Marys Medicine

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KS4 Physical
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What we will learn in this presentation:
What drugs are and why people use them Socially acceptable drugs: the effects of tobacco and alcohol Performance-enhancing drugs: the effects of stimulants, narcotic analgesics, diuretics, beta blockers and anabolic agents.
The importance of cleanliness and hygiene Identifying, preventing and treating athlete's foot and verrucae.
A drug is a chemical substance
that affects the way the body
Sportspeople may take drugs to improve their performance. Some drugs are allowed, some are not.
Illegal drug use is known as
Generally, drugs are developed for medical use.
All drugs are dangerous when
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Reasons for taking drugs
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Types of drugs
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Socially acceptable drugs
The two most important drugs that are considered
to be socially acceptable are:
Nicotine is a legal drug, though it is slowly becoming less socially acceptable. Nicotine raises the heart rate and blood pressure.
Alcohol is socially acceptable in most sections of society. However it is banned in many sports for safety reasons – it acts as a sedative, slowing reactions and impairing judgement.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Smoking – what's in a cigarette?
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Smoking – what's in a cigarette?
Nicotine is a mild poison. It makes your blood pressure and
heart rate rise – this can make new smokers dizzy. It is highly
addictive, which is why it is difficult to give up smoking.
Tar is a mixture of chemicals (formaldehyde, arsenic and
cyanide to name a few). When cigarette smoke is inhaled, tar
is left behind in the lungs. It causes many serious diseases.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Smoking – what's in a cigarette?
Carbon monoxide is an odourless, tasteless, poisonous gas.
It bonds with red blood cells in the same way that oxygen
does, except that the bond is permanent. Blood cells carrying
carbon monoxide can no longer transport oxygen, therefore
reducing the amount of oxygen the blood can carry.
Up to 15% of a smoker's blood may be carrying carbon
monoxide instead of oxygen. This means the heart has to work
harder, putting strain on it and causing circulation problems.
It also makes smokers tired and breathless, reducing
cardiovascular endurance
Smokers tend to be at a disadvantage in sports that require an efficient and healthy cardio-respiratory system.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 No Smoking Day
Concerns over the health effects of smoking led to the first No
Smoking Day
being held in 1984. No Smoking Day has been
held annually ever since and has helped over one million
people stop smoking for good.
For more information visit
No Smoking Day 2006

Boardworks Ltd 2006 All alcoholic drinks contain a
chemical called ethanol. This is
what makes people ‘drunk'.
It doesn't do much harm in
small quantities, however
larger quantities are
Alcohol puts strain on your body, making you
unwell – that's why heavy drinkers may be sick
and later suffer from a ‘hangover'.
However, alcohol also has more serious effects, both short- and long-term.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Alcohol – immediate effects
you relax and feel good dizziness and poor balance impaired judgement – you do and say things you normally wouldn't trouble controlling how you move (poor coordination) How do you think drinking alcohol before sport affects aggressive behaviour Think about a range of Boardworks Ltd 2006 Alcohol – immediate effects
As well as impairing physical and mental abilities, alcohol
causes the blood vessels of the skin to dilate, so body heat
is lost and blood is diverted from the muscles.
Alcohol is a diuretic, so it causes dehydration.
This is why people often get a headache. The
extra urination also robs the body of essential
minerals like magnesium and potassium.
This can cause the heart to beat irregularly.
Glucose is also excreted, lowering the levels of glycogen in
the muscles. Drinking makes people feel tired and lethargic.
After drinking, some performers may lose their drive to train
and perform.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Alcohol – long-term effects
Drinking a lot of alcohol regularly over a period of time is
likely to cause physical, emotional and social problems:
skin problemsliver and brain damagedamage to reproductive organsmemory loss / confusionheart and blood disordersstomach problemsfrequent infectionsweight gaindepressionrelationship problemsproblems with money and work.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 The effects of alcohol on performance
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Drugs can be used to improve performance. This could give
some performers an unfair advantage and undermine the
integrity of sport.
Sports governing bodies produce lists of banned substances,
so that it is clear to both performers and coaches which
substances they must avoid while training and competing.
The IOC (International Olympic Committee) has identified five
classes of banned substances:
Peptide hormones,
mimetics and analogues

Opioid (or narcotic) analgesics
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Stimulants excite the nervous system and raise the
heart rate.
They improve the reactions of a performer. Users
usually feel more alert and display increased confidence
in their level of ability.
Performers using stimulants can work for longer
periods without feeling tired. This means that they can
both train harder and perform better on the day.
Here are some common stimulants: Boardworks Ltd 2006 Stimulants – side effects
Stimulants can have some nasty side effects:
Heavy usage can lead to high blood pressure, liver and brain damage.
They can cause irritability and aggressive behaviour.
A performer may feel low or depressed after the initial effects have worn off.
Sensory feelings can be suppressed.
Do you think that the side effects are worth risking to get the performance benefits of using stimulants? Boardworks Ltd 2006 Analgesics are pain killers.
Narcotics cause delirium and drowsiness.
Narcotic analgesics do both. They are sometimes referred to
as opioids because they often contain opium derivatives.
These drugs are used by performers to suppress pain and
enable them to carry on, even with an injury.
The following are types of narcotic analgesics: Boardworks Ltd 2006 Narcotic analgesics – side effects
Narcotic analgesics can have the following side effects:
Narcotic analgesics are highly addictive – they are
illegal in many countries unless
administered by a doctor.
The withdrawal symptoms
are very unpleasant.
Users may find it more difficult to concentrate.
They lead to reduced coordination and poor balance.
Pain is suppressed, causing performers can make
injuries worse without realizing.
They can cause mental apathy and lack of motivation.
Narcotic analgesics can cause constipation.
They can cause low blood pressure.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Diuretics increase the amount of water passed out of the
body as urine.
Performers sometimes use them
to reduce their body weight
very quickly before a competition.
Diuretics can also be used as a
masking agent – they flush out
traces of banned substances in
the body so that they don't show
Some jockeys use up on doping tests.
diuretics to keep their weight down. Examples of diuretics include: Boardworks Ltd 2006 Diuretics – side effects
Diuretics cause the body to rapidly lose water, so
many of the side effects are the same as the
symptoms of dehydration. They include:
muscle weakness and cramps loss of sodium and potassium salts dizziness and nausea kidney problems.
Can diuretics really be described as Boardworks Ltd 2006 Beta blockers block the action of adrenaline. They slow
the heart rate and breathing rate and suppress feelings of
anxiety and nervous tension.
They are used legitimately to treat people with heart disease and high blood pressure.
They can be illegally used by performers in some sports to calm their nerves and steady their hands.
Examples include: Boardworks Ltd 2006 Beta blockers – side effects
The side effects of beta blockers include:
poor performance in prolonged events Beta blockers are prohibited in snooker. Boardworks Ltd 2006 Anabolic agents (steroids) are the most commonly used
performance-enhancing drugs. They are hormones which
help build and repair muscle and bone.
Anabolic agents occur naturally in the body.
However, they are also made
and can be used
by performers to illegally
improve their performance.
Examples include: Boardworks Ltd 2006 Anabolic steroids – side effects
The side effects of anabolic
steroids are serious:
heart disease, which can be fatal high blood pressure bone, tendon and ligament weakness severe liver disorders aggressive behaviour Why do you think that performers facial hair growth still take anabolic steroids and deepening of despite the side effects? the voice in women.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Boardworks Ltd 2006 Boardworks Ltd 2006 For further information on all types of performance enhancing drugs visit: The 100% ME programme encourages athletes to believe
that they don't need to use prohibited substances or
methods to succeed in sport. For further information visit:
Boardworks Ltd 2006 1. Richard plays doubles at his tennis club. He has noticed that his partner is often short of breath during long rallies despite being fit. a) Richard thinks this is to do with his partner's regular smoking. Why might smoking affect performance in this way.
b) Richard sometimes drinks alcohol before playing if the game is not important. Describe how the alcohol may affect his performance.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 2. Elite performers in a variety of sports are tempted into taking performance enhancing drugs.
Anabolic steroids are a type of banned performance
enhancing drug.
a) What physical advantages would a performer gain from taking anabolic steroids? b) What types of sport would this kind of drug give the greatest advantage in? Narcotic analgesics are also banned.
c) Why might an athlete take this type of drug? d) Why are narcotic analgesics thought to be potentially harmful to athletes? Boardworks Ltd 2006 KS4 Physical
Cleanliness and hygiene
Maintaining personal hygiene and the cleanliness of sports clothing is really important.
It prevents:
Showering and wearing clean clothes after exercising will
prevent embarrassing body odour and itchy skin rashes.
Changing into fresh socks is especially important because
feet are susceptible to nasty infections including athlete's
and verrucae. These are uncomfortable and can
impair your sporting performance.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Athlete's foot and verrucae
Athlete's foot (tinea pedis) is a
common skin condition which causes
the skin of the feet to become itchy,
dry and cracked, especially between
the toes.
It is caused by a fungus which feeds upon dead skin and thrives in warm, dark, moist places, like sweaty trainers.
Verrucae (or verruca singular) are
warts on the soles of the feet.
They are caused by the human papilloma virus which forms painful, ‘cauliflower'-shaped lumps.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Athlete's foot and verrucae
Athlete's foot and verrucae are both highly contagious.
They are caught through: skin-to-skin contact walking barefoot in damp areas sharing shoes, towels or socks.
Athlete's foot can be treated with medicated powders,
creams and sprays.
Verrucae can be treated by applying a wart gel or they
can be frozen off by a doctor using liquid nitrogen.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Athlete's foot and verrucae
Both conditions can easily be prevented by taking
simple precautions:
Wash feet daily with soap and water.
Dry between your toes with a clean towel.
Avoid non-breathable footwear.
Wear clean cotton socks.
Alternate your shoes to let them air.
Wear flip-flops in changing rooms.
Do not share towels, socks or shoes.
Avoid cutting or scratching your feet.
People with verrucae should wear rubber verrucae socks when swimming.
Boardworks Ltd 2006 Boardworks Ltd 2006


Volume 2: Exploring the Suicide Prevention Research Continuum © 2015 Suicide Prevention Australia For more information contact Suicide Prevention Australia GPO Box 219, Sydney NSW 2001 P: 02 9262 1130 E: W: Suicide Prevention Australia acknowledges the funding provided under the Australian Government National Suicide Prevention Program.


Biophysical Chemistry 119 (2006) 69 – 77 Influence of N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine N-oxide on the activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-transporting ATPase reconstituted into diacylphosphatidylcholine vesicles: Effects of bilayer physical parameters J. Karlovska´ a,*, D. Uhrı´kova´ a, N. Ku*erka a, J. Teixeira b, F. Devı´nsky a, I. Lacko a, P. Balgavy´ a a Faculty of Pharmacy, Comenius University, Odboja´rov 10, 832 32 Bratislava, Slovakia