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Report Repeat Revise The "Original" High-Fat Diets for Diet Induced ObesityFormulated by E. A. Ulman, Ph.D., Research Diets, Inc., 8/26/98 and 3/11/99. Research Diets, Inc. formulated the "original" high-fat diet for diet induced obesity (DIO) studies in 1996. Today, our high-fat diets are the research standard for DIO mice and rats worldwide. Cellulose, BW200 Mineral Mix S10026 DiCalcium Phosphate Calcium Carbonate DIO Low-Fat Control Diets Potassium Citrate, 1 H2O Matched, Purified Ingredient Diet Vitamin Mix V10001 We recommend that you use a matched, purified ingredient diet Choline Bitartrate and not a grain-based 'chow' diet. There are many, many differences between purified diets and chow diets and these variables make it FD&C Red Dye #40 difficult to interpret your data from a study in which one group FD&C Blue Dye #1 was fed a purified ingredient high-fat and the other a low-fat chow diet. Differences between your groups could be due to the level of fat, but could also be due to differences in fiber type and level, source of carbohydrate, and the presence or absence of plant *Typical analysis of cholesterol in chemicals (such as phytoestrogens), just to name a few.
lard = 72 mg per 100 gram.
See next page for low-fat control formulas. Cholesterol (mg)/4057 kcal = 167.8 Cholesterol (mg)/kg = 195.5 Cholesterol (mg)/4057 kcal = 216.4 Cholesterol (mg)/kg = 279.6 Research Diets, Inc.
New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA Tel: 732.247.2390 Fax: 732.247.2340 Where NutriPhenomics Begins 2011 Research Diets, Inc. All rights reserved. DIO-3000-2-13

Low-Fat Control FormulasThere are many options for low-fat control diets. Here are a few examples: D12450BContains 35% sucrose by energy, unlike D12451 and D12492. Sucrose is made up of glucose and fructose and it has been shown that diets very high in sucrose or fructose ( 60-70% by energy) can induce hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and fatty liver.
Match Sucrose CaloriesKeep the amount of sucrose (as a percent of calories) constant across low and high-fat diets. D12450H matches the sucrose calories in D12451. D12450J matches the sucrose calories in D12492.
These diets are formulated in such a way that when animals in the low and high-fat groups consume the same number of calories, they will also consume the same amount of sucrose.
Replace Sucrose with Corn StarchD12450K contains no sucrose but only corn starch and maltodextrin as the sources of carbohydrate. Maltodextrin is a partially hydrolyzed *Typical analysis of cholesterol in form of corn starch that allows us to produce a quality pellet in a high lard = 72 mg per 100 gram.
corn starch diet.
D12450B -
Cholesterol (mg)/4057 kcal = 54.4 There are more possible low-fat diet formulas. Please contact one of Cholesterol (mg)/kg = 51.6 our scientists and we can help you decide if one of the above diets or perhaps a different, custom diet is better for your research.
D12451 Match
D12492 Match
35% Sucrose
17% Sucrose
7% Sucrose
No Sucrose
Product #
Mineral Mix S10026 DiCalcium Phosphate Calcium Carbonate Potassium Citrate, 1 H2O Vitamin Mix V10001 Choline Bitartrate FD&C Yellow Dye #5 D12451, D12492 The "Original High-Fat Diets"
D12451, D12492 The "Original High-Fat Diets"
These are just a sample of the hundreds of citations comprising the body of scientific work built These are just a sample of the hundreds of citations comprising the body of scientific work built around these OpenSource diet formulas. around these OpenSource diet formulas. 1. Anderson EJ, Lustig ME, Boyle KE, et al. Mitochondrial H 2 O 2 emission and 1. Ahmadie R, Santiago J-jon, Walker J, et al. A High-Lipid Diet Potentiates Left cellular redox state link excess fat intake to insulin resistance in both rodents and Ventricular Dysfunction in Nitric Oxide Synthase 3-Deficient Mice after Chronic humans. J Clin Invest. 2009;119(3):573–581. Pressure Overload. Journal of Nutrition. 2010;140(June):1438-1444.
2. Burgmaier M, Sen S, Philip F, et al. Metabolic adaptation follows contractile 2. Atsui YM, Irasawa YH, Ugiura TS, et al. Metformin Reduces Body Weight Gain dysfunction in the heart of obese zucker rats fed a high-fat "Western" diet. Obesity and Improves Glucose Intolerance in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL / 6J Mice. Biol. (Silver Spring, Md.). 2010;18(10):1895-901. Pharm. Bull. 2010;33(June):963-970.
3. Chan C, Leo DD, Joseph J, McQuaid T. Increased uncoupling protein-2 levels in β 3. Bradford EM, Miller ML, Prasad V, et al. CLIC5 mutant mice are resistant to -cells are associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes. diet-induced obesity and exhibit gastric hemorrhaging and increased susceptibility to 2001;50(June):1302-1310. 4. Chelikani PK, Haver AC, Reidelberger RD. Intermittent intraperitoneal infusion torpor. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative of peptide YY(3-36) reduces daily food intake and adiposity in obese rats. Physiology. 2010;298(6):R1531. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
4. Chung S, Wong T, Nagasaki H, Civelli O. Acute Homeostatic Responses to 2007;293(1):R39-46. Increased Fat Consumption in MCH1R Knockout Mice. Journal of Molecular 5. Dorfman SE, Laurent D, Gounarides JS, et al. Metabolic implications of dietary Neuroscience. 2010;Online(April 22).
trans-fatty acids. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). 2009;17(6):1200-7. 5. Church C, Moir L, Mcmurray F, et al. Overexpression of Fto leads to increased food 6. Erickson SD, Banner B, Berthel S, et al. Potent, selective MCH-1 receptor intake and results in obesity. Nature Genetics. 2010;42(November):1086–1092.
antagonists. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2008;18(4):1402-6. 6. Cooksey RC, Jones D, Gabrielsen S, et al. Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation 7. Esler WP, Rudolph J, Claus TH, et al. Small-Molecule Ghrelin Receptor Antagonists protects from diabetes and loss of $ beta$-cell function in the obese (ob/ob lep-/-) Improve Glucose Tolerance , Suppress Appetite , and Promote. Receptor. mouse. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism. 2010;298(6):E1236. 8. Fong TM, Guan X-M, Marsh DJ, et al. Antiobesity efficacy of a novel cannabinoid-1 7. Coppey L, Davidson E, Lu B, Gerard C, Yorek M. Neuropharmacology Vasopeptidase receptor inverse agonist, N-[(1S,2S)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(3-cyanophenyl)-1- inhibitor ilepatril ( AVE7688 ) prevents obesity- and diabetes-induced neuropathy in C57Bl / 6J mice. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60(February-March):259-266. (MK-0364), in rodents. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
8. Deiuliis J, Shah Z, Shah N, et al. Visceral Adipose Inflammation in Obesity Is 2007;321(3):1013-22. Associated with Critical Alterations in Tregulatory Cell Numbers. Plos ONE. 9. Furnes MW, Zhao C-M, Chen D. Development of obesity is associated with 2011;6(1):e16376.
increased calories per meal rather than per day. A study of high-fat diet-induced 9. Drake AJ, Raubenheimer PJ, Kerrigan D, et al. Prenatal Dexamethasone Programs obesity in young rats. Obesity Surgery. 2009;19(10):1430-8. Expression of Genes in Liver and Adipose Tissue and Increased High-Fat Diet. 10. Gollisch KSC, Brandauer J, Jessen N, et al. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed rats. 10. Enriori, PJ, Evans, A.E., Sinnayah, P., et al. Diet-induced obesity causes severe but American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. reversible leptin resistance in arcuate melanocortin neurons. Cell Metabolism. 2009;297(2):E495-504. 11. Hägerkvist R, Jansson L, Welsh N. Imatinib mesylate improves insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal rates in rats fed a high-fat diet. Clinical Science (London, 11. Eric D, Lawrence C, Bao L, Victor A, Nigel A, others. The Roles of Streptozotocin England : 1979). 2008;114(1):65-71. Neurotoxicity and Neutral Endopeptidase in Murine Experimental Diabetic 12. Johnson J a, Trasino SE, Ferrante AW, Vasselli JR. Prolonged decrease of adipocyte Neuropathy. Experimental Diabetes Research. 2010;2009(431980).
size after rosiglitazone treatment in high- and low-fat-fed rats. Obesity (Silver 12. Faleck D, Ali K, Roat R, et al. Adipose differentiation-related protein regulates lipids Spring, Md.). 2007;15(11):2653-63. and insulin in pancreatic islets. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And 13. Kishino E, Ito T, Fujita K, Kiuchi Y. A Mixture of the Salacia reticulata (Kotala Metabolism. 2010;299(2):E249. himbutu) Aqueous Extract and Cyclodextrin Reduces the Accumulation of Visceral 13. Gallou-Kabani C, Gabory A, Al. E. Sex- and Diet-Specific Changes of Imprinted Fat Mass in Mice and Rats with High-Fat Diet–Induced Obesity. Gene Expression and DNA Methylation in Mouse Placenta under a High-Fat Diet. The Journal of Nutrition. 2006;136(2):433.
Plos ONE. 2010;5(12):e14398.
14. Laurent D, Didier L, Yerby B, et al. Diet-induced modulation of mitochondrial 14. Gallou-Kabani C, Vigé A, Gross MS, et al. C57BL/6J and A/J Mice Fed a High-Fat activity in rat muscle. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Diet Delineate Components of Metabolic Syndrome&ast. Obesity. Metabolism. 2007;293(5):E1169-77. 15. Li G, Zhang Y, Cheng KY, Scarpace PJ. Lean rats with hypothalamic pro- 15. Ito, M., Suzuki, J., Tsujioka, S., et al. Longitudinal analysis of murine steatohepatitis opiomelanocortin overexpression exhibit greater diet-induced obesity and impaired model induced by chronic exposure to high-fat diet. Hepatology Research. central melanocortin responsiveness. Diabetologia. 2007;50(7):1490-9. 16. Lomba A, Milagro FI, García-Díaz DF, et al. Obesity induced by a pair-fed High-Fat 16. Jelinek D, Heidenreich RA, Erickson RP, Garver WS. Decreased Npc1 gene dosage sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy in mice is associated with weight gain. Obesity. 2009;18(7):1457–1459.
homeostasis. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2010;9(60). 17. Jiang T, Wang Z, Proctor G, et al. Diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice causes 17. Morgan EE, Rennison JH, Young ME, et al. Effects of chronic activation of increased renal lipid accumulation and glomerulosclerosis via a sterol regulatory peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha or high-fat feeding in a rat infarct element-binding protein-1c-dependent pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry. model of heart failure. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2006;290(5):H1899. 18. Kalupahana NS, Voy BH, Saxton AM, Moustaid-Moussa N. Energy-Restricted 18. Nagae A, Fujita M, Kawarazaki H, et al. Effect of High-Fat loading in Dahl High-Fat Diets Only Partially Improve Markers of Systemic and Adipose Tissue salt-sensitive rats. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. 2009;31(5):451–461.
19. Nagae A, Fujita M, Kawarazaki H, et al. Sympathoexcitation by oxidative stress in Inflammation. Obesity. 2010;19(July 2010):245-254.
the brain mediates arterial pressure elevation in obesity-induced hypertension. 19. King VL, Hatch NW, Chan HW, et al. A murine model of obesity with accelerated Circulation. 2009;119(7):978-86. atherosclerosis. Obesity. 2009;18(1):35–41. 20. Okere IC, Young ME, McElfresh TA, et al. Low carbohydrate/high-fat diet attenuates 20. Kusakabe, T, Tanioka, H, Ebihara, K., et al. Beneficial effects of leptin on glycaemic cardiac hypertrophy, remodeling, and altered gene expression in hypertension. and lipid control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with increased adiposity Hypertension. 2006;48(6):1116. induced by streptozotocin and a high-fat diet. Diabetologia. 2009;52(4):675–683.
21. Omagari K, Kato S, Tsuneyama K, et al. Effects of a long-term high-fat diet and 21. Mu J, Woods J, Zhou Y-ping, et al. Chronic Inhibition of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 switching from a high-fat to low-fat, standard diet on hepatic fat accumulation in With a Sitagliptin Analog Preserves Pancreatic beta -Cell Mass and Function in a Sprague-Dawley rats. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2008;53(12):3206-12. Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55(June):1695-1704. 22. Picó C, Oliver P, Sánchez J, et al. The intake of physiological doses of leptin during 22. Rabot S, Membrez M, Bruneau A, et al. Germ-free C57BL/6J mice are resistant to lactation in rats prevents obesity in later life. International Journal of Obesity (2005). high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance and have altered cholesterol metabolism. 2007;31(8):1199-209. The FASEB Journal. 2010;24(12):4948-4959.
23. Riazi S, Tiwari S, Sharma N, Rash A, Ecelbarger CM. Abundance of the Na-K-2Cl 23. Raher M, Thibault H, Buys E. A short duration of high-fat diet induces insulin cotransporter NKCC2 is increased by high-fat feeding in Fischer 344 X Brown resistance and predisposes to adverse left ventricular remodeling after pressure Norway (F1) rats. American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology. overload. American Journal Of Physiology. 2008;295(6):2495-2502.
24. Rajala MW, Qi Y, Patel HR, et al. Regulation of resistin expression and circulating 24. Stylopoulos N, Hoppin AG, Kaplan LM. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass enhances energy levels in obesity, diabetes, and fasting. Diabetes. 2004;53(7):1671.
expenditure and extends lifespan in diet-induced obese rats. Obesity (Silver Spring, 25. Raubenheimer PJ, Nyirenda MJ, Walker BR. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates Md.). 2009;17(10):1839-47. fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a 25. Tamashiro KLK, Terrillion CE, Hyun J, Koenig JI, Moran TH. Prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Diabetes. 2006;55(7):2015.
high-fat diet increases susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in rat offspring. Diabetes.
26. Sutton GM, Trevaskis JL, Hulver MW, et al. Diet-Genotype Interactions in the 2009;58(5):1116. Development of the Obese, Insulin-Resistant Phenotype of C57BL / 6J Mice 26. Tanaka S, Hayashi T, Toyoda T, et al. High-fat diet impairs the effects of a single Lacking Melanocortin-3 or -4 Receptors. Endocrinology. 2006;147(5):2183-2196.
bout of endurance exercise on glucose transport and insulin sensitivity in rat skeletal muscle. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 2007;56(12):1719-28. 27. Townsend KL, Lorenzi MM, Widmaier EP. High-fat diet-induced changes in body 27. Vickers MH, Gluckman PD, Coveny AH, et al. The effect of neonatal leptin mass and hypothalamic gene expression in wild-type and leptin-deficient mice. treatment on postnatal weight gain in male rats is dependent on maternal nutritional status during pregnancy. Endocrinology. 2008;149(4):1906-13. 28. Trevaskis JL, Meyer EA, Galgani JE, Butler AA. Counterintuitive Effects of 28. Wang Y, Liu J. Plasma ghrelin modulation in gastric band operation and sleeve Double-Heterozygous Null Melanocortin-4 Receptor and Leptin Genes on gastrectomy. Obesity Surgery. 2009;19(3):357-62. Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in C57BL / 6J Mice. Endocrinology. 29. Yang L, Scott K a, Hyun J, et al. Role of dorsomedial hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in modulating food intake and energy balance. The Journal of Neuroscience : the 29. Walker C, Li X, Whiting L, Glyn-Jones S. Mice Lacking the Neuropeptide official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2009;29(1):179-90. {alpha}-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Are Protected Against Diet-Induced 30. Zhang J, Matheny MK, Tümer N, Mitchell MK, Scarpace PJ. Leptin antagonist reveals that the normalization of caloric intake and the thermic effect of food after 30. Wei P, Lane PH, Lane JT, Padanilam BJ, Sansom SC. Glomerular structural and high-fat feeding are leptin dependent. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, functional changes in a high-fat diet mouse model of early-stage Type 2 diabetes. Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2007;292(2):R868-74.


(Brazilian Interdisciplinary Association of AIDS) (Working Group on Intellectual Property) Enough of attacks to Health protection measures! The case of the drug lopinavir/ritonavir expose the poor functioning of the patent system, distorted attack from pharmaceutical companies and lag of the judiciary. Given the disappointing outcome of a trial held this week at the Court of the 2nd district of Rio de Janeiro, the Working Group on Intellectual Property of the Brazilian Network for Peoples Integration (GTPI/Rebrip), collective of civil society organizations acting in defense of the access to drugs, repudiate the claims filed by transnational corporations in order to weaken the mechanisms established in Brazil to protect health policies from the negative impact of pharmaceutical patents. It is still worth to remember that improperly granted patents unnecessarily raise the price of drugs and high prices drain public resources. Many international bodies have already concluded in their studies that the combination unlawful patents-high prices frequently lead to systematic branches of the Human Rights.

Effect of built environment on tsunami related injuries

Dinamithra NP et al AMJ 2013, 7 (1) Open Access Case Report Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report Dinamithra NP1*, Sivansuthan S1, Johnson P1,Nishshanka JGP1 1 Teaching Hospital Jaffna, Jaffna, Sri Lanka