Marys Medicine

However, not everyone in Australia knows that drugs for potency viagra australia provide not just a temporary result, but also actually help rid the body of symptoms.

Microsoft word - pharmaceutics8





Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):41 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) GASTRORETENTIVE TARGETING TECHNOLOGY FOR ERADICATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION Rakesh Pahwa*, Lovely Chhabra, Arunima Nath, Vipin Kumar
Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana Received: February 09, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
H. pylori, a gram-negative flagellate bacterium that infects the stomach of more than half of the global population is regarded as the leading cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and even gastric adenocarcinoma in some individuals. This organism has been a subject of intensive research to unravel the mysteries of its genetics, cellular biology, immunopathogenesis etc. Infection caused by this bacterium is one of the most common clinical setback occurring worldwide especially in the developing nations. Researchers have attempted in several ways to efficiently eradicate this bacterium from the gastrointestinal tract. In pursuit of this endeavour, design and development of gastroretentive dosage forms facilitates the eradication of bacterium by delivering suitable antibiotic locally in the stomach. Gastroretentive technology have emerged as a versatile approach for better efficacy, controlled release rate of therapeutic molecules with enhanced site-specific absorption. Numerous novel gastroretentive drug delivery systems such as floating tablets, floating microspheres, floating beads etc. have been developed and evaluated globally for efficient eradication of this bacterium. Furthermore, improvements are still required in this avenue on scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of multitalented gastroretentive dosage forms for successful and complete eradication of this bacterium. POSTER PRESENTATION 【41
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]





Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):42 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FLOATING GRANULES OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE: PREPARATION AND OPTIMIZATION USING FACTORIAL DESIGN Rakesh Pahwa, Seema Bisht*, Vipin Kumar
Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana Received: February 09, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
The purpose of this research investigation was to develop and optimize a controlled-release multiunit floating system of metformin hydrochloride using compritol, gelucire 50/13 and gelucire 43/01 as lipid carriers. Metformin hydrochloride-lipid granules were formulated by the melt granulation technique and evaluated for in vitro floating and drug release characteristics. Ethylcellulose and methylcellulose were assessed as release rate modifiers. A 32 full factorial design was employed for optimization by taking the amounts of lipid carrier (X1) and release rate modifier (X2) as independent variables; and the percentage drug released in 1(Q1), 5 (Q5) and 10 (Q10) hours as dependent variables. Method of preparation of formulation was found to be simple, reproducible, and provided good yield. The in vitro data obtained for floating formulation of metformin hydrochloride showed excellent buoyancy ability and better controlled release behaviour. Findings revealed that gelucire 43/01 can be considered as an efficient carrier for design of a gastroretentive multiunit floating drug delivery system of highly water-soluble antihyperglycemic drugs such as metformin hydrochloride for the successful management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. POSTER PRESENTATION 【42
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):43 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) CHITOSAN - A VERSATILE POLYSACCHARIDE IN GASTRORETENTIVE TECHNOLOGY Rakesh Pahwa1*, Nidhi Saini1, Vipin Kumar1, Kanchan Kohli2
1Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi Received: February 09, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
Gastroretentive drug delivery systems exemplify one of the leading avenues of modern pharmaceutical sciences involving multidisciplinary, innovative and technological approaches. Several novel strategies and approaches have been undertaken for the development of various gastroretentive floating dosage forms utilizing chitosan as a promising excipient. Chitosan has been considered as an inimitable and efficacious agent possessing myriad spectrum of desired physicochemical characteristics. It is a versatile candidate which provides exciting opportunities in the fascinating arena of applied polymer science and current drug delivery technology. It offers wide range of benefits including bioavailability, biodegradability, non toxicity etc. Good safety profile along with favourable properties makes chitosan an exciting and pivotal moiety in modern pharmaceutical and other biomedical vistas. Chitosan mediated gastric floating drug delivery systems designed on the basis of delayed gastric emptying and buoyancy principles appear to be an effective and rational approach for the modulation of controlled oral drug delivery. Owing to indomitable potential of chitosan, continuous developments have been made in the vast array of pharmaceutical sciences. It is emphasized that recent scientific and technological advancements in better utilization of this excipient as carrier will yield new generation gastroretentive drug delivery systems with improved pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Despite remarkable achievements in gastroretentive technologies, the utilization of chitosan in this avenue still has significant potential for future research and innovations. POSTER PRESENTATION 【43
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):44 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIPIZIDE LOADED FLOATING MICROSPHERES Rakesh Pahwa, Nidhi Saini*, Neeta, Vipin Kumar
Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana Received: February 09, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
Gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems have emerged as an efficient approach for improving the bioavailability and controlled delivery of several therapeutic molecules. The problem of frequent administration and variable bioavailability after oral administration of conventional dosage form can be attenuated by designing it in the form of gastroretentive floating microspheres which would prolong the residence time at the absorption site and; hence significantly improves bioavailability. Glipizide loaded floating microspheres were successfully prepared by ionotropic gelation technique by utilizing varying ratios of HPMC K15M and calcium carbonate. Optimization was carried out by employing response surface methodology (D-optimal design). The effect of polymer concentration on particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug release was investigated. Effect of effervescent agent on buoyancy and release characteristics of drug was also examined. Prepared formulations exhibited satisfactory findings for physicochemical parameters and remained floated for >12 h. SEM images of optimized batch confirmed spherical shaped floating microspheres with rough surface characteristics along with the presence of pores. From the results, it may be concluded that gastric floating microspheres of glipizide can be successfully formulated for controlling blood glucose level. Furthermore, it is emphasized that optimized multi-unit floating microspheres can provide clinicians with a new choice of an economical, safe and more bioavailable formulation in the effective management of type 2 diabetes. POSTER PRESENTATION 【44
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):45 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING ASPECTS OF NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY Rakesh Bharatia1*, Ritesh Kumar1, Rashmi Tripathi1, Pawan Kumar Gautam2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 2 Department of Pharmacy, S. N. Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh rakesh.clc21@gmail.com Received: February 09, 2012 / Accepted: February 11, 2012
In recent years, controlled drug delivery formulations and the polymers used in these systems have become much more sophisticated, with the ability to do more than simply extend the effective release period for a particular drug. For example, current controlled-release systems can respond to changes in the biological environment and deliver or cease to deliver drugs based on these changes. The advantage of biodegradable polymers has significantly influenced the development and rapid growth of various technologies in modern medicine. Biodegradable polymers are mainly used where the transient existence of materials is required and they find applications as sutures, scaffolds for tissue regeneration, tissue adhesives, hemostats and transient barriers for tissue adhesion as well as drug delivery systems. In addition, materials have been developed that should lead to targeted delivery systems, in which a particular formulation can be directed to the specific cell, tissue, or site where the drug it contains is to be delivered. Each of these applications demands materials with unique physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide efficient therapy. Consequently, a wide range of degradable polymers, both natural and synthetic have been investigated for these applications. Furthermore, recent advances in molecular and cellular biology, coupled with the development of novel biotechnological drugs, necessitate the modification of existing polymers or synthesis of novel polymers for specific applications. This study highlights various biodegradable polymeric materials currently investigated for use in two key medical applications: drug delivery and tissue engineering. POSTER PRESENTATION 【45
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):46 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) REACTIVATION EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT DEVELOPED FORMULATIONS OF OBIDOXIME CHLORIDE Radha Sharma, Suman Jain, Ajay Shankar Pandey, R. C. Jat, Prakhar Shethi*
Department of Pharmaceutics, Shri Ram College of Pharmacy, Banmore, Morena, Madhya Pradesh srcp2003@rediffmail.com Received: February 09, 2012 / Accepted: February 11, 2012
All over the world OP poisoning in the form of insecticides is a leading cause of loss of life. Inhibition of AChE is an important toxic action of OP compounds. This causes the accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at nerve endings resulting in prolonged and intensified action on the effector site. The standard treatment of nerve agent poisoning includes a muscarinic antagonist e.g. Atropine sulphate and a reactivator of inhibited AChE by an oxime. Currently, recommended oximes are Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM; 2[{hydroxyiminomethyl]-1-methylpyridinium chloride) and Obidoxime chloride [{(1, 1′-oxybis-methylene) bis(4-hydroxyimino)methyl} pyridinium dichloride]. The purpose of the present study was to develop different formulations of Obidoxime chloride and atropine sulphate and evaluate their in-vitro reactivation potency of sarin-inhibited electric eel AChE in autoinjector cartridges. The reactivation potency of different developed formulations of Obidoxime chloride and atropine sulphate was evaluated to design a suitable parenteral formulation. Because of its good aqueous solubility, the formulation was prepared in a totally aqueous system. Inclusion of different preservatives like methyl paraben and benzyl alcohol helped in minimizing hydrolytic degradation. POSTER PRESENTATION 【46
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):47 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) REGULATIONS OF PACKAGING MATERIALS FOR PHARMACEUTICALS ACROSS THE GLOBE Vikaas Budhwaar*, Sandeep Soni
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana vikaasbudhwar@yahoo.com Received: February 10, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
Packaging of pharmaceuticals is carried out for the purpose of the safety of the pharmaceutical preparations and to keep them free from contamination, microbial growth, and to ensure product safety throughout the intended shelf life for the pharmaceuticals. In selecting a suitable packaging material, the primary requirement is the knowledge of the material of the package, the composition of the package, formulation of the preparation and the possibility of interaction between the preparation and the package throughout the entire shelf life of the product to ensure the safety of the dosage form throughout its shelf life. The present article discusses the characteristics of materials used as constituents of packages for pharmaceuticals along with their official regulatory requirements. Quality assurance, stability and the pharmacopoeial requirements for the constituents to be entitled as the packaging materials for pharmaceuticals are overviewed in detail. The article also focuses on the guide lines issued by the regulatory authorities of countries like US and Europe for the use of packaging materials for pharmaceuticals. POSTER PRESENTATION 【47
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):48 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) GREWIA TELIIFOLIA MUCILAGE: NATURAL EXCIPIENT FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE DOSAGE FORMS Anoop Kumar Chadoker1*, Jitendra Singh1, Nitin Suryawanshi2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, VNS Institute of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Rajeev Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 10, 2012 / Accepted: February 12, 2012
The aim of the present study was to isolate the hydrophilic mucilage from Grawia teliifolia (Tiliaceae) and study the potential of the mucilage in tablet formulation as a binder (sustained release dosage form). Nature has provided us a wide variety of materials to help improve and sustain the health of all living things either directly or indirectly. In recent years, there have been important developments in different dosage forms for existing and newly designed drugs and natural products. Synthetic as well as semisynthetic excipients often need to be used for a variety of purposes. Gum and mucilages are widely used natural material for conventional and novel dosage forms. These natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, non toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. The study elaborates isolation of mucilage from root of Grewia teliifolia. The mucilage was evaluated for all the parameters viz. solubility, swelling index, total ash, acid insoluble ash, pH , micromeritic properties as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner ratio, as per official monograph and evaluated for physical parameter of tablet such as thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, disintegration time and drug dissolution. The formulated tablet had good appearance and better drug release properties. Studies indicated that the mucilage is good pharmaceutical adjuvant, specifically as binding agent which ultimately reduce drug release rate for its efficacy to sustain the drug release. POSTER PRESENTATION 【48
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):49 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) TITRIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF KETOPROFEN IN THE BULK DRUG SAMPLE USING SODIUM CITRATE AS HYDROTROPIC AGENT Shekhar Kumar*, Praveen Sharma, Gaurav Parihar, Reeta Singh, Anil P. Singh
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, Indore, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 10, 2012 / Accepted: February 12, 2012
The present investigation illustrates application of hydrotropy. The enhancement in the solubility of ketoprofen by using hydrotropic solution 1.25 M sodium citrate was more than 180 fold (as compared to the solubility in distilled water). Hydrotropic agent was employed to solubilize a practically water insoluble drug, ketoprofen, in bulk to carry out titrimetric analysis precluding the use of organic solvents. The bulk containing ketoprofen was analyzed successfully. Statistical data proved accuracy, reproducibility and the precision of the proposed method. The presence of hydrotropic agent (sodium citrate) did not interfere in the analysis. POSTER PRESENTATION 【49
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):50 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) NANOMEDICINE: A NOVEL FIELD OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Hitendra Singh1*, Ritesh Kumar1, Ashish Tripathi1, Amrish Chandra2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 2Department of Pharmacy, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh h.s.raj143@gmail.com Received: February 11, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
A concept of novel drug delivery approach using design of nanoparticles in the form of nanomedicine is now well establishing in current pharmaceutical scenario. Nanomedicine is concerned with the preservation and improvement of human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. The pharmaceutical nanoparticles market is concerned especially with the diagnostic carriers for drug which has been rapidly growing over last decade. Some pharmaceutical nanoparticles based products as dendrimer, micelles, monoclonal antibody, nanospheres, nanotubes, nanopores, nanobiosensors, magnetic nanoparticles and other modified nanosystems have been approved by USFDA and have entered in the market. However, some unknown health risks, unpredictable and undefined safety issues and some clinical as well as regulatory issues still pose formidable challenges. Thus, this study justifies the status, scope and importance of nanoparticles in the field of nanotechnology. POSTER PRESENTATION 【50
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):51 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND THEIR OPPORTUNITIES Sani Kumar1*, Ritesh Kumar1, Rashmi Tripathi1, Pawan Kumar Gautam2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Agra, Uttar Pradesh Department of Pharmacy, S. N. Medical College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh Received: February 12, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. Oral administration of different dosage forms is the most commonly used method due to flexibility in design of dosage form and high patient acceptance, but the gastrointestinal tract presents several formidable barriers to drug delivery. In oral colon-specific drug delivery system, colon has a large amount of lymphoma tissue (facilitates direct absorption in to the blood), negligible brush boarder membrane activity, and much less pancreatic enzymatic activity as compared with the small intestine. Colon-specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for treatment of local diseases associated with the colon but also for its potential for the delivery of proteins and therapeutic peptides. Different approaches are designed based on prodrug formulation, pH-sensitivity, time-dependency (lag time), microbial degradation and osmotic pressure etc to formulate the different dosage forms like tablets, capsules, multiparticulates, microspheres, liposomes for colon targeting. The delivery of drugs to the colon has a number of therapeutic implications in the field of drug delivery. In the recent times, the colon specific delivery systems are also gaining importance not only for local drug delivery of drugs but also for the systemic delivery of protein and peptide drugs. This study updated the research on different approaches for the formulation and evaluation of colon-specific drug delivery systems. POSTER PRESENTATION 【51
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):52 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) SPHERICAL AGGLOMERATES OF IBUPROFEN BY SOLVENT CHANGE METHOD Amit Kumar Gupta1*, Om Narayan Gupta2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, TIT College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Bhagyoday Tirth Pharmacy College, Khurai Road, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 12, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
Ibuprofen, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties. Spherical agglomerates were prepared by solvent change method. Crystallization medium used for spherical agglomerates of Ibuprofen consisted of tetrahydrofuran (good solvent), and water poor solvent iso propyl acetate (bridging liquid) respectively. Spherical agglomerates were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Micromeritic and dissolution behavior studies were carried out. Process variables such as amount of bridging liquid, stirring time and duration of stirring were optimized. Dissolution profile of the spherical agglomerates was compared with pure sample and recrystallized sample. Spherical agglomerates exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spherical agglomerates was improved compared with pure sample. POSTER PRESENTATION 【52
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):53 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: A PROMISING DRUG DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY Rohit Singh Rajput1*, Om Narayan Gupta2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, TIT College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Bhagyoday Tirth Pharmacy College, Khurai Road, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 12, 2012 / Accepted: February 13, 2012
One of the situations in the treatment of disease is the delivery of efficacious medication of appropriate concentration to the site of action in a controlled and continual manner. Nanoparticles represent an important particulate carrier system, developed accordingly. Nanoparticles are solid colloidal particles ranging in size from 1 to 1000 nm and composed of macromolecular material. Nanoparticles could be polymeric or lipidic. Industry estimates suggest that approximately 40% of lipophilic drug candidates fail due to solubility and formulation stability issues, prompting significant research activity in advanced lipophile delivery technologies. Solid lipid nanoparticle technology represents a promising new approach to lipophile drug delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are important advancement in this area. The bioacceptable and biodegradable nature of SLNs makes them less toxic as compared to polymeric nanoparticles. Supplemented with small size which prolongs the circulation time in blood, feasible scale up for large scale production and absence of burst effect makes them interesting candidates for study. In this present review this new approach is discussed in terms of their preparation, advantages, characterization and special features. POSTER PRESENTATION 【53
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):54 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF LECITHIN BASED SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLET S. C. Banode*, V. A. Karde, S. A. Chafle, A. T. Patil
Pharmaceutics Division, University Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R.T.M. Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharashtra Received: February 13, 2012 / Accepted: February 15, 2012
Lecithin acts as a carrier for sustained release and for nutraceutical purpose. In present study, lecithin was evaluated as sustained release agent in pelletization. Bleaching and deoiling of crude lecithin (dark coloured and high oil content) was carried out for preparation of industrial grade lecithin. Pellets consisting of lecithin alone, lecithin in combination with Avicel PH 101, tricalcium phosphate and diclofenac sodium were prepared using crosscarmellose sodium as a disintegrant. Effect of variation in lecithin concentration and HPMC K4M was studied. The drug loaded pellets were evaluated for drug content, crushing strength, in vitro drug release etc. Bleaching of crude lecithin (peroxide range.3-1%) produce lecithin with desired peroxide value and gardener colour. Deoiling of crude lecithin (lecithin: acetone ratio 1:5) was found optimum at deoiling time 30 min for 20 g sample. All the pellet batches were evaluated for flow properties, sphericity, friability, % yield and disintegration time. Pellets containing 50% and 60% lecithin concentration retained drug for period of more than 8 hours and released 80% and 70% of drug respectively and showed more pronounced sustained release behaviour. POSTER PRESENTATION 【54
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):55 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF LOMEFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE Shilpa Nair*, Nilesh Jain, Priyal Jain, Surendra Kumar Jain
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh shipsbbps@gmail.com Received: February 14, 2012 / Accepted: February 17, 2012
Lomefloxacin hydrochloride, is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections including bronchitis and urinary tract infections. It is also used to prevent urinary tract infections prior to surgery. Although lomefloxacin is not rapidly absorbed after oral administration, its half life is 8 hr., it is critical to improve the dissolution rate to enhance the bioavailability, due to its low water solubility. Solid dispersions of lomefloxacin hydrochloride with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30), HPMC K4M and urea were prepared by using fusion method. The prepared solid dispersions using urea were free flowing and showed good percentage of drug content (96%w/w). The FTIR study revealed no chemical interaction between lomefloxacin hydrochloride and carriers used. The XRPD and DSC studies confirmed transformation of crystalline form of lomefloxacin hydrochloride into the amorphous form. The in vitro dissolution studies of formulated solid dispersions showed the increase in solubility in order of urea > PVP > HPMC. POSTER PRESENTATION 【55
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):56 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) EFFECT OF SUPERDISINTEGRANTS ON FORMULATION OF TASTE MASKED FAST DISINTIGRATING CIPROFLOXACIN TABLETS Km. Ravi Dwivedi*, Nilesh Jain, Suman Mandal, Jitendra Banweer, Surendra Jain
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh dwivediravi1@gmail.com Received: February 14, 2012 / Accepted: February 17, 2012
The present investigation deals with the formulation of taste masked fast disintegrating tablets of ciprofloxacin that disintegrate in the oral cavity upon contact with saliva and thereby improve therapeutic efficacy. Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It is used to fight bacteria in the body. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure. The influence of superdisintegrants, crospovidone, sodium starch glycolate on disintegration time, wetting time and water adsorption ratio were studied. Tablets were evaluation for weight and thickness variation, disintegration time, drug content, in vitro dissolution, wetting time and water adsorption ratio. The in vitro disintegration time of the best fast disintegration tablets was found to be within 36 seconds. Tablets containing crospovidone exhibited quick disintegration time than tablets containing sodium starch glycolate. The fast disintegrating tablets of ciprofloxacin with shorter disintegration time, acceptable taste and sufficient hardness could be prepared using crospovidone and other excipients at optimum concentration. POSTER PRESENTATION 【56
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):57 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) REGULATORY ASPECTS OF TRANSDERMAL N.Z. Nagori*, N. Khan, K. Shukla, S.C. Mahajan
Department of Pharmaceutics, Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh nagorizbr@gmail.com Received: February 14, 2012 / Accepted: February 16, 2012
Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Physical and chemical means of crossing the lipophilic stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, are being explored. A thorough understanding of skin physiology and the basics behind the new technologies would be useful for understanding these exciting new drug delivery systems. Alternative techniques of physical sciences including electrical signals, ultrasonic and laser radiations are being used to facilitate delivery of drugs across the epidermal barrier. Several approaches in form of carriers/vehicles are also being developed for efficient delivery of drugs. Another major concern is about regulatory issues of transdermal products to be launched in the market. This review deals with a brief insight on physiological properties of the skin, several techniques for drug permeation enhancement and regulatory issues over transdermal drug delivery. POSTER PRESENTATION 【57
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):58 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) CO-SOLVENCY: PROMISING APPROACH TO ENHANCE THE SOLUBILITY OF A POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG DICLOFENAC SODIUM Kashyap Nagariya1*, Anil Bhandari2, Piyush Sharma2, P. S. Jadon 3, Y. S. Sarangdevot4
1R & D Division, Ahlcon Parenterals (I) Ltd., Bhiwadi, Rajasthan 2Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 3Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Sun Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Lahar, Madhya Pradesh 4Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Bhupal Nobles' College of Pharmacy, Udaipur, Rajasthan Received: February 14, 2012 / Accepted: February 16, 2012
The main objective of the present investigation was to enhance the solubility of proposed drug diclofenac sodium and to study the effect of co-solvents upon the wettability of its water soluble property. In this study, the parameters that have been used are the contact angle, surface free energy and work of adhesion of the drug against different percentage of co-solvents such as ethanol, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol, as co-solvency is one of the most established methods for increasing the equilibrium solubility of non-polar drugs in aqueous vehicles. The effects of wettability by measuring contact angle were investigated by using sessile drop method. The pellets of diclofenac sodium were prepared to see the effect of co-solvent upon the solid surface of the drug. Upon using ethanol as a co-solvent, as the percentage presence of ethanol increased, the value of contact angle was found to decrease significantly (45.3˚ to 32.5˚ respectively). It was seen that for pure ethanol the contact angle value was very less that is 12.0˚, which indicated the higher extent of wettability. Compare to other co-solvent which are propylene glycol, PEG 400, ethanol has shown the most response towards diclofenac sodium in terms of solubility enhancement. POSTER PRESENTATION 【58
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):59 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MULTILAMELLAR VESICULAR PROLIPOSOMAL TABLETS FOR ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE APPLICABILITY M.G. Upadhyay, H.N. Patel, A.K. Nayani, H.T. Tandel
Pharmacy Dept., Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara, Gujarat upadhyay4916@yahoo.com Received: February 14, 2012 / Accepted: February 16, 2012
The present study deals with formulation of a multilamellar vesicular proliposomal tablets for controlled release applicability of Metoclopramide HCl, a highly hydrophilic drug. It was hypothesized that MLV proliposomal tablet will form MLVs suspension instantaneously after coming in contact with dissolution media and give controlled release of encapsulated drug. Objective of present investigation was to evaluate proliposomal tablet of a highly hydrophilic drug for possible oral controlled release applications. Proliposomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and then lyophilized. Various formulation variables such as volume of hydration medium, drug: lipid ratio (1:5) and composition of lamellae (DMPC: CHOL, 7:3) were optimized by using 32 factorial design. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method from proliposomes alone and from combination of proliposomes with hydrophilic polymers (MCC and Chitosan) and evaluated for various parameters such as hardness, thickness, weight variation, % drug content, in vitro dissolution study and stability study. A mean liposomal size and % drug entrapment were found to be 1.529±0.071 µm and 45.96±0.11 respectively. Stability studies of proliposomes and tablets were carried out at ambient room temperature (30⁰C±2°C, 65%±5 RH) up to three months and one month respectively; no significant differences were found. Tablet dosage form of proliposomes alone showed initial burst release followed by controlled release whereas formulated from proliposomes with hydrophilic polymers showed controlled drug release. POSTER PRESENTATION 【59
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):60 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) PREVENTION OF INTROMISSION IN BI-LEVEL TEST CHAMBER AUGMENTS SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND ELICITS ERECTIONS WITHIN A REDUCED TEST PERIOD Sarabjeet Kaur*, M.D. Kharya
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 15, 2012 / Accepted: February 18, 2012
Longer exposure of male to receptive female inside conventional test chamber makes studies on sexual motivation and erectile function tedious and time consuming. The objective of present study, therefore, was to augment sexual motivation and facilitate erections inside test chamber within a shorter exposure time for making such studies simpler and convenient with time economy. We hypothesized that prevention of intromission and subsequent ejeculation in male rats would augment sexual motivation and elicit erection in a shorter duration. To accomplish this, the length of upper and lower platforms of the original bi-level chamber of Mendelson and Gorzalka was reduced. This reduction allowed a single male to mount female and perform pelvic thrusts but impeded any robust attempt made by male in inserting his penis into female's vagina. The efficacy of this modified bi-level chamber for quantification of erection(s) was evaluated on eighteen male rats exposing each male rat to receptive female inside chamber daily for 5 days for 10-15 minutes. On first day, 100% of males were motivated out of which 66.7% displayed erections. Further enhancement of sexual motivation was evident from progressive increase in vaginal grooming, number of erections and decrease in erection latency on subsequent days until a culmination of response was achieved on day fourth. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that prevention of intromission in our newly modified bi-level chamber elicits erections within a shorter exposure time, making it ideal for studies on erectile functions under laboratory conditions for better efficiency, efficacy, and convenience. POSTER PRESENTATION 【60
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):61 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) CLEANROOMS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY Syed Mujtaba Ahmed*, Mohhamed Omar, Muralidhar Rao Akkaladevi
Department of Pharmaceutics, Maheshwara College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh mujju203@gmail.com Received: February 15, 2012 / Accepted: February 18, 2012
Clean room is an environment in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled and which is constructed and used in a manner to minimize the introduction, generation and retention of particles inside the room and in which other relevant parameters e.g. temperature, humidity and pressure are controlled as necessary. Clean rooms are classified according to various guidelines based on the number and size of particles permitted per volume of air as: Federal standard 209E, ISO standards, British standard 5295, Pharmaceutical clean room classification and testing etc. ISO 14644-1 gives a method to classify clean rooms by concentration of air borne particles. The FDA guidance document identifies two clean areas of particular importance in critical area and supporting clean area. Federal standard 209E is the most easily understood and universally accepted classification, and titled "Clean room and Work Station Requirement: Controlled Environments". POSTER PRESENTATION 【61
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):62 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) A NOVEL NANOEMULSION: DEVELOPMENT AND STUDY OF SURFACTANT COMBINATIONS FOR ENHANCING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF FELODIPINE Gajendran Prabhakaran*, Muralidhar Rao Akkaladevi, Hari Kishan Meeniga
Department of Pharmaceutics, Maheshwara College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh prabhaceutics@gmail.com Received: February 15, 2012 / Accepted: February 18, 2012
The present study aimed at formulation and evaluation of an optimal nanoemulsion of felodipine. Solubility of felodipine was determined in various vehicles. Surfactants and cosurfactants were grouped in two different combinations to construct pseudoternary phase diagrams. Formulations were selected from the o/w nanoemulsion region and were subjected to various thermodynamic stability and dispersibility tests. Optimized formulations were characterized for their refractive index, viscosity, droplet size and zeta potential. Release rate of optimized formulations was determined using an in vitro diffusion study. The formulation used for assessment of lipid lowering potential and bioavailability contained isopropyl myristate (17% v/v), cremophor RH 40 (23.33% v/v), PEG 400 (21.67% v/v), double distilled water (40% v/v). The release of drug from the nanoemulsion formulations was extremely significant (P<0.001) in comparison to the drug suspension. More than 60% of the drug was released in the initial 1 h of the dissolution study in comparison to the drug suspension. The value of total cholesterol in the group administered with the formulation PF1 was highly significant (p < 0.001) with respect to the group administered with the suspension of the drug. The plasma concentration time profile of felodipine from nanoemulsion represented greater improvement of drug absorption than the marketed formulation and simple drug suspension. The shelf life of the nanoemulsion was found to be 4.05 years at room temperature. The present study established nanoemulsion formulation to be one of the possible alternatives to traditional oral formulations of felodipine to improve its bioavailability. POSTER PRESENTATION 【62
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):63 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) WATER SYSTEMS IN STERILE MANUFACTURING Sai Hari Kishan Meeniga*, Muralidhar Rao Akkaladevi, Gajendran Prabhakaran
Department of Pharmaceutics, Maheshwara College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh hari_mc@yahoo.com Received: February 15, 2012 / Accepted: February 18, 2012
Water is the essential component as any other starting material that must confirm to GMP norms as it has potential for microbial growth, periodic testing is required and systems must be validated. Water is used as ingredient in drug manufacturing, system cleaning. Various types of water are available. Raw water must be stored and purified as it contain up to 90 possible unacceptable contaminants as chemical impurities and bio-impurities. Treatment of water depends on water's chemistry. Purification of water system is a regulatory and financially critical and should meet the parameters specified. Water undergoes pre-treatment and reverse osmosis with specifications and shall be subjected to sanitization and rectification if specified parameters are exceeded. Pretreatment, storage and distribution of water are most significant methods used in purification. Instrument selection, installation and calibration are to be qualified. Sampling is required to confirm and establish that the entire system is operated in specified limits. Methods of verification by chemical and microbiological testing are performed. FDA inspection of water system includes quality, validation, specification etc. To prevent the contamination, validation must be performed at all the critical areas. Sterile vent filter is tested semi annually by integrity test. POSTER PRESENTATION 【63
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):64 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE FLOATING-MUCOADHESIVE TABLET OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE Saurabh Bansal*, Narendra Pratap Singh Sengar, Praveen Tahilani
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh saur.mpharm@gmail.com Received: February 17, 2012 / Accepted: February 20, 2012
Gastric emptying is a complex process that is highly variable and makes the in vivo performance of drug delivery systems uncertain. To overcome this physiological problem, several drug delivery systems with prolonged gastric retention time have been investigated. Attempts are being made to develop a controlled drug delivery system that can provide constant plasma drug concentration levels for longer durations, thereby reducing the dosing frequency and minimizing fluctuations in plasma drug concentration. It is a new drug delivery system to maximize effectiveness and compliance. Ranitidine HCl is used for gastric problems. The advantages of floating drug delivery systems are to extend the release of drug, increases gastric retention time and enhance bioavailability by superior technology of floatation and adhesion to achieve gastric retention. This dosage form contains both floating and mucoadhesive polymers like HPMC, carbomers, polyethyleneoxide etc. These polymers can increase bioavailability of ranitidine HCl for more than 8 h. POSTER PRESENTATION 【64
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):65 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TROCHES CONTAINING CHLORHEXIDINE HCL AND TRIAMCINOLONE FOR TREATMENT OF DENTAL PLAQUE, GINGIVITIS AND MOUTH ULCERS Manisha Patel*, Surendra Jain, Praveen Tahilani, Harishankar Panchal
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh manisha270989@gmail.com Received: February 18, 2012 / Accepted: February 20, 2012
The mouth of human body provides non-shedding surfaces (teeth) for natural microbial colonization. This can result in the accumulation of large masses of bacteria and their products at stagnant sites. Dental plaque and gingivitis are some of this type of conditions, which can develop due to microbial accumulation on teeth. Mouth ulcers are small, painful sores on the inside lining of the mouth. They usually develop on the inside of the lips and cheeks and on the underneath and edge of the tongue and it is developed due to biting the cheek, heat, spicy food and some bacterial infection. Chlorhexidine is widely used antimicrobial drug in treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis and triamcinolone is used as anti ulcerative as well as anti-inflammatory. Combination of Chlorhexidine HCl and triamcinolone has antimicrobial and anti ulcerative effect on dental plaque, gingivitis and mouth ulcers. The objective of work was to prepare troches containing combination of antimicrobial agent and corticosteroid (Chlorhexidine HCl and triamcinolone) for the treatment of oral diseases. A troche is a lozenge designed to deliver medications directly to the mucus membranes of the mouth by dissolving slowly when placed between the tongue and gums and can prepare by direct compression tablet technology. Troches can formulate using sugar base mannitol, binder Avicel 102, sweetener- stavioside 80%, sodium saccharine, flavor-strawberry and ecocool. Use of ecocool imparted additional cooling effect and can increase patient compliance. POSTER PRESENTATION 【65
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):66 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Sunita Dahiya1, Manas Tripathi2, Megha Parashar2*
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhopal Institute of Technology and Science-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus college of Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 22, 2012 / Accepted: February 23, 2012
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, noncavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin's barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase its impact on medicine. POSTER PRESENTATION 【66
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):67 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) TARGETED PHARMACEUTICAL NANOCARRIERS FOR CANCER THERAPY AND IMAGING Sunita Dahiya1, Vinod Gurjar2, Priyanka Raina2*
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhopal Institute of Technology and Science-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Globus college of Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: February 22, 2012 / Accepted: February 23, 2012
The use of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers has become one of the most important areas of nanomedicine. Ideally, such carriers should be specifically delivered (targeted) to the pathological area to provide the maximum therapeutic efficacy. Among the many potential targets for such nanocarriers, tumors have been most often investigated. This review attempts to summarize currently available information regarding targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers for cancer therapy and imaging. Certain issues related to some popular pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes and polymeric micelles, are addressed, as are different ways to target tumors via specific ligands and via the stimuli sensitivity of the carriers. The importance of intracellular targeting of drug- and DNA-loaded pharmaceutical nanocarriers is specifically discussed, including intracellular delivery with cell-penetrating peptides. POSTER PRESENTATION 【67
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):68 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) NANOSUSPENSIONS: A PROMISING STRATEGY FOR Shambhu Saran*, Saurabh Kumar, Lalit Kumar Tyagi, Dashrath Singh
Dept. of Pharmacy, Institute of Bio-medical Research and Education, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh Received: February 24, 2012 / Accepted: February 25, 2012
An increasing number of newly developed drugs are poorly soluble, in many cases drugs are poorly soluble in both aqueous and organic media excluding the traditional approaches to overcoming such solubility factors and resulting in bioavailability problem. An alternative and promising approach is the production of drug nanoparticles (nanosuspensions) to overcome these problems. Nanosuspensions contain submicron colloidal dispersion of pharmaceutical active ingredient particles in a liquid phase stabilized by surfactants. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions has been developed for drug delivery systems as an oral, parenteral, pulmonary and for ocular system. It is also possible to convert nanosuspension to patient acceptable dosage forms like tablet, capsule and lyophilized powder products. The present review focuses on methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production, formulations and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery as well as the marketed products. POSTER PRESENTATION 【68
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):69 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) RECENT ADVANCES IN LIPOSOMAL DRUG Shweta Singh*, Dashrath Singh, Lalit Kumar Tyagi
Dept. of Pharmacy, Institute of Bio-medical Research and Education, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh sukirti2212@yahoo.in Received: February 24, 2012 / Accepted: February 25, 2012
Liposomes have been widely investigated as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents to specific sites in the body. As a result, numerous improvements have been made, thus making this technology potentially useful for the treatment of certain diseases in the clinics. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. The use of liposome drug delivery system can now be integrated to design liposomes that can be targeted on tissues, cells or intracellular compartments with or without expression of target recognition molecules on liposome membrane. The numerous preclinical and clinical studies suggests that drugs, such as antitumor drugs, packaged in liposome exhibit reduced toxicities, while retaining, or gaining enhanced efficacy. This results, in part, from altered pharmacokinetics, which leads to drug accumulation at disease sites, such as tumors, and reduced distribution to sensitive tissues. Fusogenic liposomal systems that are under development have the potential to deliver drugs intracellularly, and this is expected to markedly enhance therapeutic activity. Liposomes are the leading drug delivery systems for the systemic administration of drugs. Advances in liposome design are leading to new applications for the delivery of new biotechnology products, such as recombinant proteins, antisense oligonucleotides and cloned genes. POSTER PRESENTATION 【69
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):70 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) MICROEMULSION-BASED HYDROGEL FORMULATION FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF NSAIDS Sonu Mishra*, Dashrath Singh, Lalit Kumar Tyagi
Dept. of Pharmacy, Institute of Bio-medical Research and Education, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh mishra.sona45@gmail.com Received: February 24, 2012 / Accepted: February 25, 2012
Microemulsion-base hydrogel formulations for topical delivery of NSAIDs are being studied from long. Ethyl oleate (EO) was screened as the oil phase of microemulsions, due to a good solubilizing capacity of the microemulison systems and excellent skin permeation rate. The pseudoternary phase diagrams for microemulsion regions were constructed using ethyl oleate as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant, propylene glycol as the cosurfactant. Various microemulsion formulations were prepared and the abilities of various microemulsions to deliver drug through the skin were evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells fitted with porcine skins. Xanthan gum as a gel matrix was used to construct the microemulsion-based hydrogel for improving the viscosity of microemulsion for topical administration. The studied microemulsion-based hydrogel showed good stability. These results indicated that the studied microemulsion-based hydrogel might be a promising vehicle for topical delivery of NSAIDs like ibuprofen. POSTER PRESENTATION 【70
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):71 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) PHOTORESPONSIVE HYDROGELS FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS M. Sravanprasad*, U. Sambamoorthy
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri Indu Institute of Pharmacy, Sherguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Received: February 29, 2012 / Accepted: March 01, 2012
Hydrogels are soft materials composed of a three-dimensional network which contain a high percentage of water similar to body tissue and are therefore regarded as a biocompatible material. Hydrogels have various potential applications in the biomedical field such as drug delivery and as scaffold for tissue engineering. Control over the physical properties of a hydrogel by an external stimulus is highly desirable and is therefore actively studied. Light is a particularly interesting stimulus to manipulate the properties of a hydrogel as it is a remote stimulus that can be controlled spatially and temporally with great ease and convenience. Therefore in recent years photoresponsive hydrogels have been investigated as an emerging biomaterial. Here we review recent developments and discuss these new materials and their applications in the biomedical field. POSTER PRESENTATION 【71
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):72 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) POLYMERIC NANOHYBRIDS AND FUNCTIONALIZED CARBON NANOTUBES AS DRUG DELIVERY CARRIERS FOR U. Sambamoorthy*, M. Sravanprasad
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sri Indu Institute of Pharmacy, Sherguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh unnammoorthy@gmail.com Received: February 29, 2012 / Accepted: March 01, 2012
The scope of nanotechnology to develop target specific carriers to achieve higher therapeutic efficacy is gaining importance in the pharmaceutical and other industries. Specifically, the emergence of nanohybrid materials is posed to edge over chemotherapy and radiation therapy as cancer therapeutics. This is primarily because nanohybrid materials engage controlled production parameters in the making of engineered particles with specific size, shape, and other essential properties. It is widely expressed that these materials will significantly contribute to the next generation of medical care technology and pharmaceuticals in areas of disease diagnosis, disease prevention and many other treatment procedures. This review focuses on the currently used nanohybrid materials, polymeric nanoparticles and nanotubes, which show great potential as effective drug delivery systems for cancer therapy, as they can be grafted with cell-specific receptors and intracellular targeting molecules for the targeted delivery of therapeutics. Specifically, this article focuses on the current status, recent advancements, potentials and limitations of polymeric nanohybrids and functionalized carbon nanotubes as drug delivery carriers. POSTER PRESENTATION 【72
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):73 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF PECTIN MICROSPHERES OF LORNOXICAM AS A NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Lalit Kumar Tyagi*, M. L. Kori
1Dept. of Pharmacy, Institute of Bio-Medical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Vedica College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh lktyagi13@yahoo.co.in Received: February 29, 2012 / Accepted: March 01, 2012
This work investigates the development of Lornoxicam (Lxm) loaded pectin microspheres prepared by emulsion-dehydration technique. Variations in drug concentration, polymer concentration and emulsifier concentration were examined systemically for their effects on the particle size, entrapment efficiency, flow properties and In vitro drug release behaviour. Shape and surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lxm is a member of the oxicam group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with extremely potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Its usefulness is limited due to its short half-life that ranges from 3 to 5 h which requires repeated dosing which lead to local irritation and ulceration is the cause of patient's un-compliance. The objectives of this study are the development of formulation of pectin microsphere of Lxm to overcome the rapid elimination of Lxm and increase the biological half-life or maintain drug plasma concentration in the therapeutic range for longer period of time. This management generates a number of favorable outcomes in drug therapy including reduced undesirable side effects, improved patient compliance and reduced overall cost of the therapy. POSTER PRESENTATION 【73
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):74 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) SOLID DISPERSION: A PROMISING APPROACH FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT Rupa Bunkar1*, Vandana Mohabe1, Sunita Dahiya2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Bhopal Institute of Technology and Science-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh rupabunkar88@gmail.com Received: March 01, 2012 / Accepted: March 03, 2012
Solid dispersions have attracted efficient means of improving the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability by reducing the drug particle size, improving wettability and forming amorphous particles of a range of insoluble drugs. The dissolution rate could be the rate-limiting process in the absorption of a drug from a solid dosage form of relatively insoluble drugs. Most of the newly invented chemical entities are poorly water soluble. Among several methods, solid dispersion has attracted attention of the researchers for previous 50 years. The term solid dispersion refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, generally a hydrophilic inert carrier or matrix and a hydrophobic drug. This reviews historical background of recent solid dispersion technology, limitations, classification, major challenges and various preparation techniques with its advantages and disadvantages. POSTER PRESENTATION 【74
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):75 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYER MATRIX TABLET CONTAINING ACARBOSE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE Jyotsna Godbole*, Narendra Pratap Singh Sengar, Praveen Tahilani
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sagar Institute of Research and Technology-Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: March 01, 2012 / Accepted: March 03, 2012
The aim of present study was to design the concept of bilayered matrix tablets containing acarbose for immediate release using sodium starch glycolate as super disintegrant and metformin hydrochloride for sustained release by using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K 4M) and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) as the matrix forming polymer and PVP K30 as binder. Matrix tablets are the type of controlled drug delivery systems, which release the drug in continuous manner. These release the drug by both dissolution controlled as well as diffusion controlled mechanisms. To control the release of the drugs, which are having different solubility properties, the drug is dispersed in swellable hydrophilic substances, an insoluble matrix of rigid nonswellable hydrophobic materials or plastic materials. Metformin is the sole member of the biguanide class of medications in the United States. The main use for metformin is in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, especially in overweight, metformin has a lower risk of hypoglycemia than the sulfonylureas, when used with other agents to lower blood glucose. Acarbose is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a starch blocker, and inhibits alpha glucosidase, an intestinal enzyme that releases glucose from larger carbohydrates. An oral hypoglycaemic drug that acts by temporarily inhibiting digestive enzymes in the intestine that break down starch and sucrose into glucose: it therefore delays the absorption of glucose and reduces the high blood-glucose concentrations that occur after a meal. Acarbose is used as an adjunct to metformin or sulphonylureas when these have failed to control blood-glucose concentrations in people with noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus. POSTER PRESENTATION 【75
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):76 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) BUCCAL BIOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Manas Tripathi*
Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: March 03, 2012 / Accepted: March 05, 2012
Buccal administration of drugs provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. However, the preferred site for retentive oral transmucosal delivery systems and for sustained- and controlled-release delivery devices is the buccal mucosa, mainly because of the differences in permeability characteristics between the two regions and the buccal mucosa's expanse of smooth and relatively immobile mucosa. There are two permeation pathways for passive drug transport across the oral mucosa: Paracellular and transcellular routes. Permeants may traverse these two routes simultaneously, but one route usually is more effective than the other, depending on the physicochemical properties of the diffusant. Because the intercellular spaces are less lipophilic in character than the cell membrane, hydrophilic compounds have higher solubilities in this environment. Key advantages and limitations related to the buccal drug delivery system has also been discussed in the review. In the development of these buccal drug delivery systems, mucoadhesion of the device is a key element. Mucoadhesive polymers have been utilized in many different dosage forms in efforts to achieve systemic delivery of drugs through the buccal mucosa. This article reviews current status of various buccal bioadhesive dosage forms such as tablets, patches, hydrogels and chewing gums and describes the strategies to improve permeation of drugs through the buccal mucosa. POSTER PRESENTATION 【76
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):77 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF ACECLOFENAC BY USING DIFFERENT SOLUBILIZATION TECHNIQUE Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari1, Vishal Gupta2, Abhay Jain2, Adityanath Pandey2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Millenium College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: March 03, 2012 / Accepted: March 05, 2012
The objective of present research is to explore the application of different solubilization technique for the water-insoluble drugs and to reduce concentration of hydrotropic agent produce its own toxicity. In case of synergistic effect in solubility due to mixing of hydrotropic agents, the toxic level of individual can further be lowered because still less concentration of the hydrotropic agents shall be sufficient for a desired enhancement in solubility. The drug release pattern and the solution rate are also determined by preparing solid dispersion of drug in different ratios of different carriers. The desired solubility of aceclofenac was also increased by using hydrotropic solid dispersion technique and significantly enhancement of solubility of aceclofenac. POSTER PRESENTATION 【77
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):78 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM WITH RECENT ADVANCEMENT Sumit Baraskar*, Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari
Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh Received: March 03, 2012 / Accepted: March 05, 2012
The aim of the present investigation is to explain the recent advancement of nasal drug delivery system. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the ayurvedic system of Indian medicine. The interest in non‐invasive intranasal delivery of drugs is increased. We have also discussed advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, and nasal vaccine and CNS delivery of the drug. We discuss here relevant aspects of biological, physicochemical and pharmaceutical factors of nasal cavity that must be considered during the process of discovery and development of new drugs for nasal delivery as well as in their incorporation into appropriate nasal pharmaceutical formulations. Nasal route is more suitable for those drugs which cannot be administered orally due to gastric degradation or hepatic first pass metabolism of the drug. Intranasal drug delivery is found much promising route for administration of peptides and protein drugs. POSTER PRESENTATION 【78
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):79 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIPID BASED SYSTEM FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF TRETINOIN Avinesh Sonkar*, Amber Vyas, Deependra Singh
Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur , Chhattisgarh avi.sonker@gmail.com Received: March 03, 2012 / Accepted: March 05, 2012
Lipospheres are fat based encapsulation system, developed for parenteral, oral and topical drug delivery of bioactive compounds. These are composed of solid hydrophobic fat core stabilized by a layer of phospholipid molecules embedded in their surface. The purpose of present study was to improve the dermal delivery of tretinoin intended for topical skin delivery by formulating tretinoin loaded liposphere with the aim to overcome the side effect resulting from the administration of marketed conventional topical tretinoin formulation, along with sustained release from developed lipospheres. Lipospheres were prepared by the solvent evaporation technique using Glyceryl monostearate as the lipid core material and cetyl alcohol as the coat material, which showed proper features in terms of size, drug content, entrapment efficiency and percentage yield. Characterization of prepared lipospheres through photo microscopy, zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), in vitro drug release and stability study was carried out. Results revealed that the prepared liposphere system were able to entrap 78% tretinoin. The particle size was found to be optimum for topical delivery. DSC studies confirmed the uniform dispersion of tretinoin in lipospheres. Lipospheres showed a low drug leakage (i.e. below 10%) with no remarkable alteration in particle size and drug content, also they were found to be stable after 3 months storage at 2-8°C. Thus the prepared tretinoin loaded liposphere were found to be a potential delivery system for the topical delivery and are capable to entrap high amount of drug along with its sustain release. POSTER PRESENTATION 【79
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):80 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) USE OF HYDROXYL PROPYL METHYL CELLULOSE IN FORMULATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM GEL Bina Gidwani*, Amber Vyas, Vishal Jain
Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmacy, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur , Chhattisgarh beenagidwani@gmail.com Received: March 03, 2012 / Accepted: March 06, 2012
Inflammation is the response of an organism's immune system to the damages caused to its cells and vascularized tissues by microbial pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, and by injurious chemicals or physical insults. Gels contain auxiliary substances such as antimicrobial preservatives, antioxidant and stabilizers. The active ingredients in gel based formulations are better percutaneously absorbed than cream or ointment bases. A gel based formulation can hold/contain more percentage of ethyl alcohol than ointment and creams. In the present study, the polymer hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) has been used as gelling agent. Diclofenac sodium, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent is frequently prescribed for the long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis etc. The drug undergoes substantial first pass effect and only 50% of drug is available systemically. Further, the drug is known to induce ulceration and bleeding of the intestinal wall. To avoid these adverse effects, alternate routes of administration have been tried. 1% w/w diclofenac sodium gel was formulated using the polymer HPMC at 5% w/w which serves as gelling agent, 10% w/w propylene glycol as humectant and 0.2% w/w methyl paraben and propyl paraben in 9:1 ratio as preservative in water. Gel prepared using HPMC based gel revealed pH 6.23 which lied within the range of 5.5 to 7.5. Also, the gel showed good spreadability property. The HPMC polymer as gelling agent forms water washable gel because of its water solubility and has wider prospects to be used as topical drug delivery system. POSTER PRESENTATION 【80
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Research 2012;1(S):81 An Official Publication of Association of Pharmacy Professionals ISSN: 2249-6041 (Print); ISSN: 2249-9245 (Online) MICROEMULSION BASED DRUG DELIVERY OF 5-FU Urmila Nagwanshi1*, Aashish Jain2, Sanjay Kumar Jain2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Globus College of Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour Central University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh Received: March 05, 2012 / Accepted: March 07, 2012
This study includes the preparation of the w/o microemulsions and fluorouracil (5-FU) as a model drug to study the permeation through the skin. IPM acted as oil phase, AOT as surfactant, n-butanol as co-surfactant, water was added dropwise to the oil phase to prepare w/o microemulsion at room temperature using magnetic stirring. The ternary phase diagram were prepared by surfactant and co-surfactant ratio as 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and observed. MEs were characterized by droplet size, partition coefficient, pH and viscosity. The drug release kinetics from different microemulsions was determined using Franz diffusion cell utilizing excised pig skin to determine the permeation flux (µg/cm2/h). Stability studies were performed to know shelf life of these preparations. In vivo studies include the quantitative estimation of drugs in layers of skin and compared to the aqueous solution of 5-FU and marketed 5-FU cream. Fluorescent microscopy was used to determine the permeation of MEs. MEs may be the promising vehicle for 5-FU and other drugs for topical delivery. POSTER PRESENTATION 【81
※※※ Proceedings of the APP 1st Annual National Convention ※※※
[7th April, 2012 – Bhopal, MP]

Source: https://appconnect.in/splissue/II_Pharmaceutics_Section_PT_Part_2.pdf

opso.us

OPSO Bidders' Questions and Answers – Medical 1. Page 9 is blank in the RFP. Please confirm that this page was intentionally left blank. Answer: Page was intentionally left blank. 2. "In 2013, OPSO booked approximately 30,795 inmates." In paragraph one the RFP states the current ADP is 2,545. Please explain the drop in ADP from the current ADP of 2,545 and the bidding ADP of 2,000.

woundhealingsa.co.za

Case Study : The WHASA Wheel THE WHASA WHEEL – Integrating multiple specialities in patient management with wound healing as the common basis Widgerow AD, MBBCh, MMed(Surg), FCS(Plast), FACS Private plastic surgeon, Linksfield Hospital, Johannesburg Correspondence to: Prof Alan Widgerow, e-mail: surgeon@iafrica.com