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NAMA Design
Document for
Transport Sector of
Sri Lanka

Contents
Transport and Development Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) A Transport NAMA – An Opportunity for Sustainable, and Inclusive Green Growth in Sri Transport Sector in Sri Lanka
The Millennium Development Goals Transport Sector Overview Policy Environment Stakeholders in the Transport Sector NAMA Baseline and Targets
Challenges faced by CMA's transport sector Introduction of electric buses on the planned Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Alignment of the NAMA Objectives and Targets with National Strategies and Transformative NAMA Baseline Scenario NAMA Technical Intervention
NAMA Intervention – Promotion and adoption of electric buses on the Galle Road Bus Rapid An Introduction to Electric Buses Activities under the NAMA Eligibility Criteria for NAMA Funding Approval Structure of the NAMA NAMA Implementation Structure
Actions to Institutionalize the NAMA Institutional Framework for NAMA Implementation and Management NAMA Capacity Development Needs
NAMA Capacity Development Program Component 1: Capacity Development for NAMA Launch and Implementation Component 2: Awareness Raising and Marketing NAMA Costs and Finance
Proposed Investment in the Galle Bus Rapid Transit Error! Bookmark not defined.
Financial Analysis of the NAMA intervention Error! Bookmark not defined.
Financing Mechanism for the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA Error! Bookmark not defined.
NAMA financing through a combination of grants and soft loansError! Bookmark not defined.
NAMA Measurement, Reporting and Verification
NAMA Measurement, Reporting and Verification Framework Measurement and Monitoring of GHG Emissions Reductions Measurement and Reporting of Sustainable Development Benefits Measurement and Reporting of NAMA Support Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Management Framework Verification Mechanisms NAMA Implementation Plan
NAMA Implementation Flow Establishing NAMA Institutional Structure Securing International and National Funding Implementation of NAMA Intervention References
Annexures
Annexure A: Financial Assessment Appendix B: Emissions Calculations Appendix C: Sustainable Indicators 1. Introduction
1.1. Transport and Development
Mobility of goods and people from one place to another has been an integral part of human existence since the dawn of civilization and as a result, transport activity is considered to be one of the most essential components in economic development and human welfare. In today's world, this activity, motorized transportation in particular, is growing at a rapid pace and will continue to grow, fuelled by the growth of economies around the world, especially developing economies. While the growth of the transport sector drives increased economic growth globally through the facilitation of specialization and trade, it is also fast becoming the highest emitter of greenhouse gases globally, resulting in a large contribution to climate change. As of 2010, the transport sector was responsible for producing 7.0 GtCO2eq of direct GHG emissions, including non-CO2 gases. Out of the 7.0 GtCO2eq of GHG emissions, CO2 emissions constitute 6.7 Gt which translates to 23% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions globally (IPCC, 2014). Figure 1: Direct emissions of the transport sector (250% increase from 1970 to 2010) (Source: IPCC, 2014)
94% of the total energy used by world transport is sourced from a single fossil fuel, petroleum. The global transport sector's excessive reliance on fossil fuels for energy, has resulted in a continued growth in GHG emissions in spite of more efficient vehicles (road, rail, water craft, and aircraft) and policies being adopted. Without robust mitigation policies being implemented, transport emissions could increase at a faster rate than emissions from the other energy end-use sectors and reach around 12 Gt CO2eq/year by 2050 (IPCC, 2014). Furthermore, while transport demand per capita in developing economies is currently far lower than that in OECD countries, given the rapid growth of developing economies, the demand per capita is likely to increase, subsequently resulting in a further increase in GHG emissions, thus aggravating the situation further. Hence, while the transport sector plays an integral role in the growth and development of the global economy, the world's dependence on fossil fuels to drive and grow the sector is untenable, from the perspectives of both resource management (petroleum is a finite resource) as well as global efforts to abate the effects of climate change. In light of the current scenario of transportation in the world, it is imperative that countries especially developing economies develop sustainable, inclusive green growth strategies that will simultaneously help achieve GHG emissions reductions and reduce the sector's dependence on fossil fuels. These strategies could entail multiple measures including modal shifts to low-carbon transport systems such as BRT systems and the use of alternative technologies that reduce the carbon intensity of fuels (e.g. use of electric vehicles). Apart from providing direct GHG reduction benefits, sustainable transport strategies also provide multiple sustainable development benefits such as cleaner air and improved health benefits due to reduced pollution as well as employment creation through the development of ancillary industries. However, while sustainable transport strategies involve low operational costs especially when compared to conventional fossil fuelled transport strategies, they require higher initial capital costs. Additionally, there are challenges of local-level maintenance, availability, and awareness of the technologies, which remain barriers to increased uptake. These challenges are compounded by the traditional issues faced by public modes of transport (e.g. buses, railways) such as low quality of service, low frequency, poor access, lack of integration with other modes of transport, etc. All of which contribute to a very poor image of public transport, leading consumers to veer towards conventional modes of private transport, thereby resulting in higher GHG emissions. Thus, in order to increase the adoption of alternative, cleaner technologies in the transport sector it is essential to establish robust support mechanisms for successful deployment of alternative forms of transportation. As sector-transforming instruments, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) have the potential to increase the adoption of sustainable and low emission modes of transport in developing countries. 1.2. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)
NAMAs are voluntary, non-binding policy instruments that provide a framework for pursuing a country's socio-economic and development goals, while contributing towards global greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. They were first introduced at the 13th Conference of the Parties (COP13) in Bali in 2007. Many developing countries are taking steps to develop and implement NAMAs; they can help countries achieve their growth objectives and participate in the global climate change mitigation agenda. NAMAs help governments leverage national and international support to achieve appropriate, effective and transformational GHG mitigation and sustainable development targets for the country and within COP 19 in 2013 saw the introduction of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), which were to be submitted by all parties, developed and developing, to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The INDCs are for the period following 2020 and detail the actions the parties will take to address climate change. The types of actions (e.g. mitigation, adaptation) and the means of implementation to be included are yet to be determined. While the exact relationship between INDCs and NAMAs is yet to be clearly defined, both incorporate short/medium-term goals, with NAMAs also acting as a possible implementation tool to translate those short/medium-term goals into action by outlining the means and action plans to implement them (GIZ/UNEP, 2014). 1.3. A Transport NAMA – An Opportunity for Sustainable, and
Inclusive Green Growth in Sri Lanka
NAMAs can be seen as one of the most promising voluntary instruments for reducing GHG emissions in developing countries while offering flexibility as to the interventions that can be employed. However, the objectives of a NAMA must go beyond its desired impact on GHG emission reductions to include the achievement of significant sustainable development goals that can benefit the country and its inhabitants Even though NAMAs are often praised as an innovative instrument of climate policy, the basic concepts are well known and established in developed countries in the form of national climate and environmental policies. The new elements are their transformation to address the special needs and circumstances of developing countries, and the availability of international financial and technical support for their implementation from developed partners. Since the end of a three-decade long war, Sri Lanka has made good progress in restoring transport infrastructure and services throughout all provinces of the country. However, the growth of the sector has come at an ecological, social and economic cost, with most of the steps taken increasing Sri Lanka's dependence on the use of conventional fossil fuel driven modes of transportation. The lack of robust public transportation networks has also led to an increase in the adoption of private, low occupancy means of transportation giving rise to issues of urban congestion and pollution. While Sri Lanka's existing policy framework targets these issues through various policies aimed at increasing the reach and utilization of public transport systems like buses and railways as well as the adoption of alternative, cleaner modes of transportation like hybrid vehicles, a marked lack of financing is hindering the successful implementation and deployment of these policies. Thus, a NAMA framework that promotes the adoption of clean and sustainable transportation interventions, presents a novel solution to the problem at hand by providing access to international finance which can help forward programs and policies that promote the use of electric buses in a BRT system, in turn resulting in reduced GHG emissions and increased sustainable development benefits. The proposed transport NAMA for Sri Lanka focuses on the promotion and adoption of electric buses in a BRT, thus addressing the objectives of reduction in GHG emissions and multiple SD objectives like


increased energy security, improved access to transportation, improved air quality and local job creation The NAMA differs from traditional funding mechanisms which promote sustainable transport because of three key components, summarized in Figure 2:  Alignment with country objectives: The intervention under the NAMA framework are prioritized
in line with the socio-economic development objectives of the host country. It takes into account the current social, economic and policy landscapes of the Sri Lankan transport sector and provides innovative technical and financial mechanisms to augment them and help Sri Lanka achieve its sectoral and country objectives like increased energy security, reduced environmental damage and employment creation, among others.  Focus on sustainable development: The NAMA is designed with sustainable development
benefits in mind. The design includes a focus on the development and implementation of an intervention that provides additional sustainable co-benefits like cleaner air, employment generation through the promotion of ancillary industries, an increased energy security due to a reduced dependence on fossil fuels, among others.  Facilitates transformative change: The NAMA will spur the development of an environment
which facilitates transformative change in the transport sector. An enticing regulatory and policy environment which incentivizes the participation of the private sector will be created, thus ensuring the intervention's longevity and sustainability. The business models associated with the NAMA intervention will be developed in a manner that can be easily replicated in other communities across the country. Figure 2: Components of a NAMA
The NAMA framework has been designed to be embedded into existing Sri Lankan sectoral development goals and objectives The NAMA will build on the feasibility studies carried out by JICA on behalf of the Sri Lankan Government ("Urban Transport System Development Project for Colombo Metropolitan Region and Suburbs") and Sri Lankan Government's Department of Transport and Logistics Management, along with the faculty of engineering of the University of Moratuwa ("Study of Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit on Galle Road"), detailing the suitability and feasibility of a BRT (modal shift to low-carbon transport system) in the capital city of Colombo by introducing electric buses, replacing conventionally fossil fuelled buses in the BRT (alternative technologies that reduce the carbon intensity of fuels). 2. Transport Sector in Sri Lanka
2.1. Geography
Sri Lanka is situated in the south eastern part of Asia, with a total land area of about 62,710 sq.km. (World Bank, 2015a). It is a tropical island lying close to the southern tip of India and near the Equator. The country's population, according to the 2012 Population and Housing Census was 20,271,464. The annual growth rate of the population is 1.0 percent over the past 31 years. Majority of the population (28.7%) is concentrated in the Western province making its population density 1,621 persons per sq.km as against the national average of 323 persons per sq.km. The percentage of urban sector population is reported as 18.3 percent followed by 77.3 percent in rural sector and the balance of 4.4 percent in the estate sector (Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics, 2012). Figure 3: Map of Sri Lanka
2.2. The Economy
Economic growth in Sri Lanka has been among the fastest in South Asia in recent years. Growth averaged 6.3 percent between 2002 and 2013, with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita rising from USD 859 in 2000 to USD 3,256 in 2013 (World Bank, 2015b). The annual growth rate in GDP of the country since 2005 is illustrated in the figure below. Real GDP Growth Rate (%) Figure 4: Sri Lanka's GDP Growth, 2005-2013 (Source: ADB, 2015)
The GDP grew by 7.4% during 2014, up slightly from 7.2% in 2013. The continued high growth was driven by faster expansion in industry, which offset substantially weaker growth in agriculture (ADB, 2.3. The Millennium Development Goals
In 2000, world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration and, along with it, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which aimed to reduce extreme poverty by 2015. The Government of Sri Lanka also signed the Millennium Declaration along with other member countries of the United Nations (UN). It further included the MDGs into its ten year development plan "Mahinda Chintana: Vision for a new Sri Lanka" which extends from 2006 to 2016, thus according high priority to achieving them and showing the determination to meet set targets within stipulated time frame. Key initiatives introduced by the Government in this context include the establishment of Dairy villages, Irrigation rehabilitation, Medicinal herbal villages, Industrial villages, Community managed water supply schemes, Rural IT centers and Programmes to improve rural infrastructure (Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics, 2008). The latest MDG Country Report, jointly launched by the UN and the Government of Sri Lanka earlier in 2015 demonstrates Sri Lanka's progress in achieving seven out of the eight relevant development goals that were agreed by the world leaders in 2000 (United Nations, 2015). These have been summarized in the following table: Millennium Development Goals
Sri Lanka's Performance
Sri Lanka achieved the target of halving poverty at the national level seven years before 2015. MDG 1: Eradication of Extreme National poverty incidence declined from 26.1 percent in 1990-1991 to 6.7 Poverty and Hunger percent in 2012-2013. The urban sector reached the target in 2000; the rural sector in 2008. Sri Lanka has almost achieved universal primary education, and the proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 is nearly 100 percent. The literacy rate of 15 to 24 year olds increased from 92.7 percent in 1996 Primary Education to 97.8 percent in 2012. This increase is seen in all regions with the rate for females at 98.2 percent, exceeding the rate for males at 97.2 percent. Sri Lanka has almost reached gender parity in primary education.  The ratio of girls to boys reached to 99.4 percent in 2012. MDG 3: Promote Gender Equality The share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector, and Empower Women however, has not changed. The proportion of seats held by women in the national Parliament remains very low. Sri Lanka is on track to achieve the target of reducing both the under-five and infant mortality rates by two-thirds of the level of the base year by 2015, if MDG 4: Reduce Child Mortality present trends continue.  The proportion of one-year-old children immunized against measles increased from 95.5 percent in 1993 to 99 percent in 2011. Sri Lanka is expected to meet the target of reducing the ratio by three-fourths over the baseline year of 1990.  The maternal mortality ratio declined from 92 deaths per 100,000 live MDG 5: Improve Maternal Health births in 1990 to 33.3 in 2010. The proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants, more than 70 percent of whom were doctors, had almost reached the target of 99.8 percent in 2010. Although Sri Lanka remains a low prevalence country, the number of HIV/AIDS cases is gradually increasing. Sri Lanka has managed to bring malaria cases down from 400,000 in the Malaria and Other Diseases early 1990s to 23 by 2012. No indigenous cases since November 2012 and no malaria-related deaths since 2007. Total forest cover has fallen. Carbon dioxide emissions more than trebled between 1990 and 2004, but MDG 7: Ensure Environmental stabilized after 2004. Sri Lanka has met the target for the proportion of people with access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. ODA flows received as a percentage of Sri Lanka's gross national income (GNI) fell from 1.5 percent in 1997 to 1 percent in 2011. Sri Lankan imports admitted duty free into developed countries significantly declined from almost 70 percent in 2010 to 37.5 percent by Partnership for Development Sri Lanka's debt-services-to-exports ratio remains relatively high compared to other developing countries in Asia-Pacific. Telephone density has increased rapidly with the number of telephone connections exceeding the country's population. Table 1: Sri Lanka Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Progress


While the Millennium Development Goals are on their way to being replaced by Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will come into effect from the 1st of January 2016, the MDGs still form a strong base on which to adopt and further the SDGs. 2.4. Transport Sector Overview
The transport sector has played a crucial role in the economic and social upliftment of Sri Lanka. In 2003, the sector contributed to 10 percent of the country's GDP and generated about 4 percent of employment (World Bank, 2015c). By 2012, the contribution to GDP had increased to 14 percent (Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics, 2013). However, the sector is also responsible for a majority of the country's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – almost half of the total emissions in the energy sector are from transportation. Sri Lanka depends heavily on its public transportation systems with buses and trains forming the backbone of the system with limited presence of sea and air transport in the domestic setup. The domestic passenger transport sector is primarily made up of cars, vans and motor cycles for private transport, while the public transport sector largely consists of buses and a small percentage of para- transit vehicles. The various modes of transport prevalent in the country are discussed below: Road Transport: Roads are the backbone of the transport sector in the country. They are vital for the
movement of people and goods and play an important role in integrating the country, facilitating economic growth, and ultimately reducing poverty. National roads carry over 70 percent of the traffic in Sri Lanka Figure 5: Breakup of CO2 emissions in Sri Lanka
(Source: Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Environment, 2011)
2015c). The country currently has around 11,700 km of major national highways, supplemented by 15,500 km of provincial roads, 65,000 km of local authority roads and about 24,000 km of roads owned or controlled by irrigation, wildlife and other government authorities (Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Environment, 2011). Within the road sector, buses dominate the passenger transport section as seen in the modal share (2007) figures given below (University of Moratuwa, 2011). As of 2012, the demand for passenger travel was around 80 billion passenger-kilometres (pkm) per year, of which road transport accounts for 93%. About 97% of freight traffic, measured in ton-km, is conveyed by road (ADB, 2012). Therefore, it is evident that roads dominate Sri Lanka's transportation landscape, both for passenger as well as freight movements. Figure 6: Modal share of road transport
(Source: University of Moratuwa, 2011)
Railways: Sri Lanka has around 1,450 km of railway track, an amount that has not changed since its
independence, most of which is limited to single gauge track. The railway fleet is currently made up of about 200 diesel electric locomotives along with 46 diesel power sets and is responsible for carrying about 5% of Sri Lanka's total passenger traffic, amounting to around 4,567 mil ion passenger-kilometres annually (2009). While Sri Lanka Railways (SLR) played a dominant role in the country's transport sector until 1928, its share in passenger and freight transportation has reduced drastically. The freight movements handled by the railways has come down drastically from 32% in 1979 to a paltry 1% today, emphasising the need of an overhaul in this sector. The railways continue to face serious competition from road transportation, and have been adversely affected by the country's two-decade war on terrorism. Ports: Sea transport in Sri Lanka, with the three major ports of Colombo, Trincomalle and Galle, handles
the bulk of Sri Lanka's freight imports and exports. There is little to no movement of passengers or freight within Sri Lanka by sea. Most of the internal movement is restricted to inland waterways with ferries and fishing boats plying both passengers and cargo. The Port of Colombo, the country's premier commercial port, is considered to be one of the premier ports in Asia. It handles both conventional cargo as well as containers, and has been acknowledged as one of the most economical ports in the region. After economic liberalization, a port expansion program, and the onset of containerization and trans-shipment cargo, port traffic grew at an average rate of 6.5% per year and reached the equivalent of 4 million containers of twenty-foot equivalent units in 2010 (ADB, 2012). Air Transport: Sri Lanka has one international airport and 13 domestic airports with 2 national carriers
operating international as well as domestic routes. The civil aviation sector has seen healthy growth in recent times, though most of this growth has come from international passenger and cargo movements. The table below illustrates that while the transportation sector as a whole is important to look at in terms of NAMA opportunities, given the modal mix of GHG emissions within the sector where roads are responsible for 88% of the total emissions, followed by the air sector as a distant second (9%), it is prudent to focus on NAMA opportunities specifically in Sri Lanka's road transportation sector. Emissions (Gg)
Table 2: Modal mix of GHG Emissions (Transportation)


The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA)
The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA), which consists of the Colombo Municipal Council (CMC) and its adjacent areas is the largest metropolitan area in Sri Lanka with a population of 3.7 million as of 2012. This is estimated to grow to 5.1 million by 2035 bringing along with it increased economic growth and demand for transportation. During this period, it is estimated that population growth will result in a 1.75 times increase in the total person trip demand. This increase is going to be accompanied by a significant increase in trip demand made by private modes of transportation, a result of the economic growth of individual households. The increase in private traffic demand coupled with a number of issues such as reduced utilization of high occupancy vehicles, lack of capacity of public modes of transportation, inefficient road and traffic control infrastructure has led to a degradation in the speed of vehicles on the roads of Colombo resulting in higher operating costs for vehicles (economic damage) (environmental damage) throughout the city of Colombo. Given the status of Colombo as the economic driver of the country where it is responsible for almost half of Sri Lanka's economic activities, the negative effects of an ailing transportation system is felt throughout the Furthermore, the capital intensive nature of transportation infrastructure makes it difficult for the Sri Lankan government to develop all the facilities required to alleviate the current situation of transportation in Colombo, all by itself. Thus, given the importance of Colombo and the nature of investment required, it was deemed Figure 7: Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA)
prudent to look at international donor support in the form of NAMAs to kick start transportation projects that will help Sri Lanka develop sustainable, economic and efficient modes of urban transportation, not just in Colombo but throughout the country. 2.5. Policy Environment
The Sri Lankan transport landscape is governed by a number of policies that include policy frameworks that were designed solely to cater to the transport sector as well as frameworks that view the transport sector through a broader lens of climate change and sustainable development. These policies have been detailed in the following sections: National Transport Policy
The ‘Draft National Policy on Transport in Sri Lanka', 2008 by National Transport Commission, Ministry of Transport is the key document addressing the national objectives and strategies for Sri Lanka's transport sector. The objective of this National Policy is to set out explicitly, the interventions of Government in ‘ensuring that existing and potential mobility needs within the country for passengers and goods transport are satisfied safely and efficiently at least cost to the economy by using the minimum amount of resources and causing least impact on the environment'. The main objectives which are, directly or indirectly, in support of the identified NAMA intervention are:  To encourage the use of public transport, high occupancy vehicles and non-motorized transport, under the Section ‘Modal preference and Choice'.  To take steps to reduce the dependency on petroleum fuels for the country's mobility  To reduce the number of vehicles circulating within urban area in order to make a greater proportion of limited road space available for high occupancy vehicles.  To ensure that at least 1/3rd of existing road space on major highways within a dense urban area be reserved for high occupancy vehicles. Such areas to be utilized for high priority bus lanes, light transit systems (trams) or bus rapid transit (BRT) systems.  Providing incentives (such as tax rebates) for new technologies such as hybrid vehicles and new source of fuel such as bio fuel is a proposed intervention National Action Plan for the Haritha Lanka Programme
The National Action Plan for the Haritha Lanka Programme, 2009 is the product of the concerted effort of various ministries in Sri Lanka, which lays down the proposed strategies and actions that are set out to focus on fulfilling the ten mission statements of the programme. The main objectives of the Plan which are, directly or indirectly, in support of the identified NAMA intervention are:  Implementation of mass transit systems such as ‘MRT/LRT, BRT including Premium Bus- Service & one-way systems with centre-flow bus lanes in metropolitan regions', as a strategy for meeting Mission 1: Clean Air Everywhere  Promoting the use of alternate transport fuel technologies that reduce GHG emissions, as part of Mission 3: Meeting the Challenges of Climate Change  Introduction of efficient public transport systems including bus lanes where necessary, MRT systems, LRT systems, etc. integrated in the townscape in an aesthetic manner, as a strategy towards meeting Mission 8 : Green Cities for Health and Prosperity Mahinda Chintana - Vision for the Future (Development Policy
Framework)

The Mahinda Chintana vision is based on the economic philosophy that the growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) alone would not bring economic prosperity to the society. Followed by the ‘Mahinda Chintana Vision for a new Sri Lanka' which was prepared in 2005, ‘Mahinda Chintana – vision for the Future' was prepared by Department of National Planning, and Ministry of Finance & Planning in 2010. The main objectives which are, directly or indirectly, linked with the identified NAMA intervention are:  Complementary public transport systems like Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rail Transit (LRT) and Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) systems will be introduced to Colombo and suburbs providing more choices of different modes.  Environmental sustainability will be achieved through the use of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles in the transport sector to increase the efficiency and reduce pollution. Other proposed activities include electrification of trail transportation, a high speed monorail transport system for Colombo, and, construction of Mass Rapid Transit Underground rail system in the city limits connecting other rail lines thereby linking all parts of the country Buses with a greater seating capacity, television, radio and internet facilities. The policy also proposes enhancement of private sector participation by strengthening Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) and opportunities for Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs). Urban Transport Master Plan
The Urban Transport Master plan unites road network with economic development and provides for approaches to long-term maintenance of the road network in the country and to safeguard adverse social and environmental impacts of transport. The Plan is a highly comprehensive document that proposes various strategies for public transport and road networks, while also taking into consideration the institutional setup and financial arrangements for the proposed activities. One key proposed intervention is to set up a BRT system in Colombo, and promotion of hybrid cars and electric vehicles is also proposed as a ‘policy measure for air pol ution and traffic noise reduction and promotion of health in transport'. National Climate Change Policy
The National Climate Change Policy of Sri Lanka has been developed to provide guidance and directions for all the stakeholders to address the adverse impacts of climate change efficiently and effectively. It contains a vision, mission, goal and a set of guiding principles followed by broad policy statements under Vulnerability, Adaptation, Mitigation, Sustainable Consumption and Production, Knowledge Management and General Statements. The transport sector strategy is stated as "Taking action to promote integrated transportation systems, low emission fuels and improved fuel efficiency taking into consideration the long term sustainability of the existing resources." Sri Lanka Strategy for Sustainable Development
The Sri Lanka Strategy for Sustainable Development developed by the Ministry in charge of Environment in 2007 outlined the sustainable development vision, goals, strategies and targets for a thirty-year period, The strategy document discusses Sri Lanka Transport Board Act No. 22 of 2005, which was enacted to establish Public Sector Bus System in order to upgrade and to meet the new challenges of competitive road passenger market. It also proposes ‘fuel diversification in the transport sector' and ‘moving towards greener urban transportation and clean air' as strategies for the transport sector in Sri Lanka. The table below summarizes the Sri Lanka's sustainable priorities with respect to its transport sector, based on the policies detailed above: Priority
Description
Large scale development and introduction of efficient public transport systems such as BRT, LRT and MRT systems leading to a modal shift from private to public modes of transportation. Increased adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles running on alternative fuels Alternative Vehicles such as electricity, biofuels, etc. Reduce traffic congestion and air, noise pollution in urban areas especially the Urban Congestion CMA through increased adoption of public and alternative modes of Achieve greater diversity of fuel sources and reduce dependence on imported sources of fuel especially petroleum. Reduce GHG emissions from the transport sector through the adoption of alternative clean fuel vehicles and public modes of transport, decreasing its reliance on fossil fuels Table 3: Summary of Sri Lanka Transport Sector Sustainable Priorities
The analysis of the policy environment in Sri Lanka shows that while the necessary policy framework for the NAMA is present, there is a distinct lack of encouragement and promotion of private sector participation in the transport sector. Additionally, another key barrier to the implementation of these policies is a severe lack of sovereign funding at the national and regional level. The NAMA thus offers a robust mechanism to access international finance to bridge the gap in funding required for the implementation of these policies while developing a policy environment that encourages and invites increased private sector participation. 2.6. Stakeholders in the Transport Sector
Given the importance and scale of Sri Lanka's transport sector, there are multiple government organizations, academic institutions along with numerous private players that play important roles in the development of the sector. This section details the primary administrative as well as capacity building bodies that play a significant role in the development of climate change mitigation or sustainable development policies in the transport sector. Major Administrative and Implementing Bodies
The following table details the organizations/ministries that are the major players in the Sri Lankan transport and sustainability/climate change sectors (to be revised based on inputs from MoIT on
structure)
Main Organization
Sub Organization
Role in Sri Lanka
The M/E is responsible for the conservation of Sri Lanka's environment and natural resources. It is also The Ministry in Charge of
responsible for developing Sri Lanka's national action Environment
plan on climate change and mitigation, i.e. the Haritha Lanka Programme. The M/Transport is responsible for the development, implementation and maintenance of Sri Lanka's transportation sector (including policy formation and development) including road, rail, air and marine transportation. The SLR is responsible for the development and Sri Lankan Railways maintenance of Sri Lanka's railway infrastructure. The DMT is responsible for the enforcement of rules Department of Motor and regulation provided in the Motor Traffic Act including registration of motor vehicles, licensing of drivers, etc. This agency is responsible for advising the government National Transport Ministry of Internal
on national policy relating to passenger transport Transport
services by omnibuses (para-transit). This agency is responsible for advising the government Sri Lanka Transport on national policy relating to passenger transport services by buses. The RDA is the highway authority in Sri Lanka and is responsible for the maintenance and development of Road Development the National Highway Network, comprising the Trunk (A Class) and Main (B Class) roads including the planning, design and construction of new highways, bridges and expressways to augment the existing network. The PDA is responsible for the development and Port Development maintenance of Sri Lanka's ports and associated facilities and services. Main Organization
Sub Organization
Role in Sri Lanka
Air Resource Management
The AirMAC is the main organization responsible for Center (AirMAC)
ensuring effective air quality management in Sri Lanka. This ministry is responsible for the governance, implementation, creation and development of Ports Ministry of Highways, Ports
including Colombo, Galle and Trincomalee ports, and Shipping
highways including Southern expressway, Colombo Outer Circular expressway, Katunayake expressway and their transport services. The M/F&P responsible for developing and executing Ministry of Finance and
the Sri Lanka's public finance policy, economic policy Planning
and long term planning. The ministry is responsible for the development of efficient and effective provincial and local administrative Ministry of Local
Government and Provincial
development. It is also responsible for the promotion of Councils
decentralized governance models at the local and provincial level. Ministry of Urban
The M/UD&SAD is responsible for the development and Development and Sacred
maintenance of the infrastructure of Sri Lanka's urban Area Development
centers including its major cities like Colombo. The M/P&E is responsible for the development of the power and energy sector in Sri Lanka. In relation to the Ministry of Power and
transportation sector, we will need to bring them in for the development of projects related to clean energy and alternative fuels like bio-diesel. Urban Development
The UDA is considered to be the principle planner and Authority
developer of sustainable urban centres in Sri Lanka. Table 4: Major Administrative & Implementing Bodies
Most transportation projects in Sri Lanka involve multiple organizations/ministries working together, usually a combination of aforementioned organizations. Apart from these we have also listed a number of additional administrative and capacity building bodies that we will believe will play an important role in the implementation of a transportation NAMA in Sri Lanka. (Climate
Mitigation
Apart from the ministries and organizations mentioned above, the following organizations play an important role in the development of Sri Lanka's climate change mitigation and sustainability policies, Main Organization
Sub Organization
Role in Sri Lanka
The SEA is responsible for the exploration, facilitation, Sustainable Energy
research & development and knowledge management Authority (SEA)
of indigenous energy resources while promoting conservation of existing resources. The CEA is responsible for the development and The Ministry in Charge of
Central Environmental implementation of environmental rules and regulation Environment
including licensing, laboratory services, GIS/RS services, etc. Table 5: CC&S Administrative Bodies
Capacity Building Organizations
The following organizations provide effective capacity (administrative and technical) building skills within Sri Lanka to ensure that the proposed projects can be carried forward indigenously. Main Organization
Sub Organization
Role in Sri Lanka
The NERDC is responsible for development, National Engineering
research and transfer of the latest technology in Research and Development
Sri Lanka inorder to improve and develop indigenous industries. The Ceylon German Technical Training Institute Ceylon German Technical is responsible for the training of skilled Ministry of Transportation
Training Institute engineering and allied trades. Table 6: Capacity Building Bodies
The list of players provided above serves to highlight the major stakeholders in Sri Lanka's climate change and transportation sectors, whose participation is crucial for the successful implementation of any project involving these sectors. Apart from the aforementioned stakeholders the NAMA will also need to involve regional stakeholders as well as various private players such as bus fleet or para-transit operators. There is also a need to approach international funding organizations like ADB, JICA and World Bank among others who have a significant presence in the development of Sri Lanka's transportation sector and will play a significant role when it comes to the implementation of the NAMA, especially in the aspect of financing. 3. NAMA Baseline and Targets
3.1. NAMA Objectives
The overarching target of the Sri Lanka NAMA is the promotion and adoption of clean, sustainable and efficient means of public transportation within the Colombo Metropolitan Area, resulting in a modal shift from private to public mode of transportation. The NAMA is intended to help Sri Lanka achieve the following objectives for the transport sector as identified in the National Transport Policy:  Encourage the use of public transport and high occupancy vehicles resulting in a modal shift from private to public modes of transportation  Encourage the promotion and adoption of new cleaner technologies such as electric or hybrid vehicles and reduce the environmental (reduce GHG emissions & pollution), economic (reduced expenditure on fossil fuels) and social (increase in health benefits) impacts of a conventionally fuelled transport sector Apart from the objectives highlighted above, the NAMA will also contribute towards the achievement of numerous additional sustainable development objectives including:  Reduce Sri Lanka's dependence on imported petroleum fuels for the country's mobility requirements, increasing Sri Lanka's energy security  Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, especially the vulnerable sections of society, leading to greater development and mobility among these societies and consequently within Sri Lanka  Creation of new job markets in Sri Lanka, increasing opportunities for skilled labour through the development of multiple ancillary industries around the development and implementation of the NAMA intervention  Provide Sri Lanka multiple avenues for transfer of advanced clean technologies from more developed economies such as China, Europe, etc., opening up opportunities for collaboration, knowledge transfer and subsequent development of indigenous clean technology industries  Increase private sector participation in the development of Sri Lanka's transport sector. The private sector is seen as an essential partner in the implementation of the NAMA – either through public-private partnership enterprises or in sub-contracting relationships with the public sector as technical consultants, technology suppliers, constructors, operators, etc. Without the private sector and its commitment to provide co-funding and take risk, implementation of the interventions would be limited  Achieve additional sustainable development benefits such as improved air quality, increased time savings and capacity building among others The following figure summarizes the NAMA targets and objectives: Figure 8: NAMA Targets & Objectives
All the objectives stated above are intrinsical y tied to chal enges faced by the CMA's transport sector, hampering its growth and development. Thus, in addition to achieving the aforementioned objectives, the NAMA was developed to help address these challenges. The challenges and the consequent genesis of the NAMA intervention have been detailed in the following sections. 3.2. Challenges faced by CMA's transport sector
The CMA transport sector faces numerous issues, which have prevented it from being the sustainable, efficient machine it should be. The primary issues of the CMA as defined by the Urban Transport System Development Project for Colombo Metropolitan Region and Suburbs can be divided into two broad  Traffic Congestion
An unchecked increase in private traffic over the years has led to increased traffic congestion within the CMA, especially in the CMC region. This has had several negative effects on the economic and environmental health of the city due to increased vehicle operating costs, greater travel time costs and high pollution of regions where congestion is prevalent.  Issues of Public Transport
Each of CMA's mode of public transportation i.e. rail, bus and other road based transport systems is plagued by its own set of individual issues such as insufficient capacity, unregulated fares, insufficient integration with other modes of transport and lack of enforcement of on road rules and regulations to name a few that have prevented the CMA from having a cohesive, efficient transportation network that can meet the growing demands of its people. Neither of the issues mentioned above are mutually exclusive. An inefficient and under connected network of public transportation consisting of slow, inefficient buses, low capacity railways and unregulated assortment of para-transit modes such as three wheelers contributes to a passenger's dissatisfaction with public modes of transportation, thereby making private modes of transportation more attractive. This in turn contributes to the critical problem of traffic congestion in the city resulting in longer travel times for passengers. Thus, an approach that tackles either one of the aforementioned issues will have a cascading remedial effect on both of them. While the development of large-scale infrastructure projects such as monorail and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can address issues of level of service, the introduction of electric vehicles into these public modes of transportation adds significant transformational potential by increasing the direct emissions reduction potential while promoting the adoption of cleaner, more efficient vehicles within the transport sector. 3.3. Introduction of electric buses on the planned Bus Rapid
Transit (BRT)
The NAMA development process was initiated with the preparation of a concept note, detailing the various interventions that are suitable to the Sri Lankan context and could be taken up under the transport NAMA. Based on GHG reduction potential, sustainable development, transformation potential and financeability, the following interventions were identified:  Energy Efficiency Measures in Transportation  Development of an Integrated Transportation System  Development of Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Cities Following the development of a concept note which provided the frameworks for the aforementioned interventions, a stakeholder consultation workshop was conducted in Colombo with the purpose of selecting a final intervention. For the consultation, held with assistance from the Climate Change Secretariat, representatives from a number of government organizations working in the areas of environment, climate change and transport in Sri Lanka were invited. The participants were able to narrow down the list of interventions to two possible interventions that could be taken up under the transport NAMA viz.:  Development of an Integrated Transportation System (could possibly include Multi-modal transport hubs, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Monorail etc.)  Promoting the adoption of electric vehicles Based on the conclusions drawn from the stakeholder consultation workshop and subsequent research and literature review of the state of transportation in Sri Lanka, especially for the capital city of Colombo, the decision was taken to develop the following final NAMA intervention as the Sri Lankan Transport


Introduce electric buses as replacement for conventionally fuelled buses on the planned
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) on Galle Road in the Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA)
While the NAMA will ultimately be scaled upwards and implemented throughout the country, the observations are based on the study of literature on the capital city of Colombo, which is not only an integral part of the development and economic fabric of the country but also has the most advanced plans for urban transport in the country. The NAMA design has therefore been developed based on the issues highlighted in the Urban Transport Master Plan for the Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA) as well as the feasibility study on the implementation of a BRT on Galle Road in the Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA). 3.4. Alignment of the NAMA Objectives and Targets with
National Strategies and Transformative Change
The transformative change implicit in the NAMA can best be seen through the application of a theory of change approach. The theory of change approach "defines al building blocks required to bring about a given long-term goal. This set of connected building blocks - interchangeably referred to as outcomes, results, accomplishments, or preconditions - is depicted on a map known as a pathway of change/change framework, which is a graphic representation of the change process" (Center for Theory of Change, 2013). Using this approach will help to ensure that the NAMA focuses not just on emissions reductions but also on achieving sustainable development, national development goals and transformative change. This approach is also aligned with the Green Climate Fund (GCF) results framework. The overall targets Figure 9: Theory of Change Approach to NAMA Targets
for the NAMA can be seen in the following figure: The transformative change must also occur in a fashion which is aligned with Sri Lanka's development goals while benefiting the region where it is implemented. The regional and national alignment of the NAMA with respect to Sri Lanka's policies and needs for its transport sector has been discussed below. Benefits for the CMA
This following table provides a brief overview of the specific benefits that the proposed NAMA intervention offers, thereby making it suitable and appropriate for the CMA region: Given the distances and frequency of trips that buses on the BRT will be making, electric buses serve as the perfect medium of transportation providing the same level of service as conventionally fuelled buses with reduced fuel costs and subsequently reduced emissions. This intervention gives an opportunity to leverage tax breaks offered by the government for the adoption of hybrid and electric vehicles as an additional source of incentive from the side of the national government. This will also serve to incentivize greater amount of private participation. The introduction of newer, more efficient technology into the Sri Lankan transportation market through large scale adoption of electric vehicles (fleet adoption) provides demand side incentives for the development of a robust electric vehicle development and manufacturing industry in and around the CMA, giving rise to numerous ancillary industries such as manufacturing of batteries, charging stations, battery recovery and disposal units among others. This will further lead to the creation of numerous skilled labour opportunities giving rise to a new employment market. Table 7: Benefits for the CMA
Suitability as a NAMA for the Sri Lankan transport sector
As discussed earlier, actions that result in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the baseline scenario and provide additional sustainable development benefits, if undertaken in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner can be considered as NAMAs. They usually revolve around existing/upcoming regulations, policies, schemes, programmes or strategies in a country that have significant mitigation and sustainable development potential. Even though there is an absence of a common standard definition for a NAMA, as per today's understanding every proposed intervention consists of a number of common elements based on which its appropriateness as a NAMA for the country is judged. The following elements have been used to judge the appropriateness of the proposed intervention as a NAMA:  National and Regional Embeddedness  GHG Mitigation Potential  Transformational Potential  Sustainable Development Benefits  Financial Feasibility The following table details the proposed intervention's effectiveness with regards to each of the aforementioned criteria: Proposed Intervention
Introduce electric buses as replacement for conventionally fuelled buses on the planned Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) on Galle Road National & Regional Embeddedness
Regional
National
MM-1 5: Multi-modal Transport Hub (MMTH), Multi- modal Center (MMC) and Park & Ride (P&R) BT-01: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) RL-NT1 5: Monorail The introduction and utilization of electric vehicles as a national strategy RD-RN5: Enhancement of Traffic Distribution also finds mention in the following policy documents: Urban Transport System
Function of Road Network Development Project for
National Transport Policy of Sri Lanka TM-ERP: ERP (Electric Road Pricing) System Colombo Metropolitan
Environmentally Sustainable Transport in Sri Lanka Region (CMA) and
RS-1: Education for Road Safety/Tight Control of Sri Lanka's Second National Communication on Climate Change Driver's License The National Climate Change Policy of Sri Lanka EN-01: Air Emissions Standard for Vehicles National Action Plan for Haritha Lanka Programme EN-02: Vehicles Inspection & Maintenance Program EN-05: Promotion of Hybrid Cars and Electric GHG Mitigation Potential
The GHG mitigation potential of this intervention is twofold: The use of electric buses on the BRT in lieu of traditional petrol/diesel vehicles leads to direct GHG emissions reductions. Electric buses are more fuel efficient than their ICE counterparts because of their battery powered electric drive systems which results in reduced fuel consumption. In case renewable energy is used to generate the power charging the batteries of the vehicles, it is possible to achieve additional, significant GHG emissions reductions. The promotion and increased adoption of public transportation through the BRT decreases the use of low occupancy private vehicles i.e. it creates a modal shift where public transport moves a larger segment of the population in fewer trips compared to the scenario where the same amount of people utilize individual private vehicles. This modal shift generates significant saving in terms of GHG emissions. For example, the Janmarg BRTS in Ahmedabad, India has been able to reduce more than 90,000 tons of CO2 annually (EMBARQ India, 2011). Transformational Potential
The proposed intervention has the potential to transform the transportation sector for both the CMA and Sri Lanka as a whole in the following manner: • Developing and implementing a successful BRT in CMA would help increase the adoption of public transportation in the region, making it an attractive proposition for passengers. This increased adoption assists in decreasing the use of private vehicles for transportation within the city which results in a reduction in traffic congestion throughout the region resulting in numerous benefits such as reduced operating costs of vehicles, decrease in pollution, greater fuel savings, lower travel times, etc. The introduction of newer, more efficient technology into the Sri Lankan transportation market in the form of large scale adoption of electric vehicles (fleet adoption) provides demand side incentives for the development of a robust electric vehicle development and manufacturing industry in and around the CMA. A sector wide promotion of electric vehicle technology would have significant transformational potential beyond the transportation sector giving rise to numerous ancillary industries such as the manufacturing of batteries, charging stations, battery recovery and disposal units and others. The success of this intervention in Sri Lanka's economic hub would showcase its viability for the rest of the country, leading to replication in other urban centres within the country increasing the likelihood of the development of a cohesive, sustainable transportation sector throughout the nation. Sustainable Development Benefits (for the Colombo Metropolitan Area)
Positive
Negative
Decreased traffic congestion – Increased adoption of public transportation
by providing easy access and better quality of service decreases the use of
private vehicles which in turn decreases the traffic congestion faced
throughout the region
Improved air quality – The combination of the use of electric vehicles,
Stress on the electric grid of Sri Lanka – Large scale adoption of electric
increased use of public transportation and decreased traffic congestion leads buses in BRTs across the country could stress Sri Lanka's electric grid that is to a reduction in pollution and GHG emissions esp. NOx, SOx and other already dependent on generation of electricity through fossil fuels to meet the particulate emissions throughout the CMA needs of the country. Quality of employment – Potential to create a lot of the skilled jobs not just
Thus, the design of the NAMA has to ensure that while the adoption of electric directly through the BRT but through the rise of ancillary industries around the buses in BRTs is encouraged, it is done so without stressing Sri Lanka's grid use of electric vehicles any further wherein their dependence on fossil fuels for the generation of electricity increases. Human & Institutional capacity - Training of executing agency staff to
monitor, maintain & implement the project
Technology transfer & Technological self-reliance - Use of newer, more
efficient technology that can then be used by Sri Lanka in other similar
projects
Financial Feasibility
While the development of large-scale infrastructure projects such as a BRT can address issues of level of service and has significant potential to transform the sector by inducing a modal shift from private to public transport, their ambition especially in terms of GHG emissions reduction can be significantly increased with the introduction of electric buses as the main mode of transportation. Further, the Sri Lankan government has shown great interest in pursuing the development of a BRT in the CMA region. However, there is a need for additional financing in order to successfully introduce electric buses to the BRT, replacing more polluting but cheaper conventionally fuelled buses. Thus, the NAMA is envisioned as an innovative project that demonstrates the benefits of using electric buses in place of conventionally fuelled buses as the primary mode of transportation in a Bus Rapid Transit network within the CMA region. Table 8: Suitability as a NAMA for the Sri Lankan transport sector
3.5. NAMA Baseline Scenario
The baseline is a current or an expected business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. Baselines are defined for the areas where the NAMA will have high positive impact, such as:  GHG emissions and  Sustainable development The "AMS-III.C: Emission reductions by electric and hybrid vehicles" methodology provided by the
Clean Development Mechanism, was developed specifically for application to project activities that introduce new electric and/or hybrid vehicles that displace the use of fossil fuel vehicles in passenger and freight transportation. AMS-III.C was hence found to be most suitable and appropriate to determine the emissions in the baseline as well as mitigation scenarios of the NAMA. Baseline of GHG Emissions
The baseline scenario for the NAMA entails the operation of the conventionally fuelled vehicles, comparable to electric vehicles being operated in the mitigation scenario that would have been used to provide the same transportation service. The baseline emissions are calculated based on the unit of service provided by the project vehicles (diesel fuelled articulated buses) i.e. travelled distance times the emission factor for the baseline vehicle to provide the same unit of service. The emission factors included in the CDM methodology AMS-III.C were determined in a conservative manner through the application of emissions factors gathered from a variety of sources such as information from data published in public records, research and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate As per AMS-III.C, the emission factor of diesel, the fuel consumed by the baseline vehicle is 0.0000726 gCO2/J (IPCC, 2006). Using the emission factor mentioned above, the baseline GHG emissions for a diesel fuelled two articulated bus was calculated to be 153.20 tCO2 annually. Baseline of Sustainable Development Indicators
As discussed earlier, a NAMA consists of actions that not only provide GHG emission reductions but additional sustainable development benefits as well. Thus, the NAMA will contribute towards the improvement of several of the sustainable development indicators (Note that environment-related indicators, such as GHG emission reductions, are not included here). Quantification of the sustainable development baseline is in most cases more appropriately done on the local level, in particular in locations where the NAMA intervention is to be implemented. However, if the overall situation of the focus area of the NAMA is taken into consideration, wherein a BRT does not exist at the proposed location of the intervention (CMA, Galle Road) or in any other region of Sri Lanka, it is assumed that the baseline for the NAMA is zero. Therefore the need for and impact of the NAMA intervention is considered to be high. The following table provides a brief snapshot of the SD Indicators that are being considered for the NAMA Indicator
Decrease in air and noise pollution due to reduced Decreased Pollution Improvement of health due to a decrease in pollution and availability of cleaner air Access to Transportation Increased access to public resources (transport) for the vulnerable/disadvantaged groups Job opportunities in the skilled labour segment leading Quality of Labour to an increased standard of living Access to Clean and technologies, subsequent decrease in costs and Sustainable Technology development of domestic industries Reduced dependence on imported fossil fuels resulting Increased Energy in greater energy security as well as cost savings for Build extensive capacity on both the national and Capacity Building regional levels on development and implementation of clean and sustainable projects Increased private/public sector investments, increased Asset Accumulation and cost savings/returns leading to increased accumulation development of ancillary industries Increased encouragement and promotion of private Private Sector Dialogue sector involvement creating a competitive, thriving Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development through the development of robust SD frameworks Table 9: NAMA Sustainable Development Indicators
As explained earlier, given the absence of a BRT at the NAMA location or any other location within Sri Lanka, it is not possible to develop a baseline for the SD indicators with respect to the NAMA intervention for Sri Lankan conditions. Hence, the baseline for the SD indicators is assumed to be zero. The SD indicators listed in the table above (among others) have been detailed further in Chapter 8 - NAMA Measurement, Reporting and Verification. Expected and Targeted Impacts of NAMA Intervention
The values below are used in the following sections for estimation of NAMA impacts on annual GHG emission reduction over a period of 10 years and achievement of SD indicators listed earlier. The values are for the replacement of 100 diesel fuelled articulated buses with two door electric buses: Emissions Reduction
Indicator
Emission reductions per year (tCO2) Total emissions reductions over a period of 10 years (tCO2) Sustainable Development
Indicator
Air pollution reduction (ppm) Number of cases of respiratory health problems Frequency of eBuses along the BRT Number of eBuses on the BRT Capacity building (training/outreach programs held) Cost savings from increased energy security per bus annually (USD) Number of private players involved Table 10: Expected and Targeted Impacts of NAMA Intervention
We will need inputs from the Sri Lankan Government to determine the targeted impacts
(highlighted in yellow).
4. NAMA Technical Intervention
4.1. NAMA Intervention – Promotion and adoption of electric
buses on the Galle Road Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Due to the large potential benefits of a well-designed Bus Rapid Transit system as well as the number of issues it helps to address, the Sri Lankan government has ardently worked towards the development of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) networks as one of their primary modes of climate change mitigation in the transport sector. Furthermore, one of the biggest drawbacks of an increase in private vehicle traffic is large increase in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) exacerbating the Sri Lankan transport sector's already large and ever increasing GHG footprint. The intervention combats this issue by introducing electric vehicles; buses, as the vehicle of choice to carry passengers on the BRT. The following table provides an overview of the Galle BRT and the aspects that the intervention will be Performance Indicator
Baseline Galle BRT (Completely Fossil Fuel Buses)
Average Trip Length Average km/bus/month Total km/bus/year Average number of trips per bus/day Composition of Buses
Standard Two Door Buses Articulated Buses Sri Lanka Transport NAMA - Introduce & Operate Electric Buses in lieu of Articulated Buses
Electric Two Door Buses Table 11: Galle BRT details with intervention details
The overarching aim of the NAMA is to promote and promulgate the adoption of clean, sustainable modes of transport in Sri Lanka and while it aims to do so through the introduction of electric buses in the Galle BRT in place of what would have otherwise been articulated, GHG emitting, diesel fuelled conventional buses, it does not aim to replace all the conventional modes of transport. This is the reason why the Galle BRT, through the NAMA, will operate an equal mix of electric and conventionally fuelled Subsequent sections detail the activities envisaged under the intervention and the eligibility criteria that an eBus operator needs to meet inorder to qualify for funding under the NAMA. 4.2. An Introduction to Electric Buses
The following sections provides detailed insights into the status of the adoption of electric vehicles (including buses) around the globe and an overview of the technology that drives them. A Global Outlook
In today's political and social climate, the global electric bus market is thriving due to growing environmental concerns of the public and various governments. While the high initial cost of electric buses is a key barrier for this industry, their operational cost is significantly low as compared to that of conventional buses as electricity is cheaper than diesel. The low fuel cost coupled with unstable crude oil prices and an increasing focus of transit agencies on minimizing operational costs, is expected to lower the impact of cost on the adoption of electric buses in the long term. Also, in recent times, investments of companies and transit agencies are being backed by funding from venture capitalists and governments, which are, in turn, favouring the growth of the electric bus market. Studies have shown that electric vehicles result in lower greenhouse gas emissions when compared to most conventionally fuelled cars in the market (IEA, 2012). Widespread adoption of electric fleets would also help transform the transportation sector with not just large scale GHG mitigation but also through the creation of ancillary industries such as the development and production of energy efficient technologies like batteries that would encourage further GHG emissions reductions as well as numerous other associated benefits like employment generation and higher standard of living, among others. The US-based market research and consulting firm Pike Research forecast in August 2012 that the global market for all electric-drive buses including hybrid, battery electric and fuel cell buses will grow steadily over the next six years, with a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 26.4% from 2012 to 2018. According to Pike, the largest sales volumes will come in Asia Pacific, with more than 15,000 e-buses likely to be sold in that region in 2018, i.e. 75% of the world total. China will account for the majority of global e-bus sales, Pike predicts. It believes that growth in the e-bus market will accelerate strongly in Eastern Europe and Latin America, the latter driven largely by Brazil while sales in Western Europe will experience steady growth (around a 20% CAGR). A December 2012 report by the research and consultancy firm IDTechEx forecast that the market for electric buses and taxis will grow from USD 6.24 billion in 2011 to USD 54 billion in 2021, of which the largest part will be buses. Thus, with this intervention Sri Lanka is poised to participate in a burgeoning market that is soon to play a major role in transportation services around the world. Numerous cities around the world have implemented measures to encourage a shift to electric vehicles both in the private and public transportation sectors. A few notable examples have been listed below a. The city of Amsterdam, Netherlands provides subsidies to support companies intending to use electric cars, taxis and trucks as a key means of transportation around the city. The municipality aims to increase its population of EVs from 750 (2012) to 10,000 (2015). b. Since 2012, Berlin, Germany started converting its state-run vehicle fleet to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. Various projects with e-fleets and e-car sharing are underway or are planned, for example: the Initiative 120 project, a concept for testing alternative drive systems in patrol cars at the Berlin police department. c. The city of Kanagawa, Japan provides subsidies, tax breaks and other incentives to reduce initial user burden and to improve convenience. The national government provides a subsidy equal to 50 percent of the cost differential between an EV and a gasoline vehicle. In addition, K.P.G. tops up the other half of this subsidy and provides tax relief for automobile tax (for five years) and automobile acquisition tax by 100 percent. d. The Chinese government provides national subsidies of 50,000 RMB for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and 60,000 RMB for pure electric vehicles. In addition, the City of Shanghai offers 20,000 RMB and 40,000 RMB, respectively. Public service vehicles, such as light duty commercial trucks and buses, also receive subsidies. Shanghai also maintains a ratio of 1.2-1.5 charging stations for every electric vehicle. Twenty of these stations have been installed as part of "park and ride" trials. A Technological Overview
Battery-electric buses are often referred to as "pure" electric buses because the propulsion system is powered only by the electric energy stored in the battery. The battery pack is either recharged daily or "swapped out" when the batteries are depleted. Due to the potential benefits of using zero emission buses in public fleets, there has been much R&D funding devoted to improving the battery technology over the last decade. The most obvious and major benefit of electric drive buses is environmental improvement due to an absence of tail pipe emissions. In an electric vehicle, the impact on the region's environment is dependent only on the power generation process for that region and not on the vehicle itself. Hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric buses are also more fuel efficient than their ICE counterparts because of their battery powered electric drive systems which results in reduced fuel consumption, as well as reduced, or even zero, mobile emissions. Electric-drive bus fuel efficiency can be further improved through a regenerative braking system that captures energy that would otherwise be lost and stores it as electricity in the on board battery (NREL, 2008). Other advanced technologies such lightweight materials for body, chassis, and seat assemblies; stop-start systems for idle reduction; improved batteries, electric motors, converters, and power electronics are also being deployed to further improve the fuel efficiency of advanced electric buses and thereby further improve the level of service offered by these vehicles as well as the urban air quality. Over the years, numerous studies have proved that electric drive buses have significant increases in fuel economy when compared to standard diesel buses. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), hybrid buses offer an average 37% fuel economy improvement over conventional diesel buses (NREL, 2008).




Currently, active electric buses around the world are segmented into two broad categories: 1. Autonomous Electric Buses
a. Autonomous electric buses are buses where an energy storage device (either a battery or a flywheel) is located onboard, within the bus itself b. They can be further categorized into:  Battery Electric Bus – Uses batteries as the storage device  Gyrobus – Uses a flywheel as the storage device Figure 10: Gyrobus
Figure 11: Battery Powered Electric Bus
2. Non-Autonomous Electric Buses
a. Non-autonomous electric buses are powered by electric wires or power lines located outside the bus, either overhead or located within the roads on which the bus travels b. They can be further categorized into:  The Trolleybus – The trolleybus utilizes two overhead electric wires, with electricity being drawn from one wire and returned via the other wire, using two roof-mounted trolley poles Figure 12: Online Electric Bus (Gapbus)
Figure 13: Trolleybus
 The Online Electric Vehicle (Bus) – The OLEV (also known as Gapbus) utilizes power that is supplied over a gap (12 cm to 17 cm) from a power line embedded in the ground For the Sri Lanka transport NAMA, viable autonomous electric battery powered bus options are proposed. The drive system for a battery-electric bus consists of an electric motor, a battery pack to provide energy storage, and a control system that governs the vehicle operation. The battery pack is either recharged daily or "swapped out" when the batteries are depleted. The following table provides an overview of the various components that make up an autonomous electric bus: Electric Motor
Max. Rated Power: 150 kW (EBUSCO Buses) – 360 kW (BYD Buses) Battery Pack
Preferred battery of choice in Lithium Ferrous Phosphate Energy Density: 110 electric vehicles due to their Lithium Ion (LiB) high energy/power densities and stable chemistry, which Lithium Manganese Oxide Energy Density: 280 prevents it from overheating at high temperatures. Energy Density: 140 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Used in early hybrid/electric Energy Density: 30 - Lead Acid Batteries Mode of Charging
Alternate Current (AC)
 Majority of electric drivetrain buses available today are AC charge compatible and are able to charge from 120 or 208/240 Volt AC outlets using an appropriate connector. Direct Current (DC)
 For higher speed charging, DC fast charging equipment is required. Although this technology requires a higher power utility supply, it is still preferred as it is able to supply DC power directly to the batteries allowing them to charge at a much faster rate.  The fast charge system can charge a bus with a 40 mile range in roughly 10 minutes. If necessary, the system can reach at least a 92 percent charge in as little as six minutes. Table 12: Components of a Battery Powered Electric Bus
Figure 14: Electric Bus Charging Stations
The table below lists out a few prominent manufacturers of the electric buses around the world: Charging
Performance
Capacity
Technology
(kWh/km)
and-electric-buses.htm & & Lithium Ferrite and-electric-buses.htm Lithium Titanate tech/product-portfolio/ buses/ebusco-2-0 NA = Not Available
Table 13: Electric Bus Manufacturers
The aforementioned manufacturers among others will be approached to determine the suitability of their buses for the implementation in the 4.3. Activities under the NAMA
As highlighted earlier, the NAMA intervention comprises of the adoption and operation of 100 electric buses on the Galle BRT in place of conventional diesel fuelled, articulated buses. In this regard, the activities of the NAMA to achieve the same, are divided into two distinct phases, both of which have been Pilot (Demonstration) Phase (Phase 1)
Phase 1 of the NAMA intervention will introduce 10 electric buses, owned and operated by private operators in to the Galle BRT. The aim of Phase 1 of the NAMA, a pilot project, is to generate awareness about the NAMA, highlighting its importance for the transport sector. Phase 1 also displays the government's commitment to the development of a sustainable transport sector in Sri Lanka while encouraging increased private sector participation through the provision of grants. This should help make it appealing for other private bus operators in Sri Lanka to operate eBuses on the Galle BRT during full scale operations of the NAMA. Apart from the introduction and operation of eBuses on the BRT, Phase 1 shall also include extensive capacity building measures and awareness programs, designed to fulfil the following purposes:  Training the proponents and participants of the NAMA including training the trainee programs as well as training of government officials, bus operators and on-ground personnel, among others  Raising awareness about the intervention including information on the technology adopted, benefits of the intervention, etc. among the Sri Lankan public The funding for this phase of the NAMA will cover the complete cost of all the 10 eBuses to be introduced into the BRT, charging stations and capacity building measures. The funding will be sourced from a combination of sources which includes the private operators of eBuses, the Government of Sri Lanka and international climate finance. Full Scale Operations (Phase 2)
Phase 2 will involve the start of full scale operations of the NAMA wherein the remaining 90 eBuses are introduced and operations of all 100 eBuses commences on the Galle BRT. As with Phase 1, all the eBuses will be owned and operated by private operators. Funding for the second phase of the NAMA will cover the difference between the amount pledged by a private operator for the purchase of an eBus (minimum of 30 percent inorder to be eligible for participation in Phase 2) and the total cost of the eBus. The NAMA shall also cover the costs of additional charging stations and capacity building measures (if necessary). The funding for this final phase shall be sourced from the private operators of eBuses and international climate finance. Both phases shall also provide free charging for a period of 12 months to all private players operating eBuses on Galle BRT, starting from the first day of operation. Figure 15: NAMA Activities
The details of the funding mechanisms for both the phases have been elaborated in Chapter 7 – NAMA Costs and Finance. 4.4. Eligibility Criteria for NAMA Funding
In order to be able to receive funding under the NAMA, every eBus operator needs to meet the eligibility criteria set out in the following table: Eligibility Criterion
Description
Galle BRT, Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA) Autonomous electric battery powered bus (check with Sri Lankan
Government if they wish to be specific about the particulars of the
technology like type of battery, minimum battery capacity, mileage,
Minimum Bus Life Minimum Battery Life 50,000 kms annually (40% of the expected average total distance to be Minimum Level of Service travelled by a bus on the BRT every year) (check with the Sri Lankan
Government for any additional LoS requirements)
The eBuses must be operational on the Galle BRT within 3 months of contract award (check with the Sri Lankan Government if the time
period is alright)
The maximum grant funding that can be applied for is a 100 Phase 1 percent of investment costs. Eligibility Criterion
Description
The maximum funding that can be applied for is equal to 70 percent of the total cost of an eBus. As part of the eligibility criteria, a private operator needs to pledge atleast 30 percent of the cost of eBuses inorder to qualify for participation in the bidding process in Phase 2. Table 14: Eligibility Criteria for the NAMA
4.5. Approval Structure of the NAMA
The selection of private eBus operators to be financed under the NAMA will carried as per the steps delineated in the table below: Description
The NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE) will contact private players who operate buses in the CMA region, where the Galle BRT will be interest from private implemented, through the issuance of an expression of interest confirming the level of interest in taking part in the introduction and operation of electric buses on the BRT The planned implementation of the BRT along with eBuses will be promoted by the NIE in and around the CMA. Information will be given to households and institutions about the level of service they Promotion of electric can receive and associated costs. Existing companies (for example, battery manufacturers) and potential operators of ancillary industries will be informed about the planned intervention and associated costs such as operational and maintenance costs for an eBus. Financial bids for permits to operate eBuses on the BRT and access Invitation of financial funding for procurement of eBuses, from private operators will be bids from private invited. For Phase 1, financial bids for a total of 10 eBuses will be invited while for phase 2, bids for 90 eBuses will be invited. Results of financial bids are announced and the name of private bus operator selected to operate eBuses on the Galle BRT is sent to NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA) for approval. The private bus operator wining the bid shall sign a contract with Govt. of Sri Lanka (need inputs from the government as to which
ministry/organization should be involved here), committing to a
Contract signing minimum level of service as by the eligibility criteria to receive funding. The private player shall now be considered to be an individual NAMA Executing Entity (NEE). Description
Payment is released by the NAMA donor to the NCA (also part of the Release of payment NIE), who forwards it to the NIE, where from it is released to the Purchase of eBuses, followed by their operation on the BRT is Operation of eBus carried out by the NEE. Table 15: Approval Structure for the NAMA
The diagram shown below details the workflow of the approval process along with the entities involved. Figure 16: Workflow of the NAMA Approval Process
5. NAMA Implementation Structure
5.1. Actions to Institutionalize the NAMA
The coordination and management of the NAMA requires an institutional structure, which shall meet the following requirements:  It must be embedded in national and sectoral policies and strategies.  It must be capable of effective communication and reporting as required by international agencies, such as the UNFCCC.  It must provide an interface to international bilateral and multilateral NAMA funding entities, such as the Green Climate Fund and NAMA Facility among others.  It must be able to ensure proper management of financial flows between the NAMA funding entities and the recipients.  It must be able to ensure the achievement of NAMA targets in terms of use of electric vehicles, GHG mitigation and sustainable co-benefits.  It must be able to allow transparent monitoring of GHG emission reductions and Sustainable Development indicators. The recommended institutional structure of the NAMA is based on the following principles:  Ensuring the strong involvement of national stakeholders to create country ownership and political  Using existing and experienced entities organizational systems which are already in place and allow for prompt and smooth implementation of the NAMA.  Ensuring that the institutional structure is appropriate for the receipt of international private and/or public donor funding. 5.2. Institutional Framework for NAMA Implementation and
Management
The institutional structure for the NAMA shall include the following institutional bodies at the country level:  a NAMA National Focal Point or National NAMA Approver (NA)  a NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA)  a NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE)  NAMA Executing Entities (NEEs) The following sections provide an in-depth understanding of the roles and responsibilities of the institutional bodies listed above. National NAMA Approver/Focal Point
The national NAMA Approver or Focal Point shall inter alia:  Approve NAMAs which shall be registered at the UNFCCC  Provide guidance to sectoral NAMA coordinating entities (access to climate finance, financial flows, MRV etc.)  Issue procedures for accounting of emission reductions to avoid double counting of emission reductions from various implemented NAMAs  Support the preparation of the National Communication, Biennial Update Reports, and Summary of GHG Reductions etc. The Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment (check with the Ministry of Env. if this is
the new name for the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources) has already been appointed
as NAMA Approver/Focal Point to the UNFCCC and as the National Designated Authority (NDA) to the The NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA)
The NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA) is the entity which coordinates the proposed NAMA on replacement of conventional buses with e-buses. Its main tasks are:  Acting as primary contact for international donor(s)  Managing and directing the NAMA  Approving NAMA targets  The implementation process with regard to the submission of project applications and the disbursement of funds (in close collaboration with the NCCC, the NAMA Focal Point, the NIE)  Approving and updating eligible interventions  Approving annual monitoring reports prepared by the NIE (covering inter alia the number of projects implemented, the calculation of emission reductions etc.) and  Supervising the financial flows between donors and beneficiaries. The Ministry of Internal Transport will act as the NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA) for the Sri Lanka
NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE)
The NIE will be responsible for handling financial flows from funding entities to the beneficiaries as well as for project approval. The NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE) is the main operative body of the Transport NAMA in Sri Lanka. The main tasks of the NIE are to:  Ensure the proper transfer and disbursement of funds from the donors to the recipients based on an agreed set of criteria (e.g. money will be held in a trust account with limited access, money will be disbursed only after the project has been implemented, etc.)  Prepare reports to the NCA/donor(s) on various elements of the NAMA, for example: the use of funds, the number of projects implemented, targets achieved Among other elements  Capacity-building for institutions and companies involved in the implementation of the NAMA (e.g. micro-grid operators and equipment suppliers)  Development of technical standards for equipment/installations used under the NAMA  Co-ordination of promotion and awareness raising campaigns and of support for the implementation of the NAMA  Integration of the private sector into NAMA implementation  Co-ordination of monitoring activities and preparation of monitoring reports for all interventions  Facilitation and coordination of verification through the external entity designated for this task  Reporting to the NCA in fulfilment of reporting requirements to the donor and  Co-operation with internal and external financial auditors The NIE needs to have a strong background and good track record in financing. Therefore, it makes sense to recruit external experts to provide support to the NIE on technical financial issues. The distribution of work between the NIE and the technical experts will be agreed before the start of NAMA The Ministry of Internal Transport along with the Ministry of Finance and Planning and the
Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon (DFCC Bank) (check with Sri Lankan Government)
shall take up the role of the NIE. The Ministry of Internal Transportation is responsible for the development, implementation and maintenance of Sri Lanka's transportation sector (including policy formation and development) and hence has an in-depth understanding of the requirements for and barriers to the implementation of the Transport The Ministry of Internal Transport will be supported by The Ministry of Finance and Planning on matters related to finance. The Ministry of Finance and Planning is responsible for developing and executing Sri Lanka's public finance policy, economic policy and long term planning and will be essential in providing the technical assistance required in the area of finance such as developing norms and regulations around the disbursement of the funds. The Development Finance Corporation of Ceylon (DFCC Bank) will be responsible for disbursing the funds received from the NAMA donor to the NAMA Executing Entities (NEEs). The DFCC Bank is the oldest development finance institution (DFI) in Sri Lanka and also the nodal entity for providing loans related to renewable energy and energy efficiency projects on behalf of the European Investment Bank (EIB). They thus have extensive experience in the management and disbursement of funds allocated for the purpose of development in Sri Lanka. NAMA Executing Entities (NEEs)
The NAMA Executing Entities (NEEs) are the private operators who will operate electric buses under the auspice of the NAMA. Each NEE will:  Operate electric buses on the proposed Galle BRT in compliance with the rules of the intervention  Inform the NIE about the performance of their buses and  Collect data for monitoring purposes (requirements will be communicated by the NIE based on the The existing Sri Lanka Transport Board (SLTB) will act as the supervisory board for the NEEs (As
with every other institution, check with the Sri Lankan Government for approval). The SLTB is
responsible for advising the government on national policy relating to passenger transport services by buses, providing efficient passenger service by bus throughout the country, maintaining designated bus terminals and improving services at such terminals for passenger benefit. Thus, they are the most appropriate organization to supervise the NEEs in the execution of the NAMA. The following organizational diagram illustrates the recommended institutional structure of the NAMA described above. The Ministry of Internal Transport will be the core stakeholder in the NAMA due to its
various functions. Bilateral funding entities or donors will be in direct contact with the Ministry of Internal
Transport.
Figure 17: NAMA Institutional Structure
6. NAMA Capacity Development
6.1. NAMA Capacity Development Program
The NAMA capacity development program is designed to ensure a smooth launch of the NAMA and contribute to the successful implementation of its activities. The development and implementation of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA will require capacity building and training of the institutions involved, government ministries and institutions as well as private bus operators. It will also need the development of outreach programs inorder to incite interest within the private sector for the NAMA along with promotional campaigns marketing the intervention (utilization of electric buses in the BRT) to generate awareness and interest in the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles within the country. The proposed NAMA capacity development program will consist of two components:  Component 1 will target support for the launch of the NAMA and will provide capacity-building for the governmental entities involved (such as the NCA and the NIE).  Component 2 will focus on awareness-raising about the NAMA once implementation has begun and will provide: General capacity development to create a common awareness of the NAMA Specific stakeholder oriented capacity building The capacity development program will be led by international consultant(s) with the support of national experts. The first component will be carried out by international/national consultants only. In the second component NCA and NIE staff who have been trained in the first component will start to provide seminars/trainings and workshops. 6.2. Component 1: Capacity Development for NAMA Launch and
Component 1 of the capacity development program will support the capacity development of institutions involved for the launch and implementation of the NAMA and will assist in the development of the following activities:  Establishing a NAMA work flow detailing its processes including implementation cycles, staff  Designing NAMA related contractual conditions (for example, contract for the hiring of an operator  Preparing NAMA project documentation (application forms, call and bid documents, procurement rules, monitoring, evaluation and reporting forms, etc.) This component is concerned solely with activities which have to be performed by the NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA) and the NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE). Capacity development for implementation will be carried out by international/national consultants only. In this regard international experts (technical and financial) will be hired for a period of 3 years, as international advisors. The following sections elaborate the various activities of Component 1 of the capacity development Implementing NAMA network and communication framework
This part of the capacity development program will facilitate establishment of the NAMA entities and explain the roles that stakeholders will play within the NAMA structures through multilateral and bilateral meetings and workshops. During this phase, the NIE will receive assistance through the following types of technical training:  Train the trainer programs about the objectives, benefits and procedures of the NAMA (the NIE will then be able to offer training to the NEEs) Case study training for project approval and verification Training on MRV for GHG emission reductions and SD benefits Designing designation of authority and time frames for process steps within the NIE Training on reporting to the NCA  Prepare communication structure and informing procedures detailing the flow of information from the NA right down to the NEEs and NAMA ground personnel Regulations and Contractual Conditions
This part of the capacity development program will perform the following roles:  Draft, in close cooperation with the Government, amendments to the existing regulations as  Assist in the drafting of contractual conditions and documents setting out the relationships between the NAMA stakeholders, as required (e.g. to distribute responsibilities between the entities constituting the NIE)  The contract to be signed by the NIE and the NEEs will be designed by the NIE (with the support of the capacity building program) and will contain at least: Name and address of the legal entity asking for support A description of the eBuses to be purchased by the NEEs (private operators) Amount of grant/loan/subsidy to be given Reference to the legal framework for this NAMA and the relevant approval procedures The period for finalizing the purchase and operation of eBuses and issuing invoices to the NIE - Reporting requirements by the NEEs
- Payment conditions
Preparing NAMA project documentation
This activity of the capacity development program involves the following:  Prepare the documents (application forms, call and bid templates, evaluation and reporting forms,  Prepare the procedures for practical implementation (procurement rules, monitoring manual, evaluation, cross-check, approval and reporting structures, etc.)  Ensure that the relevant forms and procedures are subject to consultation with potential end users and are sufficiently robust to secure practicability, avoid bureaucracy and eliminate corruption 6.3. Component 2: Awareness Raising and Marketing
Component 2 of the capacity development program will focus on generating interest for the NAMA among the various stakeholders of the NAMA including private players being invited to participate for the purchase and operation of eBuses on the BRT (potential NEEs) as well as the Sri Lankan public who will be utilizing the services provided by the NAMA. This will done through the development of a combination of awareness raising programs and marketing campaigns, disseminating information on the NAMA among its various stakeholders. This component will consist of the following activities: General activities
A countrywide generic marketing/awareness-raising strategy for the NAMA will create a common understanding of the benefits of electric buses, their use in the BRT and explain the NAMA's objectives  Organizing NAMA Launch Event The launch event will be the countrywide kick off for the NAMA and will inform people about its objectives, stakeholders and timelines. The launch event will include a press briefing and will provide some informal networking opportunities.  Designing/Maintaining the NAMA Website The web page is one of the main communication tools of the NAMA providing information about: The qualification criteria for private bus operators News and achievements of the NAMA  Coordinating General NAMA Information Events In addition to the launch event, two general information events (outreach programs) will be organized per year (for the first three years of the NAMA) which will present the idea of electric vehicles and this specific NAMA, its objectives and opportunities, and explain the NAMA  Support in Business Development Focus will be given to supporting new entrepreneurs in developing ancillary industries around the requirements of the eBus operators and the NAMA. This will include support on technical issues, such as production techniques, as well as general business development issues, such financing of production, product selection, client selection and market access.  Preparing/Disseminating NAMA Marketing Material Typical materials will include leaflets, pens, notepads, a best practice guide, folders, banners, etc.  Cooperation with public and private media There will be continuous information to the media about the implementation and outcomes of the Stakeholder-Targeted Activities
These marketing/awareness-raising strategies will help ensure widespread participation in the NAMA. This section refers to the capacity-building activities, tailored to the needs of the stakeholders, especially the private bus operators (potential NEEs) and will be provided by international experts.  National NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE)
One of the most important tasks of the NIE with regard to the NAMA is to avoid double counting of emission reductions and ensure proper monitoring and reporting of the NAMA intervention. Therefore the NIE's specific capacity-building will focus on: The exchange of know-how with other countries which are implementing or have implemented transport NAMAs using electric vehicles The MRV system of the NAMA In case of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA, while the NIE constitutes three separate organizations, the aforementioned training shall be provided to The Ministry of Internal Transport.
Private Bus Operators
Private bus operators are the companies which will invest in the NAMA (future NEEs) by buying and operating the eBuses on the BRT as well as providing related services. Workshops and presentations on NAMA objectives, eligibility, procedures, etc. will be provided to these  Suppliers of EV Equipment (Ancillary Industries)
General information on the NAMA's business potential will be provided to interested companies. It is estimated that the total cost of the capacity development for the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA will be approximately around USD 1.2 Million (details provided in Chapter 7 – NAMA Costs and Finance). 7. NAMA Costs and Finance
7.1. Proposed Investment in the Galle Bus Rapid Transit
The "Study of BRT on Galle Road", by the University of Moratuwa has recommended a public-private partnership for the financing of the proposed Galle BRT, with the government of Sri Lanka contributing upto USD 140 million for the construction and implementation of the BRT, with a majority of the financing being directed towards the development of the BRT's infrastructure components such as bus stations, the run way and traffic components among others. The private sector would be involved through the purchase of new buses that would operate on the BRT. The following table indicates proposed investments from the Sri Lankan Government (public investment) for the various components of the proposed Galle BRT: Proposed Public Investment
Component
Financing (Million USD)
Planning Stage Cost Traffic Improvements Operator Development/Compensation Urban, Social and Environment Costs Total Public Contribution
Table 16: Proposed BRT Investments from Sri Lanka Government
It is evident from the information provided in the table above that while the government does not pledge any finance for the purchase of buses that will run on the BRT, it contributes significantly to the development of the infrastructure of the Galle BRT. The purchase and operation of buses on the Galle BRT is expected to be completely under the purview of the private sector. However, in order to bolster the effectiveness and financial viability of eBuses to private sector bus operators, it is proposed that the Sri Lankan government contribute financially through the provision of subsidies to the operators of eBuses on the BRT. The subsidies provided shall be in the form of an import tax exemption and a fuel subsidy, designed to make the purchase and operation of eBuses on the BRT attractive for private operators. A financial contribution directly from the local government signifies political stake and support in the implementation of the NAMA intervention for the BRT, thus strengthening the commitment to the project. 7.2. Financial Analysis of the NAMA intervention
The proposed NAMA intervention vies to provide an avenue for GHG mitigation and accrue sustainable development benefits within the CMA through the adoption of eBuses in the Galle BRT, in place of conventionally fuelled (diesel) buses. The following table provides an overview of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA intervention and the costs associated with its various components: Performance Indicator
Galle BRT - Baseline Scenario (Conventional Fossil Fuelled Buses)
Articulated Buses Cost of Individual Bus Sri Lanka Transport NAMA - Replace Conventional Buses with Electric Buses
Cost of Individual Bus Cost of Replacement Battery Charging Stations required Cost of Charging Station Table 17: NAMA Costs Overview
Apart from the capital investment required for the purchase of 100 eBuses, the NAMA also includes other components such as placement of charging stations and capacity building measures. Utilizing the information presented above, a detailed financial analysis of the intervention was performed, covering a period of 10 years from the start of the NAMA. The results of this analysis have been highlighted below: Indicator
Conventionally Fuelled Buses
Electric Buses
Total Number of Buses Total Capital Cost Total Operational Cost Financial Comparison
Net Present Value (NPV) of Benefits in eBuses Table 18: Financial Analysis of NAMA
The analysis showcases that the use of eBuses in place of conventionally fuelled buses in the Galle BRT is a financially viable and lucrative option when compared to the operation of conventional buses, while also leading to mitigation of GHG emissions and providing various sustainable development benefits for the CMA. Thus, the development and implementation of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA provides not just environmental and social benefits for the country but also yields its operators economic benefits in the form of early payback and profitability. Additionally, the financial analysis also details the major cost components of the NAMA that need financial support (table below) with estimates of the amount of finance required: Capital Investment
Cost Component
Unit Rate (USD)
Quantity
Cost (USD)
Electric Buses
Cost of eBuses in Phase 1 Cost of eBuses in Phase 2 Charging Stations Import duty exemption for BRT eBuses Capacity Development
Cost Component
Unit Rate (USD)
Quantity
Cost (USD)
International Experts
Technical Expert Financial Expert International Flights Awareness Programs
Training programs for BRT staff Outreach program for private sector NAMA public awareness raising events Contingency (5%)
Project Administration (7%)
33,810,520
Table 19: NAMA Costs Details
* Currently 0 as the value for import tax exemption per bus is yet to be decided
The assumptions as well as detailed calculations, along with their respective sources have been elaborated in the annexures. 7.3. Financing Mechanism for the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA
The financing mechanism for the NAMA has been designed taking into account the various modes of funding that are available from international financing agencies. The following sections propose a customized financing mechanism (based on a combination of approaches) that can be utilized based on the route or scenario through which financing is accessed, i.e. a combination of grants and soft loans. The table below describes the various approaches on which the mechanism is based: Approach
Description
A soft loan is a loan, typically given to a developing country, on terms that are very favourable to the borrower. It usually involves provision of the loan at below-market or zero rate of interest. International financing agencies usually prefer providing soft loans when it comes to infrastructure projects or projects that require a large amount of financing. Since the transport NAMA could be considered to be an infrastructure project it is likely that financing agencies would offer soft loans for its implementation. In reverse auctioning, proposals are collected on the basis of tendering or an eligibility criteria. Proposals are subsequently accepted based on the amount of funding requested, with preference given to the lowest technically competent offer. In case of the transport NAMA, proposals from private operators, in order to access NAMA financing to purchase eBuses shall be accepted on the basis of the least amount of funding (gap funding) requested. An import duty is a tax collected on imports and some exports by the customs authorities of a country. This tax is used to raise state revenue and is based on the value of goods called ad valorem duty or the weight, dimensions, or other criteria of the item such as its size. It is also referred to as customs duty, tariff, import tax and tariff. In case of the transport NAMA, it is proposed that the Sri Lankan government relax taxation of electric buses meant for the BRT in the form of exemption from import duties on the same (indirect subsidy). A fuel subsidy is a discount on the selling price of fuel as compared to its market value. In case of the transport NAMA, it is proposed that the Sri Lankan government provide operators of eBuses fuel subsidy for the first twelve months (one year) of operation in the form of free charging (direct subsidy). Table 20: Financial Approaches Utilized
7.4. NAMA financing through a combination of grants and soft loans
The financing mechanism proposed in this section is based on the recommendation that all of the international climate financing required for the NAMA be availed in the form of grants and soft loans with support from the Sri Lanka government in the form of a grant and indirect subsidies (import duty exemption). The following table highlights the various components of NAMA finance, their corresponding financing requirements along with their respective proposed fulfilment mechanisms: Investment
Cost Component
No. of Units
Total Cost
Financing Source
Financing Mechanism
Category
Phase 1: Pilot Phase - Introduction of 10 eBuses
Finance for eBuses Charging Stations Free Charging (12 Months) Import duty exemption for BRT eBuses Indirect Subsidy International Experts International Flights Awareness Programs Project Administration Total Cost for Phase 1
5,076,880#
Phase 2: Full Scale Operations - Operations of 100 eBuses
Finance for eBuses Soft Loan + Reverse Charging Stations Free Charging (12 Months) Import duty exemption for BRT eBuses Indirect Subsidy International Experts International Flights Awareness Programs Project Administration Total Cost for Phase 2
28,733,640#
Total NAMA Cost
33,810,520#
Table 21: NAMA Intervention Financing
* Currently 0 as the value for import tax exemption per bus is yet to be decided based on discussions with the Government of Sri Lanka
# The total values are liable to change depending on the value of import tax exemption that is finally decided upon by the Government of Sri Lanka
The following figure highlights the financial flows for the different financing components within the two phases of the NAMA: Figure 18: NAMA Financial Flows
Phase 1 - NAMA Pilot (Demonstration)
Phase 1 introduces 10 electric buses through private operators in to the Galle BRT, a pilot project whose aim is to generate awareness about the NAMA, highlighting its importance for the transport sector. Funding for eBuses being introduced in Phase 1 will cover the complete cost of the 10 eBuses that the government wishes to introduce into the BRT, i.e. USD 395,000 per bus (USD 3.95 million for 10 buses), and shall be covered by international climate financing agencies in the form of grants. This should help make it appealing for other private bus operators in Sri Lanka to operate eBuses on the Galle BRT during full scale operations of the NAMA (while also raising awareness about the technology among the Sri Furthermore, the design parameters for the disbursement of aforementioned funds are as follows:  Funding for the lowest bidder (Reverse Auctioning)
Financial bids for the 10 eBus permits from private operators will be invited. The funds allotted to the permit will be provided to the operator with the lowest bid, i.e. the lowest amount of funding requested (reverse auctioning).  Disbursement of funds
The funding allotted to every eBus permit will be sourced in the following manner: i. The complete amount requested (winning bid) shall be provided from funds availed through the international climate financing agency. ii. The remaining unused amount (if any) shall be utilized for the next phase of the NAMA iii. For example, in case a winning bid requests for USD 295,000 for an eBus, USD 295,000 shall be fulfilled by the grant from the international climate financing agency while the remaining USD 100,000 shal be channel ed into Phase 2 of the NAMA intervention i.e. the NAMA's full scale operations. Phase 2 - Full Scale Operations of the NAMA
Phase 2 of the NAMA involves the initiation of the NAMA's full scale operations wherein the remaining 90 eBuses are introduced and operated on the Galle BRT. The financing for phase 2 shall cover the entire differential cost of the 90 buses open to the private sector, i.e. a value of USD 24.9 Million. This differential amount shall be availed through international climate finance in the form of a soft loan, at a low, preferential rate of interest. The NIE will then disburse this amount in the form of soft loans to the private operators at a very favourable rate of interest, lower than the prevalent market rate. Thus, while the operators are indebted to return the financing received back to the government, they do so at a rate which is far lower than the prevalent market rate of return, making the government soft loan an attractive vehicle to finance the purchase of eBuses. The disbursement of the loans shall be done on the basis of the lowest bids (reverse auctioning) and it is likely that not all the amount will be disbursed. The remainder could be channelled into other similar projects across Sri Lanka or can even be used in the operation and maintenance of the Galle BRT, with lending being carried out at possibly higher rates than which it was received, thereby acting as an additional revenue generating source for the government. The design parameters for the financing of Phase 2 have been elaborated below:  Invitation to bid
Financial bids from an operator will be invited, if and only if, the aforementioned operator has committed to investing atleast 30% of the capital cost required for the purchase of an eBus in the form of equity. The remaining amount of the capital cost can be covered by the operator through the soft loan (received at a rate of interest far lower than prevailing market rates, thus making it a very attractive option) from the NIE.  Funding for the lowest bidder
The electric bus permits and the subsequent funds allotted to the permit will be provided to the operator (making it a NEE) with the lowest bid, i.e. the lowest amount of funds requested (reverse  Disbursement of funds
i. Prior to disbursement, the NIE and NEE will enter into a Fund Securitization Agreement (as agreed upon by the Government of Sri Lanka) providing the NIE claim over the asset, i.e. the eBus (or eBuses) owned by the NEE, in case of an event of loan default or failure to meet the required level of service during operation of the eBus on the BRT. ii. The funding allotted to the NEE will be released in full at the time of purchase of the eBuses
Seizure of assets
In the event that a NEE: i. Defaults on the loan ii. Fails to operate an eBus for a minimum of atleast 50,000 kms (approximately 40% of the expected average total distance to be travelled by a bus on the BRT every year) in a year iii. Performs a sale of an eBus before the end of its expected life time i.e. 10 years The NIE holds the right to seize the asset (eBus). The NIE can then resell the eBus to a new buyer at a lower cost than market cost, on the condition that the eBus continues its operation on the Galle BRT till the end of its remaining lifespan. Phase 1 & 2 - Provision of import tax exemption (indirect subsidy),
fuel subsidy (direct subsidy), financing of charging infrastructure
and capacity building

Financing for the following cost components shall also be provided through a combination of government intervention and international climate finance grants:  Exemption of import duty on eBuses
Apart from the grant funding proposed, it is proposed that the government relax taxation of eBuses meant for the BRT in the form of exemption from import duties on the same. This will act as further proof of the government's commitment to the development of a BRT with electric buses and sustainable transport in Sri Lanka, while making adoption of eBuses in the BRT attractive for the private sector.  Fuel subsidy through free charging facility
In addition to the exemption of import duty on eBuses, it is proposed that the government provide operators of eBuses fuel subsidy for the first twelve months (one year) of operation in the form of free charging. It has been estimated that the fuel subsidy for 100 eBuses for a period of one year would cost the government a total of USD 1.36 million.  Charging station infrastructure & capacity building
i. Purchasing and setting up 50 charging stations for the electric bus fleet, each costing approximately USD 50,000 (infrastructure development), ii. Capacity development and training for the NAMA, to a tune of approximately USD 1.2 million (details provided above). Shall be availed through grants from international climate financing agencies The operations and maintenance costs (including cost of replacement batteries) for the eBuses are expected to be covered by the revenue generated by the respective players through the operation of the eBuses on the Galle BRT. 8. NAMA Measurement, Reporting
and Verification
8.1. NAMA Measurement, Reporting and Verification Framework
As a NAMA is an instrument of output based aid, the results of implemented NAMAs need to be amenable to Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) in order to attract donors and to guarantee the sustainable success of the interventions. The methodology for monitoring the effects of NAMAs needs to follow the general principles of transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness and accuracy. This applies to all the components to be monitored. The objective of the MRV framework is to provide a credible and transparent approach for quantifying and reporting GHG emission reductions. An MRV framework includes the following elements:  System boundary definition
The system boundary encompasses significant anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources under the control of the project participant that are reasonably attributable to the NAMA intervention as a project activity.  Baseline scenario
The baseline scenario is the scenario for a project activity that reasonably represents the anthropogenic emissions by GHG sources as well as sustainable development that would occur in the absence of the proposed project activity, i.e. the NAMA intervention. In case of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA, the baseline scenario constitutes the use of conventionally fuelled (diesel) articulated buses on the Galle BRT.  Project activity scenario
The project activity scenario is a NAMA intervention, in this instance the utilization of electric buses on the Galle BRT, and the related anthropogenic emissions by GHG sources and the associated sustainable development that occurs due to the project activity.  Emissions reduction calculation
The GHG emissions reduction achieved by the project activity will be determined as the difference between the baseline emissions and the project emissions.  Monitoring
Defines the parameters to be monitored.  Reporting and verification
Defines the reporting requirements and verification procedures. 8.2. Measurement
Monitoring
Emissions
Reductions
The GHG emission reductions which will be achieved by the NAMA intervention, adoption of electric buses in the BRT, are calculated by comparing project emissions with the emissions under a baseline scenario. The MRV, including GHG emission calculation and details on the methodology used, for the NAMA intervention are given in detail in the next section. Baseline and Project GHG Emissions – An Overview
The Clean Development Mechanism provides the methodology, "AMS-III.C: Emission reductions by
electric and hybrid vehicles"
, to apply to project activities that introduce new electric and/or hybrid
vehicles that displace the use of fossil fuel vehicles in passenger and freight transportation. This
methodology was found to be most suitable and appropriate to determine the emissions in baseline as well as NAMA scenario. System Boundary
The project activity is defined by the use of electric buses on the Galle BRT, thus the project boundary encompasses the electric buses, the BRT and the source of electricity generation (fuel for eBuses). Baseline Emissions (Diesel Fuelled Articulated Buses)
The baseline emissions are calculated based on the unit of service provided by the project vehicles (travelled distance, kms) times the emission factor for the baseline vehicle to provide the same unit of service as per the equation below: BEy = EFBL,km x DDy x Ny x 10-6
Parameter
Description
Total baseline emissions in the year y Emission factor for baseline vehicle Annual average distance travelled by project vehicle in the year y Number of operational project vehicles in the year y. In case of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA this number is a 100. Table 22: Baseline Emissions
Using the formulae presented above, the total GHG emissions from 100 diesel fuelled articulated buses operating on the Galle BRT was calculated to be 15,320 tCO2 annually.
The emission factor for baseline vehicles (EFBL,km) is determined as follows: EFBL,km = SFC x NCVBL x EFBL x IRt
Parameter
Description
Specific fuel consumption of baseline vehicle Net calorific value of fossil fuel consumed by baseline vehicle Emission factor of fossil fuel consumed by baseline vehicle Technology improvement factor for baseline vehicle in year t. The improvement rate is applied to each calendar year. The default value of the technology improvement factor for the baseline vehicle was assumed to be 0. Year counter for the annual improvement (dependent on age of data per vehicle category) Table 23: Baseline Emission Factor
The assumptions as well as detailed calculations, along with their respective sources have been elaborated in the annexures. Project Emissions (Electric Buses)
Project emissions include emissions from the electricity (fossil fuel consumed for generation of electricity) associated with the operation of project vehicles and shall be calculated as follows: PEy = EFPJ,km,y x DDy x Ny
Parameter
Description
Total project emissions in the year y Emission factor per kilometre travelled by project vehicle Annual average distance travelled by project vehicle in the year y Number of operational project vehicles in the year y. In case of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA this number is a 100. Table 24: Project Emissions
Using the formulae presented above, the total GHG emissions from 100 electric buses operating on the Galle BRT was calculated to be 11,604 tCO2 annually.
The emission factor for project vehicles (EFPJ,km,y) is determined as follows: EFPJ,km,y = SECPJ,km,y x EFelec,y/(1 - TDLy) x 10-3
Parameter
Description
Specific electricity consumption by the project vehicle per km in year y in urban conditions CO2 emission factor of electricity consumed by project vehicle in year Average technical transmission and distribution losses for providing electricity in the year y Table 25: Project Emission Factor
The assumptions as well as detailed calculations, along with their respective sources have been elaborated in the annexures. Emissions Reduction
Emissions reduction is the difference between the baseline emissions and project emissions after implementing the NAMA intervention of adopting and operating eBuses on the Galle BRT. Therefore, the emissions reduction is calculated as follows: ERy = BEy – PEy – LEy
Parameter
Description
Emission reductions in year y Baseline emission in year y Project emission in year y Leakage emission in year y Table 26: Emissions Reduction
Since the project activity does not involve any fossil fuel switching measures, leakage calculation is not required and hence "Leakage emission" is taken to be 0. Thus, the emissions reduction due to the NAMA intervention (100 buses) is calculated to be a total of 3,715.9 tCO2 annually or 37,159 tCO2 over a period of 10 years.
This represents a total of approximately 24% decrease in emissions with respect to the baseline over a
period of 10 years. With an increase in scope and scale of the project, one can expect the emission reductions to increase further. Measurement and Monitoring
The following parameters will be monitored for the Sri Lanka transport NAMA: Parameter
Description
Data Unit
Annual average distance driven by project vehicle Specific electricity consumed per km per project vehicle CO2 emission factor of electricity used by project vehicle Number of project vehicles in operation Table 27: Monitored Emission Parameters
The aforementioned parameters are detailed below: DD (Annual average distance driven by project vehicle)
Parameter
Data Unit
Description
Annual average distance driven by project vehicle Source of Data
Frequency
Measurement
Monitor the distance travelled by all project vehicles Procedure
SEC (Specific electricity consumed per km per project vehicle)
Parameter
Data Unit
Description
Specific electricity consumed per km per project vehicle Source of Data
Frequency
Measurement
Monitor electricity consumption of all project vehicles Procedure
EF (CO2 emission factor of electricity used by project vehicle)
Parameter
Data Unit
Description
CO2 emission factor of electricity used by project vehicle Source of Data
Frequency
Through international publications such as IPCC Guidelines for National Measurement
Greenhouse Gas Inventories as well as national energy data sources like Procedure
Ceylon Petroleum Corporation N (Number of project vehicles in operation)
Parameter
Data Unit
Description
Number of project vehicles in operation Source of Data
Frequency
Measurement
Operational contract between the private bus operator (NEE) and the NAMA Procedure
implementer (NIE) Table 28: Monitored Emission Parameters Details
8.3. Measurement and Reporting of Sustainable Development
Benefits
In addition to GHG emissions, the MRV system for this NAMA will monitor the impact of the NAMA interventions on selected Sustainable Development (SD) indicators. The selection of the SD indicators was done using the Sustainable Development Evaluation Tool (SD Tool) developed by UNDP. The tool divides the SD indicators into five different domains: environment; social; growth and development; economic and institutional. The tool requires that for each intervention that an indicator (such as air pollution, biodiversity, health, etc.) is selected. The impact of the intervention on the chosen indicator can then be identified and explained, and the effects (positive, negative or both) pinpointed. Sustainable Development Benefits of the Sri Lanka Transport
NAMA

The indicators selected for the NAMA, in each of the five SD domains, are as follows: Parameter
Data Unit
Number of cases of respiratory health problems Frequency of eBuses along the BRT Number of eBuses on the BRT Capacity building (training/outreach programs held) Cost savings from increased energy security annually Number of private operators involved Table 29: Monitored SD Parameters
Given the absence of a BRT prior to the development of the NAMA, the baseline values for most of the parameters listed above can be safely assumed to be zero. However, parameters such as air pollution and cases of respiratory health problems have existed even before the development of the BRT and have accordingly been taken into account. Baseline
Parameter
Data Unit
Cases of respiratory health diseases Frequency of eBuses along the BRT Number of eBuses on the BRT Capacity building Cost savings from increased energy security Private operators involved Table 30: SD Parameters Baseline and Project Values
We will require inputs from the Sri Lankan government for the parameters highlighted in yellow.
Measurement and Monitoring
The SD benefits achieved due to the NAMA needs to be measured continuously, and reported by the responsible entity/intervention implementer regularly. Hard or soft copies of the reports should be kept at a safe centralized point, and be archived. The SD parameters have been detailed below: Air Pollution
Parameter
Concentration of air pollutants in the atmosphere Data Unit
The amount of pollutants in the atmosphere including SOx, NOx and Description
particulates, measured in parts per million (ppm) Source of Data
Frequency
Measurement
Monitor the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere in and around the Procedure
Respiratory Health Diseases
Parameter
Number of cases of respiratory health diseases Data Unit
Number of cases of respiratory health disease reported in the vicinity of the Description
BRT since the implementation of the NAMA Source of Data
Hospital Records Frequency
Monitor records of hospitals located in and around the vicinity of the BRT for Measurement
cases of respiratory health diseases and survey undertaken in cooperation Procedure
with the local community Frequency of eBuses along the BRT
Parameter
Frequency of eBuses Data Unit
Description
Number of eBuses available at every stop of the BRT every hour Source of Data
NAMA implementer's records Frequency
Measurement
Monitor the number of eBuses stopping at bus stops every hour Procedure
Number of eBuses on the BRT
Parameter
Number of eBuses on the BRT Data Unit
Description
Number of eBuses operational on the BRT Source of Data
NAMA implementer's records Frequency
Measurement
NAMA implementer's records on the operational contracts signed between the Procedure
private bus operator (NEE) and the NAMA implementer (NIE) Capacity building
Parameter
Number of events/programs held to train relevant NAMA stakeholders Data Unit
Number of training/outreach/awareness programs/events held to train/raise Description
awareness of relevant NAMA stakeholders including NIE, NEEs and the Source of Data
NAMA implementer's records Frequency
Measurement
Procedure
Cost savings
Parameter
Cost savings from increased energy security Data Unit
Amount of financial savings accrued due to a decrease in the use of imported Description
conventional fuels for the operation of eBuses on the BRT Source of Data
NAMA executing entities' and NAMA implementer's records Frequency
Measurement
Comparison between operational costs of eBuses and conventional buses Procedure
operating on the BRT Jobs created
Parameter
Number of new jobs created Data Unit
Description
Number of new jobs created due to the implementation of the NAMA Source of Data
NAMA implementer's records Frequency
NAMA implementer´s records on number of new employees generated Measurement
internally within institution and reports on numbers of new employees from Procedure
intervention implementers and other relevant stakeholders Private operators involved
Parameter
Number of private operators operating on eBuses on the BRT Data Unit
Private Operators Number of private operators operating on eBuses on the BRT indicating a Description
policy environment encouraging private sector involvement Source of Data
NAMA implementer's records Frequency
Measurement
NAMA implementer's records on the operational contracts signed between the Procedure
private bus operator (NEE) and the NAMA implementer (NIE) Table 31: Monitored Emission Parameters Details
Details of the SD indicators chosen for the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA have been provided in the 8.4. Measurement and Reporting of NAMA Support
The support provided as part of the NAMA will also need to be measured. While support can be provided in many forms: capacity-building, technology transfer and financial, since the bulk of support will come in the form of financing, it is the financial support which will be measured. International Finance
Parameter
International Financial Support Data Unit
Description
The amount of international financial support spent per activity Source of Data
NAMA implementer's (NIE) records Frequency
Measurement
All finances disbursed need to be tracked as per the standard governmental Procedure
tracking procedures. National Finance
Parameter
National (Government) Financial Support Data Unit
Description
The amount of national financial support (i.e. subsidies) spent per activity Source of Data
NAMA implementer's (NIE) records Frequency
Measurement
All finances disbursed need to be tracked as per the standard governmental Procedure
tracking procedures. Table 32: Monitored NAMA Support Parameters
8.5. Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Management
Framework
The main responsibility of the MRV system lies with the NAMA implementing agency i.e. the NIE. The database and the compliance system will be set up by the NIE. The NIE may however delegate some of the tasks to the organizations operating the intervention, i.e. the NEEs. The process flow for the MRV management framework is as follows:  The monitoring agency, which in case of the Sri Lanka Transport NAMA are the NEEs, will collect the data according to the monitoring plan (as part of their approved application), ensuring they fulfil all related requirements such as record keeping and quality control.  The NEEs report the monitoring results to the NIE in an annual report.  The NIE collects all monitoring reports, combines them in a central monitoring database and summarizes the results in a NAMA monitoring report. This report contains information on GHG emission reductions, progress in the SD indicators, and the financial performance of the NAMA  The report is then forwarded to the NCA, who then checks and approves the annual monitoring  The NIE also arranges for an external verification entity to verify the annual monitoring report.  The final monitoring report together with the verification report of the external verifier is submitted to the NAMA donor(s). Figure 19: NAMA MRV Management Process Flow
The following figure illustrates the management flow as described above: 8.6. Reporting Forms
The NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA) is responsible for the development of reporting form templates. These forms will include at a minimum the following information:  Details of the technology used  Details of the NEE, including contact details  Description of the measuring system  Data parameters measured  Default values applied  Sampling plan details  Calculation of emissions reductions The reporting form template will be provided by the NCA to the NEEs. The completed forms will be submitted annually to the NIE by the NEEs. 8.7. Verification Mechanisms
Verification rules for NAMAs are usually based on the requirements of the NAMA funding agencies, as well as host country requirements. Before developing domestic capacity for verification, it is recommended to use some of the existing CDM Designated Operational Entities (DOEs) or ISO 14064 certification bodies with experience in the transport sector and a good understanding of local conditions in the Sri Lanka, but NAMA-specific verification rules should be developed in the future. The goal of verification is to have an independent third party auditor ensure that the NAMA is operating as planned and that the measuring and reporting system is being implemented as planned. The verification also ensures that emissions reductions and SD benefits are real and measurable. 9. NAMA Implementation Plan
9.1. NAMA Implementation Flow
The implementation of the NAMA will be carried out in three main steps. As a first step, the institutional structure for NAMA implementation proposed in this document needs to be established. In parallel, funding from both international and national sources needs to be secured. Once these two steps are finalized, implementation of the NAMA intervention can proceed. Figure 20: NAMA Implementation Flow
9.2. Establishing NAMA Institutional Structure
As mentioned earlier, the first step of the NAMA implementation involves the establishment of the institutional structure proposed in this document. This would involve the following steps:  Finalizing NAMA implementation structure
This involves the final assignment of roles within the NAMA implementation structure, such as NAMA Coordinating Authority (NCA) and NAMA Implementing Entity (NIE) to the various organizations/ministries as proposed in Chapter 5 – NAMA Implementation Structure.  Assignment of tasks and responsibilities
Once the roles have been assigned, jurisdictions along with associated tasks and responsibilities of each of the NAMA implementation entities need to be defined and convened to the concerned entity. These tasks and responsibilities have been detailed in Chapter 5 – NAMA Implementation Structure.  Establish reporting structure
Apart from defining roles and responsibilities, there is also a need to clearly define the reporting structure of the NAMA implementation structure, along with its associated process flows. These too have been detailed in Chapter 5 – NAMA Implementation Structure. The benefit of the proposed structure is that all players (government ministries and financial institutions) already exist and no new body needs to be created. 9.3. Securing International and National Funding
Early stage consultations with international climate financing agencies are essential for securing sufficient international donor funding. Informal distribution of information on the NAMA concept should start immediately, in a bid to generate interest in the country, the NAMA and the sector in which the NAMA is being developed for. Formal approaches to potential funding agencies should start as soon as the NAMA document is finalized. Potential donors that already actively fund NAMAs are the German and British governments through the NAMA support facility, Global Environmental Facility (GEF) through its executing agencies, the Green Climate Fund (GCF), other EU Governments, and Japan through the Japan International Cooperation A secured budget for the domestically funded component will provide a strong signal to potential international financing agencies of a commitment to NAMA implementation by the Sri Lankan government. Therefore, it is essential that the domestic contributions to the interventions (subsidies in the form of import tax exemption and free charging) are secured within the state budget. 9.4. Implementation of NAMA Intervention
Once the institutional structure is in place and funding (both national and international) is secured, implementation of the intervention can start. The process of implementation will be as described in detail in Chapter 4 – NAMA Technical Intervention (Sections 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5) and Chapter 7 – NAMA Costs and Finance (Section 7.4). The following table gives a summary of the implementation timeline: Activity
Pre NAMA Intervention Implementation
Establishing NAMA institutional structure
Securing international and national funding
NAMA Intervention Implementation
Confirmation of interest from private bus
operators
Raising awareness of NAMA and promotion
of electric buses
Phase 1: NAMA Pilot Phase (10 eBuses)
Invitation of financial bids from private
operators
Announcement of results of bids
Contract Signing
Release of payment
Purchase and operation of 10 eBuses
Phase 2: Full Scale Operations (100 eBuses)
Invitation of financial bids from private
operators
Activity
Announcement of results of bids
Contract Signing
Release of payment
Purchase and operation of 90 new eBuses
(total of 100 eBuses operational)
Table 33: Sri Lanka Transport NAMA Implementation Timeline
References
Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2012. The Asian Development Bank's Support for the Transport Sector
in Sri Lanka. Available from http://www.oecd.org/derec/50582596.pdf Asian Development Bank (ADB), 2015. Sri Lanka: Economy. Available from
Center for the Theory of Change, 2013. What is Theory of Change? Available from http://www.
EMBARQ India, 2011. Buses as Low Carbon Mobility Solutions for Urban India: Evidence from Two
Cities. Available from GIZ TUEWAS NAMA Working Group (in collaboration with the UNEP DTU Partnership) (GIZ/UNEP),
2014. How are INDCs and NAMAs linked? A discussion paper on the links between INDCs, NAMAs and
Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics, 2008. MDG Indicators of Sri Lanka –
A Mid Term Review 2008. Available from http://www.statistics.gov.lk/MDG/Mid-term.pdf Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics, 2012. Census of Population and
Housing 2012. Available from Government of Sri Lanka Department of Census and Statistics, 2013. National Accounts of Sri Lanka
2012. Available from Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Environment, 2011. Sri Lanka's Second National Communication
on Climate Change. Available from http://unfccc.int/national_reports/non-annex_i_natcom/items/2979.php International Energy Agency (IEA), 2012. EV City Casebook: A Look at the Global Electric Vehicle
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2014. Sims R., R. Schaeffer, F. Creutzig, X. Cruz-
Núñez, M. D'Agosto, D. Dimitriu, M. J. Figueroa Meza, L. Fulton, S. Kobayashi, O. Lah, A. McKinnon, P.
Newman, M. Ouyang, J. J. Schauer, D. Sperling, and G. Tiwari, 2014: Transport. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2008. Robb A. Barnitt: In-Use Performance
Comparison of Hybrid Electric, CNG, and Diesel Buses at New York City Transit. Available from United Nations, 2015. Millennium Development Goals Country Report 2014 – Sri Lanka. Available from
University of Moratuwa, 2011. Amal S. Kumarage: Sustainable Transport Policies in Sri Lanka.
Workshop on Air Quality and Environmental Sustainable Transport, Colombo, Sri Lanka. World Bank, 2015a. World Bank Development Indicators: Rural Environment and Land Use. Available
from http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.1 World Bank, 2015b. Country Overview: Sri Lanka.
Available from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/srilanka/overview#1 World Bank, 2015c. Sri Lanka Transport Sector.
PORT/0,,contentMDK:20699037 menuPK:869140 pagePK:34004173 piPK:34003707 theSitePK:57959 Annexures
Annexure A: Financial Assessment

Parameter
Conventional Articulated Bus
Life of articulated bus Study of BRT on Galle Road by University of Moratuwa Electric Bus
Investment Cost per bus Estimate for BYD Electric Bus Additional cost of battery Battery technology charges ahead, McKinsey Life of electric bus Estimate for BYD Electric Bus Life of electric bus battery Estimate for BYD Electric Bus Performance of Bus Technical specifications of BYD Electric Bus Cost of electricity Estimates from Ceylon Electricity Board Other operating costs
Maintenance expenses Road user charges Yards & Terminals IT service charge Study of BRT on Galle Road by University of Moratuwa Total Operational Cost (Excluding fuel cost)
Other Assumptions
Average distance travelled per bus per annum Study of BRT on Galle Road by University of Moratuwa Study of BRT on Galle Road by University of Moratuwa 1 Sri Lankan Rupee A.1: NAMA Baseline Scenario: Utilization of diesel fuelled internal combustion engine (ICE) buses
The following table details the financial costs, capital and operating, of utilizing conventionally fuelled buses in the Galle BRT: Conventional Bus Scenario
Parameter
8,594,482 8,594,482 8,594,482 8,594,482 Total outflow
19,500,000
8,594,482 8,594,482
8,594,482
8,594,482
28,094,482
8,594,482
8,594,482
8,594,482 8,594,482
8,594,482
A.2: NAMA Mitigation Scenario: Adoption and utilization of electric buses
The following table details the financial costs, capital and operating, of replacing conventionally fuelled buses with electric buses in the Galle BRT: Electric Bus Scenario
Parameter
Capital cost – 5,578,553 5,578,553 5,578,553 5,578,553 Total outflow
4,20,00,000
55,78,553 55,78,553
55,78,553
55,78,553 1,20,58,553
55,78,553
55,78,553
55,78,553 55,78,553
55,78,553
A.3: Difference in Cash Flows of NAMA baseline and mitigation scenarios
The following table details the differences between the cash flows of the NAMA baseline and mitigation scenarios: Difference
in cash flow
Net Present
Value (NPV)
Total GHG
emission
reductions
Marginal
abatement
Appendix B: Emissions Calculations
B.1: NAMA emissions baseline (Diesel fuel for internal combustion engine
(ICE) buses)

Emission factor for Diesel ICE bus (EFBL,km,i) (gCO2/km):
BL,km,i = SFCi x NCVBL,i x EFBL, i
Parameter
Fossil fuel used in ICE bus
Specific fuel consumption of baseline vehicle (SFCi)
Net calorific value of fossil fuel consumed by baseline vehicle (NCVBL,i)
44195.861
Emission factor of fossil fuel consumed by baseline vehicle (EFBL, i)
0.00007262
Emission factor for diesel ICE bus:
Parameter
Value (gCO2/km)
Emission factor for ICE bus
Total emissions for diesel ICE bus (BEy) (tCO2):
BEy = EFBL,km,i x DDi,y x Ni,y x 10-6
Parameters
Emission factor for diesel ICE bus (EFBL)
Annual average distance travelled (DD)
100Error! Bookmark not
Number of operational diesel ICE buses (N)
Emissions for diesel ICE bus:
Parameter
Value (tCO2)
Emissions for a diesel ICE bus
1 Calorific values of fuels were obtained from the specifications published by the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation – Petroleum Data  Product Specifications 2 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories – B.2: NAMA project emissions (e-Buses)
Emission factor for electric bus (EFPJ,km,i,y) (kgCO2/km):
EFPJ,km,i,y = SECPJ,km,i,y x EFelec,y/(1 - TDLy)
Parameters
Specific electricity consumption by the electric bus (SECPJ,km,i,y)
1.1930353
CO2 emission factor of electricity consumed by electric bus (EFelec,y)
kgCO2/KWh
Average technical transmission and distribution losses for providing
electricity (TDLy)
Emission factor for electric buses:
Parameters
Value (kgCO2/km)
Emission factor for electric bus
0.9964554
Total emissions for electric bus (PEy) (tCO2):
y = EFPJ,km,I,y x DDi,y x Ni,y
Parameters
Emission factor for electric bus (EFPJ,km,I,y)
kgCO2/km
0.9964554
Annual average distance travelled by electric bus (DDi,y)
Number of operational electric buses (Ni,y)
Emissions for electric bus:
Parameters
Value (tCO2)
Emission for an electric bus
3 BYD Electric Bus Specifications - http://www.byd.com/na/auto/ElectricBus.html 4 World Bank Electric power transmission and distribution losses (% of output) - http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.LOSS.ZS Appendix C: Sustainable Indicators
C.1: Environment Indicators
Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Build inclusive, safe and sustainable cities and human settlements
11.6 by 2030, reduce the adverse
The adoption of electric buses in the BRT would lead per capita environmental impact of to a decrease in the pollution caused from the Air Pollution
cities, including by paying special Better air quality burning of fossil fuels due to the use of conventional attention to air quality, municipal buses. This leads to an increase in the air quality in and other waste management Environment
Build inclusive, safe and sustainable cities and human settlements
The development of a BRT will lead to a streamlining 11.6 by 2030, reduce the adverse
of traffic in the city, subsequently reducing the traffic Other (Noise /
per capita environmental impact of congestion, making life much easier for commuters. Visibility)
cities, including by paying special pollution, congestion Also, the use of electric buses will lead to a decrease attention to air quality, municipal in the noise pollution caused by the vehicles owing to and other waste management the fact that electric vehicles by nature are very quiet. C.2: Social Indicators
Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Attain healthy life for all at all ages
3.6 by 2020 halve global deaths
and injuries from road traffic
accidents
The adoption of electric buses in the BRT would lead to a decrease in the pollution caused from the burning of fossil fuels due to the use of conventional buses. This should lead to a decrease in the no. of air pollution related health issues such as asthma and other respiratory diseases. The development of the 3.9 by 2030 substantially reduce
BRT should also lead to a streamlining of traffic in the the number of deaths and illnesses city leading to a decrease in the no. of traffic from hazardous chemicals and air, accidents that occur. water, and soil pollution and contamination Build inclusive, safe and sustainable cities and human settlements
11.2 by 2030, provide access to
Provides
safe, affordable, accessible and vulnerable
The development of a BRT with cheap fares, sustainable transport systems for Increased access to especially when compared to private means of all, improving road safety, notably public resources for access to
transportation increases the level of access offered to by expanding public transport, with vulnerable sections of society, thereby allowing special attention to the needs of resources
greater development and mobility among these those in vulnerable situations, and services
women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Promote strong, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all
8.3 promote development-oriented
policies that support productive
The development of a BRT with electric buses will activities, decent job creation, Job opportunities in lead to the development of ancillary industries around Quality of
entrepreneurship, creativity and the skilled labour the development and maintenance of electric employment
innovation, and encourage segment - Increased vehicles, which in turn will lead to an increase in the formalization and growth of micro-, standard of living no. of skilled jobs available in the market (this will be small- and medium-sized additional to the jobs that the BRT itself creates). enterprises including through access to financial services C.3: Growth & Development Indicators
Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Ensure access to affordable, sustainable and reliable modern energy services for all
7.a by 2030 enhance international
cooperation to facilitate access to
clean energy research and
technologies, including renewable
energy, energy efficiency, and
Increased access to Development of a BRT with electric buses will call for advanced and cleaner fossil fuel clean and sustainable the transfer of advanced clean technologies from technologies, and promote more developed economies such as China, Europe, investment in energy infrastructure Subsequent decrease etc. and this opens up opportunities for collaboration, and clean energy technologies in costs, leading to knowledge transfer and subsequent development of 7.b by 2030 expand infrastructure
greater adoption indigenous clean technologies. and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, particularly Access to
clean and
Promote sustainable industrialization
Development
sustainable
9.a facilitate sustainable and
technology
resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS Increased access to The development of a successful BRT will need the 9.b support domestic technology
clean and sustainable adoption of ICT in a significant manner. This along development, research and with the adoption of electric buses as the NAMA innovation in developing countries Subsequent decrease intervention should provide impetus for the including by ensuring a conducive in costs, leading to development of sustainable industries around these policy environment for inter alia greater adoption industrial diversification and value
addition to commodities
9.c significantly increase access to
ICT and strive to provide universal
and affordable access to internet in
LDCs by 2020
Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Promote sustainable consumption and production patterns
12.a support developing countries
to strengthen their scientific and
technological capacities to move
towards more sustainable patterns
of consumption and production
The use of electric vehicles and the increased cost 12.c rationalize inefficient fossil fuel
and fuel savings from the BRT will lead to a reduced subsidies that encourage wasteful dependence on imported fossil fuels which in turn consumption by removing market provides greater cost savings. These savings can distortions, in accordance with Reduced dependence then be funneled into the sections of economy such national circumstances, including on imported fossil fuels as education and health. Security
by restructuring taxation and - Greater energy phasing out those harmful security as well as cost The BRT if accompanied with removal of inefficient subsidies, where they exist, to savings for the nation fuel subsidies and other policies that encourage the reflect their environmental impacts, development of clean modes of energy, would lead to taking fully into account the specific the development of a more clean and sustainable needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the Development
possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities Promote actions at all levels to address climate change/build climate change goal based on COP 21 of the UNFCCC
13.3 improve education, awareness
The NAMA gives Sri Lanka an opportunity to raising and human and institutional extensively build capacity of its regional and national capacity on climate change institutions in the areas of development and mitigation, adaptation, impact capacity on both the implementation of climate change mitigation projects. reduction, and early warning Capacity
national and regional This will especially prove beneficial for subsequent 13.b Promote mechanisms for
Building
levels on development climate change mitigation projects that Sri Lanka raising capacities for effective and implementation of decide to take up, wherein with a strong institutional climate change related planning clean and sustainable structure already present, the benefits that they can and management, in LDCs, reap from subsequent projects will be higher, including focusing on women, especially when it comes to directly increased funding youth, local and marginalized to the implementation of the project. Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Strengthen and enhance the means of implementation and global partnerships for sustainable development
17.9 enhance international support
for implementing effective and
targeted capacity building in
developing countries to support
national plans to implement all
sustainable development goals,
including through North-South,
South-South, and triangular
cooperation
capacity on both the The NAMA provides Sri Lanka numerous Capacity
national and regional opportunities to extensively collaborate with 17.18 by 2020, enhance capacity
Development
Building
levels on development international agencies. Sri Lanka can use these building support to developing and implementation of opportunities to build capacity in line with the best countries, including for LDCs and clean and sustainable practices utilized around the world. SIDS, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts C.4: Economic Indicators
Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Promote strong, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all
Lower dependence on imported fossil fuels, increased adoption of 8.2 achieve higher levels of
new, latest sustainable The introduction of electric buses in the BRT should productivity of economies through technologies leading to lead to the development of ancillary industries around diversification, technological greater cost savings electric vehicles, which in turn will lead to the creation upgrading and innovation, including and returns over of a new market of growth along with new through a focus on high value longer periods of time opportunities for labour, especially skilled labour. added and labor-intensive sectors increased economic Promote sustainable industrialization
Lower dependence on generation /
imported fossil fuels, Expenditure
9.1 develop quality, reliable,
Economic
increased adoption of reduction /
sustainable and resilient new, latest sustainable Balance of
infrastructure, including regional technologies leading to The BRT will be one of the first key steps towards payments
and trans-border infrastructure, to greater cost savings developing sustainable, clean transportation support economic development and returns over infrastructure in Sri Lanka. and human well-being, with a focus longer periods of time on affordable and equitable access increased economic Strengthen and enhance the means of implementation and global partnerships for sustainable development
17.1 strengthen domestic resource
Lower dependence on The NAMA will give Sri Lanka tremendous mobilization, including through imported fossil fuels, opportunities to extensively collaborate with and international support to developing increased adoption of acquire funding from international agencies. Sri countries to improve domestic new, latest sustainable Lanka can use these opportunities to understand and capacity for tax and other revenue technologies leading to utilize best practices around the world to develop and greater cost savings implement a strong climate change mitigation Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
17.4 assist developing countries in
and returns over program in the form of the transportation NAMA. attaining long-term debt longer periods of time sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt increased economic financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries (HIPC) to reduce debt distress 17.5 adopt and implement
investment promotion regimes for
LDCs
Promote sustainable industrialization
9.5 enhance scientific research,
upgrade the technological
The development of a BRT with electric buses will capabilities of industrial sectors in lead to the development of ancillary industries around all countries, particularly private/public sector the development and maintenance of electric developing countries, including by investments, increased vehicles, which will also lead to increase in 2030 encouraging innovation and cost savings/returns indigenous research and development and help increasing the number of R&D leading to increased create conditions which when leveraged efficiently workers per one million people by accumulation of assets will invite increased public/private investments. x% and public and private R&D Strengthen and enhance the means of implementation and global partnerships for sustainable development
investments
17.3 mobilize additional financial
resources for developing countries
from multiple sources
The NAMA will give Sri Lanka tremendous 17.5 adopt and implement
opportunities to extensively collaborate with private/public sector investment promotion regimes for international leaders in sustainable development, investments, increased allowing Sri Lanka to develop a network of global cost savings/returns partnerships that she can leverage for further climate 17.17 encourage and promote
leading to increased change mitigation projects, for both technical and effective public, public-private, and accumulation of assets financial assistance. civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Promote strong, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and decent work for all
8.3 promote development-oriented
policies that support productive
activities, decent job creation,
The introduction of electric buses in the BRT should Economic
Job creation
entrepreneurship, creativity and lead to the development of ancillary industries around Creation of skilled job innovation, and encourage electric vehicles, which in turn will lead to the creation formalization and growth of micro-, of a new market of growth along with new small- and medium-sized opportunities for labour, especially skilled labour. enterprises including through access to financial services C.5: Institutional Indicators
Relevance to SDG including
Effect on
Indicator
Identified Impacts
Explanation of chosen indicator
indicator
Revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
17.17 encourage and promote Private Sector
effective public, public-private, and The NAMA has been designed to promote and Dialogue
Increased involvement civil society partnerships, building of the private sector encourage increased participation of private players on the experience and resourcing in the Sri Lankan transport sector, through the strategies of partnerships provision of financial support in the form of grants, subsidies and soft loans. This also leads to increased partnerships between the public and private sectors in the sustainable Strengthened policy transport sector leading to increased sources of finance (private sector) thus providing alternatives to involves extensive address the issue of paucity of financing for Enabling
sustainable transport initiatives. 17.14 enhance policy coherence partnerships thus for sustainable development providing alternative This model can then also be replicated across the Environment
sources of finance to develop a sustainable transport sector in Sri


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Alexandra Soezer, Ph.D.
Manpreet Singh
Project Manager MDG Carbon
Associate Director, Climate Change
United Nations Development Programme
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Source: http://www.climatechange.lk/NAMAs/SL%20Transport%20Sector%20NAMA-Semi%20Final.pdf

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