quality Assurance National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin oral glucose tolerance test proliferative diabetic retinopathy postprandial plasma glucose parathyroid hormone peptic ulcer disease peripheral vascular disease registered dietitian systolic blood pressure serum creatinine Systemic Lupus Erythematosis self-monitoring of blood glucose diabetes self-management education strength of recommendation substance use disorder total cholesterol total daily insulin thyroid stimulating hormone thiazolidinedione Page 43

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Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine Ukrainian Center of Scientific Medical Information and Patent Licensing Activity Use of the National Antineoplastic Drug of Platinum on DNA carrier at Treatment of the Advanced Forms of Malignant Neoplasms Kiev – 2010 Institution-Developer: SE «National Cancer Institute» MHC of Ukraine Institution-Codeveloper: Medical and Preventive Treatment Facility Donetsk Regional Anti Cancer Center Authors: Dudnichenko Alexander Sergeyevitch – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor; Vorobyov Oleg Nickolayevitch – Candidate of Medical Sciences; Lischishina Elena Mikhailovna – Candidate of Medical Sciences; Lisovskaya Natalia Yurievna – Candidate of Medical Sciences; Komendant Vasiliy Vasilyevitch; Martsenkovskaya Natalia Vadimovna. Contact number: (062) 223-89-85 Reviewer: Sedakov Igor Yevgenyevitch – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor. Chairman of the Task Group «Oncology» AMS and MHC of Ukraine: Bondar Grigoriy Vasilyevitch – Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor, academician of the AMS of Ukraine.

Single-cell mrna transfection studies: delivery, kinetics and statistics by numbers

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