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Vegetables In and Out of the Garden Samuel Reynolds Hole's thoughts on gardening can be found in his book Our Gardens (J. M. Dent & Co., 1899), available as a free e-book at www.onread.com/book/Our-Gardens-1068952. Detailed statistics on American gardening can be found in the National Gardening Association's "The Impact of Home and Community Gardening in America" (NGA, 2009), available in pdf format For information on vegetables and nutrition, see the USDA's Food and Nutrition Information Center at http://fnic.nal.usda.gov. Other sources include: Duyff, Roberta Larson. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide, 3rd ed. John Wiley, 2006.
Guthrie, Joanne F., Claire Zizza, and Nancy Raper. "Fruit and Vegetables: Their Importance in the American Diet." Food Review, Jan–June 1992.
The pejorative "rude herbs and roots" was originally mentioned in the Gesta Stephani (Deeds of Stephen), a mid-twelfth-century English history.
Robert Campbell's strictures against the French appeared in The London Tradesman (1747), quoted in Seven Centuries of English Cooking by Maxime de la Falaise (Grove Press, 1992. First published Food psychologist Paul Rozin points out the benefits of taking hot dogs (and milk chocolate) to a des- ert island in Michael Pollan's In Defense of Food (Penguin, 2008).
Benjamin Franklin's abortive experience with vegetarianism is described in The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (Yale University Press, 1964), and the history of Sylvester Graham and his food reforms can be found in Harvey Green's Fit for America: Health, Fitness, Sport and American Society (Pantheon Books, 1986).
Joni Mitchell's plea for getting back to the garden is in the song "Woodstock," first issued in 1970 on the album "Ladies of the Canyon." Elizabeth, Countess von Arnim, is the author of Elizabeth and Her German Garden, originally published in 1898, still available in several reprint editions.
A biography of Eliza Leslie and information about her cookbooks can be found at the Feeding America: The Historical American Cookbook Project website at http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/ Reports on the asparagus-worthiness of Martian soil come from the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) at Tufts University. The WCL website is located at http://planetary.chem.tufts.edu/ Apicius or De Re Coquinaria is the oldest known Roman cookbook, a collection of recipes dating to the first century ce, but first compiled in the late fourth century. The author – though there is some debate over this – was purportedly Marcus Gavius Apicius, a flamboyant epicure who lived, ate, and threw lush parties during the reign of Tiberius. A translation of the surviving text can be found at For all about hangovers, see Joan Acocella's "A Few Too Many" (The New Yorker, May 26, 2008: 32–37). For the anti-hangover efficacy of asparagus, see: Kim, B. Y., Z. G. Cui, S. R. Lee, S. J. Kim, et al. "Effects of Asparagus officinalis Extracts on Liver Cell Toxicity and Ethanol Metabolism." Journal of Food Science, 74, no. 7 (September 2009): H204–H208.
For an account of the life of Ziryab the Blackbird, see Robert W. Lebling, Jr.'s "Flight of the Blackbird" in Saudi Aramco World, 54, no. 4 (July/August 2003): 24–33. The article can be found online at www.scribd.com/doc/22570702 Flight-of-the-Blackbird-Saudi-Aramco- The complete text of Samuel Pepys's diary is online at www.pepysdiary.com.
Euell Gibbons's Stalking the Wild Asparagus (25th anniversary ed., Alan C. Hood & Co., 1987), a paean to returning to nature and eating from the wild, was popular among environmentalists in the 1960s and remains so today.
For the complete text of Marriott Edgar's poem "Asparagus," see www.poemhunter.com/poem/ The text of Mary Randolph's The Virginia Housewife, Or, Methodical Cook (Dover, 1993. First published 1824) is available online at www.fullbooks.com/The-Virginia-Housewife.html.
The story of Bernard le Bovier de Fontanelle and his apoplectic guest is found in Waverley Root's Food (Simon & Schuster, 1980).
Benjamin Franklin's underpublicized "Fart Proudly" appears in: Fart Proudly: Writings of Benjamin Franklin You Never Read in School. (Carl Japikse, ed. Frog Ltd., 2003.) For the science of asparagus and urine, see Harold McGee's The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (rev. ed., Scribner, 2004): 314–315. Also see: Mitchell, S.C. "Food Idiosyncrasies: Beetroot and Asparagus." Drug Metabolism & Disposition 29, no. 4 (2001): 539–543. The article is available online at http:// Waring, R. H., S. C. Mitchell, and G. R. Fenwick. "The Chemical Nature of the Urinary Odour Produced by Man After Asparagus Ingestion." Xenobiotica 17, no. 11 (November 1987): 1363–1371.
An account of the discovery of asparagine can be found in: Street, H. E. and G. E. Trease. "The discov- ery of asparagine." Annals of Science 7, 1951: 70–76.
For the woes of the American asparagus farmers in the wake of the War on Drugs, see Timothy Egan's "War on Peruvian Drugs Takes a Victim: U.S. Asparagus," reported in The New York Times, 25 April Information about Anne de Mare and Kirsten Kelly's film Asparagus! can be found online at www.iron- The Locavore website is found at www.locavores.com.
For more accounts of local eating, see Alisa Smith and J. B. MacKinnon's Plenty: Eating Locally on the 100-Mile Diet (Three Rivers Press, 2007), Barbara Kingsolver's Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life (HarperCollins, 2007), and Ben Hewitt's The Town That Food Saved: How One Community Found Vitality in Local Food (Rodale Books, 2009).
An excellent all-purpose source of information on the history of beans is Ken Albala's Beans: A History (Berg, 2007).
For information on the domestication of food plants in eastern North America, see: Smith, Bruce D. "Eastern North America as an Independent Center of Plant Domestication." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103, no. 33 (15 August 2006): 12223–12228. Also by Bruce D. Smith, see Rivers of Change (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992).
For general information on fava beans, see Raymond Sokolov's "Broad Bean Universe." Natural History, December 1984: 84–86. Umberto Eco's "How the Bean Saved Civilization" appeared in The New York Times Magazine, 18 April 1999: 36–42.
Information on nitrogen and nitrogen fixation can be found in John Emsley's Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements (Oxford University Press, 2001), 287–293; and in Lubert Stryer's Biochemistry (W. H. Freeman, 1995), 713–716.
Christine Goldberg discusses the history of "Jack and the Beanstalk" in "The Composition of ‘Jack and the Beanstalk' " in Marvels & Tales, 15, no. 1 (2001): 11–26. For the online text, see http://muse.
jhu.edu/journals/mat/summary/v015/15.1goldberg.html. A history of "Jack and the Beanstalk" and alternative versions of the tale can also be found at the SurLaLune Fairy Tales website at www.sur- For images and information on the Babylonian culinary tablets, see the Yale Babylonian Collection, established in 1909 with a gift from J. P. Morgan. The website is found at www.yale.edu/nelc/baby- For an account of humanity's uneasy relationship with fava beans, see: Katz, Solomon H. "Fava Bean Consumption: A Case for the Co-Evolution of Genes and Culture." In Food and Evolution: Toward a Theory of Human Food Habits, edited by Marvin Harris and Eric B. Ross, 133–162. Temple University Press, 1989. Melody Voith discussed the biochemistry of L-dopa in "L-Dopa" in the special "Top Pharmaceuticals That Changed The World" issue of Chemical & Engineering News, 83, no. 25 (June 2005).
An English version of Le Menagier de Paris (1393), translated by Janet Hinson, can be found online at www.daviddfriedman.com/Medieval/Cookbooks/Menagier/Menagier.html. Also see The Good Wife's Guide (Le Menagier de Paris): A Medieval Household Book, translated by Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rosa (Cornell University Press, 2009).
Alexander Lobrano's history of cassoulet, "Spilling the Beans," appeared in Forbes magazine, 8 December 2008. The article can be found online at www.forbes.com/forbes-life-maga- The text of Amelia Simmons's American Cookery (1796) can be found at www.fullbooks.com/American- Statistics on national and international bean production can be found at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's website at http://faostat.fao.org.
Jay D. Mann's How to Poison Your Spouse the Natural Way: A Guide to Safer Food (JDM & Associates, 2004) discusses poisons in everyday foods, including the cyanide-prone bean. On de-gassing the bean, see David Cohen's "Irradiation Produces Low-Gas Beans" in the New Scientist, 27 March 2002.
The science, history, and pros and cons of oxygen are the subject of Nick Lane's Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World (Oxford University Press, 2002). Also see "Oxygen" in John Emsley's Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements (Oxford University Press, 2001): 297–304.
From the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Data Laboratory, "Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods — 2007" (2007) is a comprehensive overview with tabulated test results. It is available online in pdf format at www.ars.usda.gov/sp2userfiles/place/12354500/ data/orac/orac07.pdf. Also see: Decker, Eric A., Kathleen Warner, Mark P. Richards, and Fereidoon Shahidi. "Measuring Antioxidant Effectiveness in Food." J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, no. 10 (2005): 4303–4310. Halvorsen, B. L., K. Holte, M. C. Myhrstad, I. Barikmo, et al. "A Systematic Screening of Total Antioxidants in Dietary Plants." Journal of Nutrition 132, no. 3 (2002): 461–471 Marandino, Cristin. "Eleven Healing Foods." Vegetarian Times, June 2002:56–61. Wu X., G. R. Beecher, J. M. Holden, D. B. Haytowitz, S. E. Gebhardt, and R. L. Prior. "Lipophilic and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacities of Common Foods in the United States." J. Agric. Food Chem. 52 (2004): 4026–4037.
For disliked beets, see the original AOL "America's Most Hated Foods" poll at http://community.live- For more food dislikes, see "America's Least Favorite Foods" at www.slashfood.com/2009/02/02/ Sullivan, Amy. "Food Phobias: How to Make Peace with Beets." The Atlantic, 6 July 2010.
For information on geosmin and beets, see: Lu, G., C. G. Edwards, J. K. Fellman, D. S. Mattinson, and J. Navazio. "Biosynthetic Origin of Geosmin in Red Beets (Beta vulgaris L.)" J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, no. 4 (2003): 1026–1029.
R. R. M. Paterson, A. Venâncio, and N. Lima. "Why Do Food and Drink Smell Like Earth?" in Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology, ed. A. Mendez-Vilas (Formatex, 2007): 120–128. Available online at www.formatex.org/microbio/pdf/ Ritter, Stephen K. "How Nature Makes Earth Aroma." Chemical & Engineering News, 19 September 2007. The article is online at http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/85/i39/8539notw8.html.
Stephen Nottingham's online book, Beetroot (2004), is available at http://stephennottingham.co.uk/ Excerpts from Charlemagne's Capitularies can be found online at Professor Paul Halsall's Internet Medieval Sourcebook at www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.html.
Also see Pierre Riché's Daily Life in the World of Charlemagne (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988). On beet-derived pink urine, see: Mitchell, S. C. "Food Idiosyncrasies: Beetroot and Asparagus." Drug Metabolism & Disposition 29, no. 4 ( April 2001): 539–543. The article is available online at http:// For statistics on the world's major crops, see the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization website at http://faostat.fao.org.
For more information on the sugar beet, see Henry Hobhouse's Seeds of Change: Six Plants That Transformed Mankind (reprint, Shoemaker & Hoard, 2005).
The text of Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) is available online at Project Gutenberg at For the complete text of Samuel Pepys's diary, including the account of his unhappy cabbage dinner, see John Winthrop, Jr.'s complete 1651 seed list can be found in Ann Leighton's Early American Gardens, (Houghton Mifflin, 1970): 190.
For more detail on W. Atlee Burpee and his seed company, see Ken Kraft's Garden to Order: The Story of Mr. Burpee's Seeds and How They Grow (Doubleday, 1963).
For the account of Mrs. Davidson and her difficult encounter with cabbage, see "The Social Status of a Vegetable" in M. F. K. Fisher's Serve It Forth (Reprint, North Point Press, 2002. First published For more detail on Captain Cook and scurvy, see Francis E. Cuppage's Captain Cook and the Conquest of Scurvy (Greenwood Press, 1994). Also see Jonathan Lamb's "Captain Cook and the Scourge of Scurvy" on the BBC's website: www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/captaincook_ For lightning that resembles broccoli, see Ivan Amato's "Sprites Trigger Sky-High Chemistry." Chemical & Engineering News 84, no. 12 (2006): 40–41.
For cabbages in space, see: Wheeler, R. M., C. L. Mackowiak, J.C. Sager, W. M. Knott, and W. L. Berry. "Proximate Composition of CELSS Crops Grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber." Advances in Space Research 18 (1996): 43–47.
For more information on biomimetics, see Tom Mueller's "Biomimetics: Design by Nature" in National Geographic magazine (April 2008); Rowan Hooper's "Ideas Stolen Right from Nature." Wired (November 2004); and "Technology that Imitates Nature." The Economist (9 June 2005).
For more on the non-carrot-eating Peter, see Leslie Linder's The History of the Tale of Peter Rabbit (Warne, 1976).
An account of Henry Ford's carrot obsession can be found in William C. Richards's The Last Billionaire (Grizzell, 2007. First published 1948). Also see David L. Lewis's The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and His Company (Wayne State University Press, 1976).
The Vegetable Orchestra, www.vegetableorchestra.org For information on using paintings in the study of the history of vegetables, see: Zeven, A. C. and W. A. Brandenburg. "Use of Paintings from the 16th to 19th Centuries to Study the History of Domesticated Plants." Economic Botany 40, no. 4 (1986): 397–408.
For more detail on carotenoids in carrots, see entries in Harold McGee's On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (rev. ed., Scribner, 2004) and David Lee's Nature's Palette: The Science of Plant Color (University of Chicago Press, 2007). Also see: Simon, Philipp W. and Xenia Y. Wolff. "Carotenes in Typical and Dark Orange Carrots." J. Agric. and Food Chem. 35, no. 6 (1987): For the nutritional differences between raw and cooked vegetables, see Sushma Subramanian's "Fact or Fiction: Raw Veggies Are Healthier than Cooked Ones" in Scientific American (March 2009). See For the story of "Cat's Eyes" Cunningham, see Gavin Mortimer's "Cat's Eyes" in the November 2010 issue of the Smithsonian's Air & Space magazine, available online at www.airspacemag.com/history- For an account of carotenemia, see Berton Roueché's The Orange Man and Other Narratives of Medical Detection (Little, Brown and Co., 1971).
For more on enhanced supervegetables, see Richard Manning's "Super Organics" in Wired (12.05, May 2004), available online at http://online.sfsu.edu/ rone/GEessays/SuperOrganics.htm. Also see Don Baker's "Beet Generation" in Vegetarian Times (November 2004), online at www.vegetariantimes.
See Natural News Network online for "Scientists Genetically Engineer ‘Super Carrot' Rich in Calcium" by David Gutierrez (1 August 2008) at www.naturalnews.com/023750_calcium_scientists_carrots.
Also see: Morris, J., K. M. Hawthorne, T. Hotze, S. A. Abrams, and K. D. Hirschi. "Nutritional Impact of Elevated Calcium Transport Activity in Carrots." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, no. 5 (2008): For World War II's Dr. Carrot and company, see the BBC's "Dig for Victory!" at www.bbc.co.uk/dna/ Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jane. The Ministry of Food: Thrifty Wartime Ways to Feed Your Family. (Hodder & Stoughton, 2010).
For more on parsnips, see Roger B. Swain's "A Taste for Parsnips" in his book Earthly Pleasures: Tales from a Biologist's Garden (Scribner, 1981). More details on Queen Anne's lace can be found in Jack Sanders's Hedgemaids and Fairy Candles: The Lives and Lore of North American Wildflowers (Ragged Mountain Press, 1993) and in Claire Shaver Houghton's Green Immigrants: The Plants That Transformed America (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Visit the World Carrot Museum (www.carrotmuseum.co.uk) for the Trojan horse story and other carrot For an account of Dr. Brown's Celery Tonic and general information on celery, see Eugene Garfield's "From Tonic to Psoriasis: Stalking Celery's Secrets" in Current Contents 8, no. 18 (6 May 1985): For images and information on celery vases, see "The Celery Vase: A Prominent Way to Serve an Exotic Vegetable" at the WorthPoint Corporation's website: www.worthpoint.com/blog-entry/the-celery-vase- a-prominent-way-to-serve-an-exotic-vegetable. Also see Dorothy Dougherty's Celery Vases: Art Glass, Pattern Glass, and Cut Glass (Schiffer Publishing, 2007).
On psoralens in celery, see: E. Finkelsein, U. Afek, E. Gross, N. Aharoni, L. Rosenberg, and S. Halevy. "An Outbreak of Phytophotodermatitis Due to Celery." Int. J. Dermatol. 33, no. 2 (1994): 116–118.
Scheel, Lester D., Vernon B. Perone, Robert L. Larkin, and Richard E. Kupel. "The Isolation and Characterization of Two Phototoxic Furanocoumarins (Psoralens) from Diseased Celery." Biochemistry 2, no. 5 (1963): 1127–1131.
Jay D. Mann's How to Poison Your Spouse the Natural Way: A Guide to Safer Food (JDM Associates, 2004) discusses poisons in everyday foods, including celery psoralens.
For information on John Evelyn, Acetaria, and his unfinished masterpiece, Elysium Britannicum or the Royal Gardens, see: O'Malley, Therese and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn, eds. "John Evelyn's ‘Elysium Britannicum' and European Gardening". Volume 17 of the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture series, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1998. The text is available online at www.doaks.org/publications/doaks_online_publications/Evelyn/evel013.
William R. Snyder discusses celeriac in "Celery's Taking Root" in the The Wall Street Journal, 29 April The sad truth about celery's negative calories is explained in Anahad O'Connor's Never Shower in a Thunderstorm: Surprising Facts and Misleading Myths About Our Health and the World We Live In (Times Books, 2007).
An excellent general reference on corn is Betty Fussell's wide-ranging The Story of Corn (Knopf, 1992).
For state-by-state crop statistics, see the National Agricultural Statistics Service website at www.nass.
usda.gov. The U.S. Grains Council, at www.grains.org, has production statistics on corn and other grains. The Environmental Protection Agency at www.epa.gov/agriculture/ag101/cropmajor.html also lists statistics on major crops grown in the United States.
For the history of popcorn, see Andrew F. Smith's Popped Culture: A Social History of Popcorn in America (Smithsonian Institution, 2001).
For popcorn production statistics, see the Agricultural Marketing Resource Center's Popcorn Profile at For the history of whiskey, see Sarah Hand Meacham's Every Home a Distillery (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009), Tom Standage's A History of the World in 6 Glasses (Walker & Co., 2005), and Mary Miley Theobald's "When Whiskey Was King of Drink" in the Colonial Williamsburg Journal (Summer 2008).
All three cantos of Joel Barlow's poem "The Hasty Pudding" (1793) can be found online at www.poem- For more information on corn and vampires, see: Hampl, J. S. and W. S. Hampl, 3rd. "Pellagra and the Origin of a Myth: Evidence from European Literature and Folklore." J. of the Royal Soc. of Medicine 90, no. 11 (November 1997): 636–639.
For general information on pellagra, see Daphne A. Roe's A Plague of Corn: The Social History of Pellagra (Cornell University Press, 1973) and Walter Gratzer's Terrors of the Table: The Curious History of Nutrition (Oxford University Press, 2005).
On hybrid corn, see: Crow, James F. "90 Years Ago: The Beginning of Hybrid Maize." Genetics 148, March 1998: 923–928.
On diversity and transgenic corn, see Peter Canby's excellent article "Retreat to Subsistence" in The Nation, 5 July 2010: 30–36.
For more on corn palaces, see Henry Wiencek's "House of Corn" in Americana, September/October 1992: 110–112. Also see the home page of Mitchell, South Dakota's Corn Palace, at www.cornpal- For an account of the Kellogg Brothers and cornflakes, see Harvey Green's Fit for America: Health, Fitness, Sport and American Society (Pantheon Books, 1986). Also see Gerald Carson's "Cornflake Crusade" in American Heritage 8, no. 4 (June 1957): 66–85.
For more information on Landon Carter, see Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom: Revolution and Rebellion on a Virginia Plantation by Rhys Isaac (Oxford University Press, 2004).
Excerpts from Landon Carter's diary can be found on the National Humanities Center website at The account of the deadly cucumbers is found in Samuel Pepys's diary, online at www.pepysdiary.com.
For additional information on Bernard M'Mahon or McMahon, see Peter J. Hatch's "Bernard McMahon, Pioneer American Gardener" in the Twinleaf Journal (January 1993) from Monticello. The text can be found online at www.monticello.org/site/house-and-gardens/ For more on pickles, see David Mabey and David Collison's The Perfect Pickle Book (Grub Street, 2007), a celebration of all things pickled.
For more detailed information on Henry Heinz, see Robert C. Alberts's The Good Provider: H. J. Heinz and His 57 Varieties (Houghton Mifflin, 1973).
The story of Burma's Cucumber King is found in G. E. Harvey's History of Burma (Asian Educational Services, 2000. First published 1925): 18–19.
For additional general information about eggplants, see: Daunay, Marie-Christine and Jules Janick. "History and Iconography of Eggplant." Chronica Horticulturae 47, 2007: 16–22. For an account of the Chinese eggplant domestication hypothesis, see: Wang, Jin-Xiu, Tian-Gang Gao, and Sandra Knapp. "Ancient Chinese Literature Reveals Pathways of Eggplant Domestication." Annals of Botany 102, no. 6 (2008): 891–897.
Illuminations and text from the medieval Tacuinum Sanitatis can be found online at www.godecookery.
The history of Delmonico's is described in the American Heritage Cookbook and Illustrated History of American Eating and Drinking (American Heritage Publishing, 1964).
An account of the Middle Eastern fat-tailed sheep appears in Reay Tannahill's Food in History (Three Rivers Press, 1988). For more on phenolic compounds in eggplants, see: Stommel, J. R. and B. D. Whitaker. "Phenolic Acid Content and Composition of Eggplant Fruit in a Germplasm Core Subset." J. of Amer. Soc. for Horticultural Science 128, 2003: 704–710.
For information on the Colorado potato/eggplant beetle, see Andrei Alyokhin's "Colorado Potato Beetle Management on Potatoes: Current Challenges and Future Prospects." Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science Biotechnology 3: 10–19. See an online version at www.potatobeetle.org/Alyokhin_ The description of the "cannibal tomato" is found in Berthold Seemann's "Fiji and Its Inhabitants," included in Vacation Tourists and Notes of Travel in 1861 (Francis Galton, ed., Macmillan and Co., 1862): 249-292.
For more on Carl Sandburg's wonderful Rootabaga Stories, see Ross Simonini's "Carl Sandburg Stops Making Sense" at www.poetryfoundation.org/journal/article.html?id=238530. The 1922 edi- tion of Rootabaga Stories, complete with illustrations, is available online at www.gutenberg.org/ A translation of the Historia Augusta can be found online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/ For information on lettuce latex, see: Hagel, J. M., E. C. Yeung, and P. J. Facchini. "Got Milk? The Secret Life of Lactifers." Trends in Plant Science 13, no. 12 (December 2008): 631–639.
An article on the mysterious aphrodisiacal Egyptian lettuce is Rosella Lorenzi's "Egyptians Ate Lettuce to Boost Sex Drive" ABC Science, 29 June 2005. Find it here: www.abc.net.au/science/articles/ de Vries, I. M. "Origin and Domestication of Lactuca sativa L." Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 44, no. 2 (1997): 165–174.
Illuminations and text from the medieval Tacuinum Sanitatis can be found online at www.godecookery.
com/tacuin/tacuin.htm. For more on Thomas Jefferson's lettuce, see "Lettuce: Monday Morning Madness" by Peter J. Hatch, Twinleaf Journal, 2008. The text can be found online at www.monticello.org/site/ For information on chlorophyll f, see Ferris Jabr's "A New Form of Chlorophyll?" in Scientific American (19 August 2010). The article is online at www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=new-form- chlorophyll. Also see Rachel Ehrenberg's "Chlorophyll gets an ‘F' " in ScienceNews 178, no. 6 (September 2010): 13. The article is online at www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/62400/title/ For the chlorophyll craze of the 1950s, see Paul Sann's "The Time of the Green" in Fads, Follies, and Delusions of the American People (Bonanza Books, 1967: 131–135) and Dick Dempewolff 's "The Bright Green Chlorophyll World" in Popular Mechanics Magazine (January 1953: 8–10, 30). Also see: Galston, Arthur W. "An Uncolored View of Chlorophyll." Engineering & Science16, no. 4 (1953): 17–19. Available online at http://calteches.library.caltech.edu/144/01/Galston.pdf.
For the tangled interrelationships of cucumbers and melons, see: Ghebretinsae, Amanuel G., Mats Thulin, and Janet C Barber. "Relationships of Cucumbers and Melons Unraveled: Molecular Phylogenetics of Cucumis and Related Genera (Benincasea, Cucurbitaceae)." Amer. J. of Botany 94, 2007: 1256–1266.
Sebastian, P., H. Schaefer, I. R. H. Telford, and S. S. Renner. "Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Melon (C. melo) Have Numerous Wild Relatives in Asia and Australia, and the Sister Species of the Melon Is from Australia." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107, no. 32 (August 2010): 14269–14273.
For general information on watermelon, see: Maynard, Donald N., Xingping Zhang, and Jules Janick. "Watermelons: New Choices, New Trends." Chronica Horticulturae 47, no. 4 (December 2007): For information on lycopene in watermelons, see "Watermelon Packs a Powerful Lycopene Punch" in the June 2002 issue of the USDA's Agricultural Research magazine. The article is online at www.ars.
For information on citrulline, see "Watermelon May Have Viagra-Effect" in ScienceDaily (1 July 2008), The National Watermelon Promotion Board website is at www.watermelon.org.
Mark Twain's disgraceful watermelon performance is shamelessly described in "The Watermelon" in his book Plymouth Rock & the Pilgrims and Other Salutary Platform Opinions (Charles Neider, ed. Harper & Row, 1984): 278–282.
Queen Anne's Pocket Melon is described in Jack Staub's Alluring Lettuces: And Other Seductive Vegetables for Your Garden (rev. ed., Gibbs Smith, 2010).
For general information on onions and kin, sources include Eric Block's Garlics and Other Alliums: The Lore and Science (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009), Penny Woodward's Garlic and Friends: The History, Growth, and Use of Edible Alliums (Hyland House, 1996), and Marilyn Singer's The Fanatic's Ecstatic Aromatic Guide to Onions, Garlic, Shallots, and Leeks (Prentice-Hall, 1981).
For images and information on the Babylonian culinary tablets, see the Yale Babylonian Collection, established in 1909 with a gift from J. P. Morgan. The website is found at www.yale.edu/nelc/baby- The Forme of Cury (1390) is online at Project Gutenberg at www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/8102. Also see Lorna J. Sass's To the King's Taste: Richard II's Book of Feasts and Recipes Adapted for Modern Cooking (Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975).
For onion superstitions, see Frederick J. Simoons's Plants of Life, Plants of Death (University of Wisconsin Press, 1998).
O. Henry's short story "The Third Ingredient," originally published in 1920, can be read online at www.
On the medicinal (nutraceutical) onion, see: Desjardins, Yves. "Onion as a Nutraceutical and Functional Food." Chronica Horticulturae 48, no. 2 (2008): 8–14.
Galeone, C., C. Pelucchi, F. Levi, E. Negri, S. Franceschi, R. Talamini, A. Giacosa, and C. La Vecchia. "Onion and Garlic Use and Human Cancer." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84, no. 5 (November 2006): 1027–1032.
The story of the Semper-Augustus-chewing sailor is repeated in Mike Dash's Tulipomania (Three Rivers Press, 1999): 109.
For the vast diversity of legumes, see: Doyle, Jeff J., and Melissa A. Luckow. "The Rest of the Iceberg: Legume Diversity and Evolution in a Phylogenetic Context." Plant Physiology 131, no. 3 (March 2003): 900–910.
A translation of the Historia Augusta can be found online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/ For more on Jefferson's annual pea contest, see "Jefferson's Horticultural Neighborhood: A Rational Society of Gardeners" by Peter J. Hatch in Twinleaf Journal (2007), online at www.monticello.org/ Philip Miller's The Gardener's Dictionary (1754) "printed for the author and sold by John and James Rivington" is available online through the Internet Archive at www.archive.org/details/ 참고 문헌 11 An account of Thomas Knight's work can be found in Noel Kingsbury's Hybrid: The History and Science of Plant Breeding (University of Chicago Press, 2009).
Mendel's famous pea experiments are described in Robin Marantz Henig's The Monk in the Garden (Mariner Books, 2001).
For the genetic secret behind Mendel's wrinkle-seeded pea, see: Bhattacharyya, M. K., A. M. Smith, T. H. Ellis, C. Hedley, and C. Martin. "The Wrinkled-Seed Character of Pea Described by Mendel is Caused by a Transposon-Like Insertion in a Gene-Encoding Starch-Branching Enzyme." Cell 60, no. 1 (January 1990): 115–122.
Good general references on peppers include Jean Andrews's classic Peppers: The Domesticated Capsicums (University of Texas Press, 1984), and almost anything by Dave DeWitt, such as DeWitt and Nancy Gerlach's informative The Whole Chile Pepper Book (Little, Brown, and Co., 1990).
Jack Turner's Spice: The History of a Temptation (Vintage Books, 2004) is a fascinating story of the profit- able spice trade from ancient times through the Renaissance, with considerable information about A list of English words derived from the indigenous languages of the Americas (including Aztec or Nahuatl) can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ For information on using starch grain samples to track plant domestication, see Donald Smith's "Chili pepper starch grains linked to ancient settlement sites across the Americas" in Inside Smithsonian Research 16, Spring 2007. Also see: Perry, Linda, Ruth Dickau, Sonia Zarrillo, Irene Holst, et al. "Starch Fossils and the Domestication and Dispersal of Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp. L.) in the Americas." Science 315, no. 5814 (February 2007): 986–988.
Bernardino de Sahagún's Florentine Codex (General History of the Things of New Spain) is available as a 12-volume set (Arthur J. O. Anderson, ed., University of Utah Press, 1950–1982). Also see: Reeves, H. M. "Sahagún's ‘Florentine Codex,' a Little Known Aztecan Natural History of the Valley of Mexico." Arch Nat Hist. 33, no. 2 (2006): 302–321.
On pepper hotness, see: Mullin, Rick. "Red-Hot Chili Peppers." Chemical & Engineering News 81, 44 (3 November 2003): 41.
On discouraging bears, see: Smith, Tom S., Stephanie Herrero, Terry D. DeBruyn, and James M. Wilder. "Efficacy of Bear Deterrent Spray in Alaska." The Journal of Wildlife Management 72, no. 3 (2008): 640–645.
For more information on Joshua Tewksbury and directed deterrence, see: Borrell, Brendan. "What's So Hot About Chili Peppers?" Smithsonian magazine, April 2009.
Tewksbury, J. J., and G. P. Nabhan. "Seed Dispersal: Directed Deterrence by Capsaicin in Chilies." Nature 412, no. 6845 (July 2001): 403–404.
Tewksbury, J. J., K. M. Reagan, N. J. Machnicki, T. A. Carlo, D. C. Haak, A. L. Calderon-Penaloza, and D. J. Levey. "The Evolutionary Ecology of Pungency in Wild Chilies." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, no. 33 (2008): 11808–11811.
Paul Rozin's "constrained risk" theory is described in Harold McGee's On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (rev. ed., Scribner, 2004).
On the pepper-induced heat sensation, see: Caterina, Michael J., Mark A. Schumacher, Makoto Tominaga, Tobias A. Rosen, Jon D. Levine, and David Julius. "The Capsaicin Receptor: A Heat- Activated Ion Channel in the Pain Pathway." Nature 389, October 1997: 816–824.
On peppers and tarantula bites, see: Siemens, Jan, Sharleen Zhou, Rebecca Piskorowski, Tetsuro Nikai, Ellen A. Lumpkin, Allan I. Basbaum, David King, and David Julius. "Spider Toxins Activate the Capsaicin Receptor to Produce Inflammatory Pain." Nature 444, November 2006: 208–212.
Albert-Szent Györgyi's Nobel Prize-winning discovery of vitamin C in peppers is described on the Nobel Prize's official website: http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1937/szent- On capsaicin and prostrate cancer, see: A. Mori, S. Lehmann, J. O'Kelly, T. Kumagai, J. C. Desmond, M. Pervan, W. H. McBride, M. Kizaki, and H. P. Koeffler. "Capsaicin, a Component of Red Peppers, Inhibits the Growth of Androgen-Independent, p53 Mutant Prostate Cancer Cells." Cancer Research 66, no. 6 (March 2006): 3222–3229. The story of pirate Lionel Wafer and the bell pepper is recounted in Diana and Michael Preston's biog- raphy of William Dampier, A Pirate of Exquisite Mind (Walker & Co., 2004).
For more on son-of-a-bitch stew, see Jane and Michael Stern's Chili Nation (Clarkson Potter, 1999), which covers the history of chili and includes a chili recipe for every state in the United States.
Helpful potato books include James Lang's Notes of a Potato Watcher (Texas A&M University Press, 2001), John Reader's Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent (Yale University Press, 2009), and Larry Zuckerman's The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World (North Point Press, The theories of Pye Henry Chavasse are described in Judith Flanders's Inside the Victorian Home (W. W. Norton, 2004).
Thor Heyerdahl describes his sweet-potato-chasing journey to Polynesia in Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft (reprint ed. Skyhorse Publishing, 2010). Also see: Montenegro, Alvaro, Chris Avis, and Andrew J. Weaver. "Modeling the Prehistoric Arrival of the Sweet Potato in Polynesia." Journal of Archaeological Science 35, no. 2 (2008): 355–367.
For the history of scurvy, see Stephen R. Bown's Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail (Thomas Dunne Books, 2003) and David I. Harvie's Limeys: The Conquest of Scurvy (Sutton Publishing, 2005).
For a history of Mr. Potato Head, see Funny Face! An Amusing History of Potato Heads, Block Heads, and Magic Whiskers by Mark Rich and Jeff Potocsnak (Krause Publications, 2002).
For the story of the Irish potato famine, see Cecil Woodham-Smith's The Great Hunger (Penguin, 1991) and James S. Donnelly, Jr.'s The Great Irish Potato Famine (History Press, 2008).
For information on Phytophthera infestans as a potential biological weapon, see the Monterey Institute of International Studies (Middlebury College) Chemical & Biological Weapons Resource Page at For more on Luther Burbank, see Jane S. Smith's The Garden of Invention: Luther Burbank and the Business of Breeding Plants (Penguin Press, 2009).
On the Defender potato, see: Novy, R. G., S. L. Love, D. L. Corsini, J. J. Pavek, et al. "Defender: A High-Yielding, Processing Potato Cultivar with Foliar and Tuber Resistance to Late Blight." American Journal of Potato Research 83, 2006: 9–19.
For information on the genetics of P. infestans, see: Haas, Brian J., Sophien Kamoun, Michael C. Zody, Rays H. Y. Jiang, et al. "Genome Sequence and Analyis of the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Phytophthora infestans." Nature 461, September 2009: 393–398.
For a history of French fries, see Maryann Tebben's " ‘French' Fries: France's Culinary Identity from Brillat-Savarin to Barthes" in Convivium Artium (Spring 2006). The article is online at http://flan.
For more information on Civil War army rations, see "Army Rations" in John D. Billings's Hard Tack and Coffee: Or, the Unwritten Story of Army Life (1887) (Corner House Publishers, 1980).
Pumpkins and Squashes Paul Dudley's prolific pumpkin is mentioned in Jonathan Edwards: A Life by George M. Marsden (Yale University Press, 2003), 66, and in L. H. Bailey's The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture (Macmillan Company, 1914), 1505. For Thomas Jefferson, the Comte de Buffon, and the degeneracy debate, see Richard Conniff 's "Mammoths and Mastodons: All American Monsters" in Smithsonian magazine (April 2010), Keith Thomson's "Jefferson, Buffon and the Moose" in the American Scientist 96, no. 3 (2008), and Lee Alan Dugatkin's Mr. Jefferson and the Giant Moose (University of Chicago Press, 2009).
For the story of enormous pumpkins, see Susan Warren's Backyard Giants: The Passionate, Heartbreaking, and Glorious Quest to Grow the Biggest Pumpkin Ever (Bloomsbury, 2007); also see Jules Janick's "Giant Pumpkins: Genetic and Cultural Breakthroughs." Chronica Horticulturae 48, no. 3 (2008): On early American cucurbits, see: Smith, Bruce D. "The Initial Domestication of Cucurbita pepo in the Americas 10,000 Years Ago." Science 9 (May 1997): 932–934.
참고 문헌 13 On radishes and witches, see T. F. Thiselton Dyer's The Folk-Lore of Plants (Echo Library, 2008. First published 1889) and Ruth Edna Kelley's The Book of Hallowe'en (Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. First published 1919).
The adulterers' radish is described in Danielle S. Allen's The World of Prometheus: The Politics of Punishing in Democratic Athens (Princeton University Press, 2000).
For the history of the fairy tale "Rapunzel," see: www.surlalunefairytales.com/rapunzel.
For a summary of the Popeye controversy, see "Spinach, Iron, and Popeye" by law professor Mike Sutton The Forme of Cury (1390) is online at Project Gutenberg at www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/8102. Also see Lorna J. Sass's To the King's Taste: Richard II's book of feasts and recipes adapted for modern cooking (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975).
Illuminations and text from the medieval Tacuinum Sanitatis can be found online at www.godecookery.
For the detailed scoop on tomatoes, you can't do better than Andrew F. Smith. See The Tomato in America (University of South Carolina Press, 1994) and Souper Tomatoes: The Story of America's Favorite Food (Rutgers University Press, 2000). Also see Karan Davis Cutler's Tantalizing Tomatoes (Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1997) and David Gentilcore's Pomodoro! A History of the Tomato in Italy (Columbia University Press, 2010).
On the positive aspects of tomatine, see: M. Friedman, C. E. Levin, S. U. Lee, H. J. Kim, et al. "Tomatine-Containing Green Tomato Extracts Inhibit Growth of Human Breast, Colon, Liver, and Stomach Cancer Cells." J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, no. 13 (2009): 5727–5733.
Friedman, Mendel, T. E. Fitch, and W. E. Yokoyama. "Lowering of Plasma LDL Cholesterol in Hamsters by the Tomato Glycoalkaloid Tomatine." Food and Chemical Toxicology 38, no. 7 (2000): Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia (1781) is available online at http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/ For Andrew F. Smith's exposé of the apocryphal Colonel Johnson, see "The Invention of Culinary Fakelore and Food Fallacies" at www.foodhistorynews.com/debunk.html#typology.
For more on the influential Mrs. Beeton, see Kathryn Hughes's The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs. Beeton (Alfred A. Knopf, 2006).
The story of the Trophy tomato appears in L. H. Bailey's The Survival of the Unlike: A Collection of Evolution Essays Suggested by the Study of Domestic Plants (Macmillan, 1896), 485–60.
On lycopene and cooking: Dewanto, Veronica, Xianzhong Wu, Kafui K. Adom, and Rui Hai Liu. "Thermal Processing Enhances the Nutritional Value of Tomatoes by Increasing Total Antioxidant Activity." J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, no. 10 (2002): 3010–3014.
Unlu, N. Z., T. Bohn, D. M. Francis, H. N. Nagaraja, S. K. Clinton, and S. J. Schwartz. "Lycopene from Heat-Induced Cis-Isomer Rich Tomato Pasta Sauce Is More Bioavailable than from All-Trans Rich Pasta Sauce in Humans." Br. J. Nutr. 98, 2007: 140–146.
For the nutritional differences between raw and cooked vegetables, see Sushma Subramanian's "Fact or Fiction: Raw Veggies Are Healthier than Cooked Ones" in Scientific American (March 2009). See the text online in Scientific American's report "Science of Our Food" at www.scientificamerican.com/ For a discussion of the square tomato (VF-145), see Raymond Sokolov's Why We Eat What We Eat: How Columbus Changed How the World Eats (Simon & Schuster, 1991).
For more on Radiator Charlie's Mortgage Lifter tomato, see NPR's "Living on Earth: Mortgage Lifter On the inestimable Charles M. Rick, founder of the Tomato Genetics Resource Center, see http://tgrc.
htm. Also see: Estabrook, Barry. "On the Tomato Trail: In Search of Ancestral Roots." Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture 10, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 40–44. For the C. M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center, see http://tgrc.ucdavis.edu.
The tomato ripening process is described by A. Karim Khudairi in "The Ripening of Tomatoes" in the American Scientist 60, no. 6 (1972): 696–707.
On flavor in tomatoes, see Craig Canine's "A Matter of Taste . . Who Killed the Flavor in America's Supermarket Tomatoes?" in Eating Well, January/ February 1991: 41–55.
On the flavorful gene for florigen, see: Krieger, Uri, Zachary B. Lippman, and Dani Zamir. "The Flowering Gene SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS Drives Heterosis for Yield in Tomato." Nature Genetics 42, 2010: 459–463.
For more information on transgenic tomatoes, see Belinda Martineau's First Fruit: The Creation of the Flavr Savr Tomato and the Birth of Biotech Foods (McGraw-Hill, 2001), Alan McHughen's Pandora's Picnic Basket: The Potential and Hazards of Genetically Modified Foods (Oxford University Press, 2000), and Nina Federoff and Nancy Marie Brown's Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist's View of Genetically Engineered Foods (Joseph Henry Press, 2004).
For the turnip as castle, see an example in Elinor Fettiplace's Receipt Book: Elizabethan Country House Cooking (Viking, 1986), 97.
Johannes Trithemius's sneer at turnip eaters in his seminal cryptography book appears in Ivars Peterson's Math Trek column "Cracking a Medieval Code" (4 May 1998). See the article online on the Mathematical Association of America's website: www.maa.org/mathland/mathtrek_5_4_98.
On marvelous and enormous turnips, see Jan M. Ziolkowski's "The Wonder of the Turnip Tale" in her book Fairy Tales Before Fairy Tales: The Medieval Latin Past of Wonderful Lies (University of Michigan Press, 2009).
On Woolton Pie, see Charles Lyte's The Kitchen Garden. Oxford Illustrated Press, 1984.
참고 문헌 15
Eur J Clin PharmacolDOI 10.1007/s00228-015-1896-x CYP2B6 rs2279343 polymorphism is associated with smokingcessation success in bupropion therapy Paulo Roberto Xavier Tomaz1 & Juliana Rocha Santos1 & Jaqueline Scholz Issa2 &Tânia Ogawa Abe 2 & Patrícia Viviane Gaya2 & José Eduardo Krieger1 &Alexandre Costa Pereira1,3 & Paulo Caleb Júnior Lima Santos1,3 Received: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015
Blanqueamiento de dientes con decoloraciones severas Dr. Salvador Alonso Pérez Prof. Colaborador de Materiales Odontológicos. Facultad de Odontología Universidad de Barcelona. Doctor en Medicina. Médico Especialista en Estomatología y en Cirugía Dra. Soledad Espías Gómez Prof. Colaborador de Materiales Odontológicos. Facultad de Odontología Universidad de