Marys Medicine

SASAS Congress 48 21-23 September 2015 Posters: Industry, Production Microbiological assessment of Suya Meat (an intermediate moisture
meat) in Oyo State, South-Western Nigeria
A.O. Akinwumi1#, A.A. Odunsi1, E.A. Adebayo2, S.G. Ademola1 & B.S.Olawuyi1
1Department of Animal Nutrition and Biotechnology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria 2Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Suya (Hausa language for "roasted meat" or "fried meat") is an intermediate moisture meat that is easy to prepare from boneless meat and is highly relished in Nigeria. Its consumption cuts across all social classes and it is served at parties, clubs, and social outings. In an attempt to assess the influence of environment on its hygienic conditions and safety, this study was conducted to determine the bacteriological assessment of suya meat sold in Oyo state, Nigeria. Sixty four (64) ready-to-eat suya samples were collected at various popular suya selling points across the four agricultural zones in the state. The agricultural zones are Ibadan-Ibarapa, Oyo, Ogbomoso and Saki. Sixteen (16) samples each were collected in 4 selected local governments in each zone. The swabs were taken to the laboratory where serial dilution, inoculation of diluents into a sterile nutrient agar for incubation and catalase test and gram staining for characterization and identification were conducted. The results of the various isolates that were identified and their frequencies of occurrence showed that Klebsiella pneumonia (25%) was ranked highest, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (19%), and Escherichia coli (19%). Bacillus subtilis was next with 13% while other isolates observed were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (6%), Klebsiella oxytoca (6%), Enterobacter cloaca (6%), and Citrobacter freundi (6%). This has revealed that the product (suya) constitutes a food safety risk to consumers as they are predisposed to food-borne infections and health challenges emanating from the environment. Improved hygienic practices during processing, handling and packaging are hereby advocated. #Corresponding auth Consumer perceptions of pork quality in Alice rural community of
the Eastern Cape, South Africa
L.S. Dastile1 & V. Muchenje1#
1Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, The objective of the study was to determine consumer perceptions of pork quality. A survey was conducted in six retail outlets of Alice town in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa and 150 consumers were interviewed in the study. Consumers were interviewed directly at the point of purchase. Frequencies for consumers' profiles and perceptions were determined. The Chi-square test was done to test for associations between age, gender, level of education, religious denomination, source of income, race and consumer perceptions. Price was the most significant factor that affected consumer purchasing decision at the point of purchase. Pork meat was mostly preferred by consumers than any other source of protein, but some of the consumers did not consume pork due to religious reasons and allergies. Most consumers preferred pinkish coloured pork (45.33%) because they believed that it indicated good pork quality. Both male and female consumers agreed that they would never consume discoloured meat as it is an indication that the quality of meat has deteriorated. Consumers used place of purchase as the most important extrinsic quality cue. The majority of the respondents (54.67%) had tertiary level of education. This might have an impact on the responses because consumers were fully aware about the nutritional importance of an animal protein source. The results indicate that the most considered facts were price, pork colour and place of purchase. #Corresponding auth The application of advanced interactive Livestock Management
Reports in INTERGIS, based on official milk performance recording
J. du Toit1#, G. Buchanan2 & M.J. Viljoen1
1ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag x5013, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa 2ARC-Systems Development, P.O. Box 8783, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa The emphasis in reporting on results from official milk recording systems has shifted from the phenotypic performances of individual cows used in genetic evaluation programs, to focus more on information regarding the relationship between phenotypic values, health traits and nutritional requirements. Information on dairy performance recording captured in INTERGIS addresses the demands in herd production tendencies, milk composition and quality, as well as production efficiency. The intensive production systems in the dairy industry demand creative, dynamic and interactive reports to ensure economic sustainability in the dairy enterprise. Therefore it was necessary to develop more applicable and advanced functionalities in the management program, to assist the dairy farmer in management decisions which will improve cow efficiency. Involuntary culling due to udder health has an enormous influence on longevity. With the emphasis on health traits and nutritional needs and deficiencies, individual cows and/or groups of cows can easily be identified for early intervention and adjustment to enhance efficiency and productivity. An important and useful development revolves around the evaluation of groups of animals within similar health and/or feeding treatment in the herd. Trends for specific traits can be included in a range of graphs for certain periods based on years, months or seasons. Problem areas and production periods can be identified and properly planned for in future. This report offers the opportunity for animal scientists, feed consultants, veterinarians and extension officers to assist dairy farmers on aspects that influence herd efficiency and productivity. #Corresponding auth Effect of different levels of supplementation on beef heifer
development in the south-eastern Free State
L.A. Foster1, P.J. Fourie1# & F.W.C Neser2
1Department of Agriculture, Central University of Technology, Free State, Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa 2Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences, UFS, PO BOX 339, Bloemfontein 9300, Replacement heifers are not generally mated before the age of 24 months because of the extensive nature of the majority of beef enterprises in South Africa. Due to the time factor and quantity of feed required when heifers are mated to calve down as three-year-olds, the economic implications of the enterprise become vitally important. The identification of an efficient supplementation regimen to rear replacement heifers in terms of livemass gains necessary to achieve acceptable conception rates at the lowest possible cost was therefore the objective of this study. It must be stressed that the levels of supplementation used in this study were chosen to be typical of the level used under practical farming conditions and often employed by farmers. Three heifer development trials were conducted over a 3-year period with respectively 36, 39 and 45 Drakensberger heifers. Heifers were randomly assigned to one of three supplementation treatment groups after weaning (ca 7 months old). Treatment groups were rotated between allocated camps fortnightly to minimize camp effect. Treatment 1 (T1) was offered a winter production supplement in late winter {crude protein (CP) 30.6%, from non-nitrogen-protein (NPN) 47.4 % and metabolizible energy (ME) 7.4 MJ/kg}, summer production supplement (CP, 16.4 %, from NPN 37.0 % and ME 9.0 MJ/kg) in summer and a urea based protein supplement in winter (CP 47.5 %, from NPN 95.9 % and ME 2.4 MJ/kg). Treatment 2 (T2) was offered a cotton oil cake and urea based protein supplement (CP 32.9 %, from NPN 70.7 % and ME 6.89 MJ/kg) in late winter, a mineral supplement with 15% protein and 5 % phosphate (P) in summer and a urea based protein supplement in winter (CP 47.5 %, from NPN 95.9 % and ME 2.4 MJ/kg). Treatment 3 (T3) was offered a urea based supplement in late winter (CP 47.5 %, from NPN 95.9 % and ME 2.4 MJ/kg), a mineral supplement with 6 % P in summer and a urea based supplement (CP 47.5 %, from NPN 95.9 % and ME 2.4 MJ/kg) in winter. No treatment differences occurred in year 1. In year 2 T1 heifers (361 ± 43 kg) and T2 heifers (351 ± 27 kg) weighed significantly (P < 0.05) heavier than the T3 heifers (328 ± 27 kg). In year 3 the T1 heifers (356 ± 22 kg) weighed significantly (P < 0.05) more than T2 heifers (334 ± 23 kg) and the T3 heifers (328 ± 19 kg). Even though significant (P < 0.05) differences in final weight between treatment groups were measured, all the treatment groups were able to reach target breeding mass (60% of mature weight) 8 months prior to the breeding season. The three year average cost incurred in supplying supplements to the T1 heifers was R466.00 per animal, the T2 heifers R 228.28 per animal and the T3 heifers R145.30 per animal. A saving of 221% at the current (2011 to 2014) prices can be made by developing beef heifers on the supplements offered to the T3 heifer group. #Corresponding auth Methane yield of young beef bulls on an intensive feeding system
S.M. Grobler1#, M.M. Scholts1, 2 & H.J. van Rooyen1
1Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X05, Lynn East 0039, South Africa 2University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa Agriculture is responsible for 5% to 10% of the global methane (CH4) production of which 80% to 90% emanates from livestock production. The challenge faced by the livestock sector is to produce enough animal protein for the expanding global human population while reducing greenhouse gas emissions to decrease the environmental impact. The livestock population, or more specifically ruminants, is responsible for emitting 16-20% of the methane to the atmosphere by means of methanogenesis or biomethanation due to anaerobic fermentation of feed in the rumen and large intestine. Techniques monitoring CH4 at individual animal level are crucial to better monitor methane mitigation alternatives, while improving cattle production efficiency. Although still under evaluation in livestock systems, the Laser Methane Detector (LMD) has demonstrated its viability to be utilized in enteric methane monitoring in ruminants. The current study was aimed at measuring the methane yield of young Simbra, Pinzgauer and PinZ2yl bulls on an intensive feeding system. The animals were fed a total mixed ration for 9 weeks where after methane measurements commenced. All measurements were taken late afternoon (18:00) as it proved to be difficult to see the laser beam in direct sunlight and no or very little wind is experienced at this time of day. Gas column density was measured in parts per million per meter (ppm-m) on individual animals by directing the auxiliary LMD targeting laser beam at the nostrils of the bulls. The measurements for each individual bull were taken every 5 seconds over a period of 60 seconds to include different stages of the respiratory tidal cycle. Four 60 second repeated measurements were taken twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The LMD does account for the plume effect, assuming that the plume density in the animal's breath has a 1m radius from the point source giving a concentration in ppm-m (ml/m3). The methane concentration (ppm-m) was converted to methane production (g/day) by making use of the currently available deterministic model (Chagunda et al, 2009). Methane yield was calculated by dividing methane production (g/day) with daily feed intake (g/day). Results from the study showed variation in methane production (g/day) between individual animals within the different breeds: Pinzgauer 7.49 ± 1.73, PinZ2yl 7.41 ± 0.47 and Simbra 7.10 ± 1.37. There was no correlation between methane yield and either end weight, feed efficiency, average daily gain or daily feed intake. A correlation was found however, at the 10% level, between methane production (g/day) and end weight (P = 0.08) as well as daily feed intake (P=0.07). #Corresponding auth Productivity of small ruminants in various farm systems under
livestock improvement program in Mpumalanga Province
P. Khoza1# & M.E. Nkambule1
1Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Land and Environmental Affairs, Sub-Directorate: Large and Small Ruminant Research and Development, Nooitgedacht Agricultural Development Centre, Ermelo, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa The farmer participatory research study was conducted to determine the performance of Dohne Merino sheep that were distributed from the departmental research nucleus flock to Land Reform farms through the livestock improvement Program (Masibuyele Esibayeni) in the Mpumalanga Province. The trial was conducted on the Highveld grassland where 25 Ewes and one ram were randomly selected from the Departmental experimental research nucleus flock. The flocks were allocated to Departmental, Cooperative, Youth and Individual family owned projects of Athole, Mooihoek, Rouxland and Tweefontein farms respectively. The farms are respectively situated in Msukaligwa, Mkhondo, Pixley kaseme and Likwa local municipalities. Each sheep in a flock was identified by properly numbered steel/plastic ear tags and the flocks branded by the tattoo brand of each farm. There were minor alterations on the management program systems implemented by the small stock beneficiaries at the trial sites. The health management programs were implemented according to the ecological sites and local veterinary services specifications. Data on economically important traits, like the reproduction efficiency traits, was collected from the various flocks and analysed using excel standard error bars (SE). The results showed that standard error bars overlapped for lambing and weaning rate averages of Athole, Rouxland, Tweefontein flocks across 2012- 2014 years and only in 2013 for Mooihoek flock which means the lambing and weaning rate averages were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Whilst there was no overlap in lambing and weaning rate averages within Mooihoek flock during 2012 and weaning rate average during 2014, the average for that period was statistically significant (P<0.05). Therefore in 2012 and 2014 the Mooihoek flock, with the exception of year 2013, had a lower lambing rate than Tweefontein, Rouxland, Athole flocks over time. In 2012 Mooihoek flock had a lower weaning rate than Tweefontein, Rouxland, Athole flocks. The study demonstrated that the change from seasonal breeding system in the original parent flock to continuous breeding system in Mooihoek beneficiaries flock might have influenced the negative performance on reproduction efficiency traits during some periods. This can be attributed to the group dynamics conflicts within the Cooperative owned Mooihoek flock project. #corresponding author Factors influencing preweaning performance of Nguni and Angus x
Nguni calves in an experimental herd
M.M. Scholtz1, 2, A. Theunissen3, D.A. Linde1, 4# & O.M. Ntwaeagae3
1ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa 2University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, 9300, South Africa 3 Northern Cape Department of Agricultural, Land Reform and Rural Development, Private Bag X9, Jan Kempdorp 8550, South Africa; University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
The importance of indigenous breeds that are adapted to the anticipated warmer climate,
lower nutritional value of the grazing and harsher conditions will increase. Crossbreeding
between British / European and indigenous breeds may thus become more important to
increase beef production in the near future. In this study the Nguni in a terminal
crossbreeding system was evaluated at the Vaalharts Research Station in the Northern Cape
over a period of four years. In total 167 pure Nguni and 81 Angus x Nguni calves were
weaned. The average 205-day adjusted weaning weight of the Angus x Nguni calves were
181 kg and that of the pure Nguni calves 146 kg. Although the adjusted weaning weight of
the Angus x Nguni calves was 35 kg higher than that of pure Nguni calves, the difference
was not significant. This can be attributed to the large variation in weaning weights, with that
of the pure Nguni calves ranging from 56 kg to 230 kg and that of the Angus x Nguni calves
from 105 kg to 303 kg. As a result of the very large variation in weaning weights, some non-
genetic factors affecting 205 day-adjusted weaning weight of pure Nguni and Angus x Nguni
calves were evaluated. The results indicated that adjusted weaning weight is affected by
factors like the sex of a calf, age of the dam, the year of birth of a calf and the herd of origin
of the dam. The cow weight at weaning did not seem to influence the weaning weights of the
calves. Since weaning weight is affected by many non-genetic factors there is a great need
to make adjustments for them when estimating genetic parameters. There is also a need to
investigate the reason(s) for the large variation in weaning weight of the calves from Nguni
cows. This may include an in depth study of the differences between farms from which the
dams originate, cow weight and genetic merit. The fact that herd of origin of the cow affects
the weaning weights of her calves may also suggest the presence of epigenetics. All
alterations in DNA function without alterations in DNA sequence are referred to as
epigenetics. It is associated with gene expression and the expression of different phenotypes
(appearance). These modifications are influenced by environmental factors and can be
transferred to the progeny. Epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in phenotypic diversity
in response to environmental conditions and this warrants further investigation.
#Corresponding auth

Effects of sex and stocking density on broiler performance in a
subtropical environment
K. Benyi1#, M.A. Madilindi1, 2 & C.B. Banga2
1Department of Animal Science, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South 2ARC Animal Production institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa The objective of every broiler producer is to maximize the kilograms of chicken produced per unit of floor space, while simultaneously reducing losses due to overcrowding, in order to attain optimum economic returns. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of sex and stocking density and interaction between them, if any, on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens in a semi-arid, sub-tropical environment. One thousand and eight day-old Cobb Avian, 48 chicks, 462 males and 546 females, were reared at stocking densities of 30, 35 and 40 kg body weight per square meter (BW/m2) during a 42-day production period. The experiment was a 2×3 factorial in a completely randomized design and each sex-stocking density combination was replicated three times. After the initial weighing, the birds were individually weighed (in grams) weekly until 42 d. Carcass characteristics were also measured after slaughter, at day 42, and expressed as percentages of body weight. The data were analysed by analysis of variance using the general linear models (GLM) procedure of Minitab16 (Minitab, 2014) followed by standard means separation. Males gained more weight and were heavier at slaughter age (2649 ± 43.1) than females (2270 ± 43.1). There was a progressive reduction in feed intake with increasing stocking density (P<0.05), but neither sex nor stocking density influenced feed conversion ratio or mortality rate (P>0.05). There were significant sex effects on percentages of carcass, breast, neck, shank, heart and abdominal fat (P<0.01), and thigh, liver and gizzard (P<0.05). Stocking density influenced percentages of carcass, breast, thigh, drumstick, neck, shank, liver and gizzard (P<0.01).There were sex × stocking density interaction effects on percentages of thigh and liver (P<0.05). It is therefore recommended that, for profitable broiler production in the tropics and subtropics, for a 42-day production cycle, Cobb Avian48 males reared at the stocking density of 40 kg BW/m2 be considered as the best option. #Corresponding auth Analyses of the impacts of bacteriological seepage emanating from
pig farming on the natural environment
D.S. Matjuda1#, R. Adeleke2 & O.A. Aiyegoro1
1Gastro intestinal Microbiology and Biotechnology, Agricultural Research Council- Animal Production Institute, Irene, South Africa 2Soil Health Unit, Agricultural Research Council- Institute of Soil Climate and water, Arcadia, South Modern pig farming production may over-burden the environment with organic substances, exposure to bacterial pathogens and introduction of a resistance gene. This may be caused by the pig's droppings, lack of seepage management or accidental spil age of seepage which may impact on the environment and its physicochemical parameters. The objective of this study is to determine and assess the level of bacteriological pollution emanating from the pig farm and its impact on the physicochemical parameters of soil and water, as well as to identify the presence of an antibiotic resistance gene of the prevailing bacteria. Soil and water samples were collected monthly for a period of six months (March- August 2013). Samples were collected at pig enclosures, soil 20m away from pig enclosures, constructed wetland used for treating pig farm wastewater, soil 20m and 100m away from constructed wetland. Procedure followed for analysing samples includes viable cell counts of 101 to 108 dilutions, physicochemical analyses, antibiotic susceptibility test, identification of bacteria using API 20E test kit and identification of resistant gene using molecular procedures. The viable cells in soil samples from 30cm depth ranged from 0 cfu/ml to 2.44 x 1010cfu/ml, in soil from 5cm depth ranged from 1.00 x 101 cfu/ml to 1.91 x 1010 cfu/ml, and in water samples viable cells ranged from 5.00 x 101 to 5.05 x 109. Physicochemical parameters of water showed unacceptably high levels of analysed parameters for BOD (163 mg/L to 3350 mg/L), TDS (0.77 g/L to 6.48 mg/L), COD (210 mg/L to 9400 mg/L), NO3 (55 mg/L to 1680 mg/L), NO 2 (37.5 mg/L to 2730 mg/L), and PO4 (50 mg/L to 1427), which were higher than the maximum permissible limits set by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) . For soil samples, TDS (0.01g/L to 0.88 g/L), COD (40 mg/L to 304 mg/L), NO3 (32.5 mg/L to 475 mg/L), and NO2 (7.35 mg/L to 255 mg/L) were observed to be higher than recommended limits set by Federal Ministry for the Environment (FME). Salmonella spp, Proteus spp, E.coli1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenus etc. were isolated from soil and water samples from the pig farm. Isolates were highly resistant to penicillin G, sulphamethaxazole, vancomycin, tilmocozin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim. The most resistance genes detected in most isolates were aa (6')-le-aph (2")-la, aph (2")-lb, aph (3")-llla, Van A, Van B, Otr A and Otr B. Pig farm seepage is causing bacterial pollution which is impacting negatively on the natural environment in the vicinity of the pig farm by introducing bacterial pathogens that have an antibiotic resistance gene and is increasing the physicochemical parameters for soil and water in the natural environment at the pig farm. #Corresponding auth Production efficiency of Nguni cattle in different agro-ecological
zones of Limpopo province, South Africa
T.J. Mpofu1#, M.M. Ginindza1, N.A. Siwendu1, K.A. Nephawe2 & B.J. Mtileni2
1 Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa 2 Department of Animal Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, The study was conducted to determine the production efficiency of Nguni cattle in the different agro-ecological zones of the Limpopo province. Production indices such as birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), pre-weaning ADG (P-ADG), total pre-weaning gain (P-G), pregnancy rate (PR), calving rate (CR), weaning rate (WR), cow efficiency (CE) and production efficiency (PE) were assessed in the different agro-ecological zones. Records of 827 Nguni calves and 2952 cows from 2008 to 2012 were obtained from nine herds in arid (AR), semi-arid (SR), dry-sub humid (DS) and humid (HU) agro-ecological zones. Cattle in AR had higher PR of 93%, while the lowest PR of 83.2% was observed in HU. A higher CR of 90.1% was observed from cattle in DS, while lower value of 77.4% was observed in HU. Higher WR of 97.2% was achieved in SR, whilst lowest WR of 90.8% was achieved in HU. The average CE and PE were 35.92 % and 32.55 % respectively. The highest CE of 38.27% and PE of 33.97% were observed in HU and AR respectively. Whilst the lowest CE (34.18%) and PE (30.02%) values were observed in DS and HU respectively. The influence of climate has a significant effect that determines the vegetation type of the province. Nguni cows in the HU had higher growth performance due to high rainfall capable of sustaining vegetation growth and composed of savannah, resulting in better CE. The lowest growth performance in AR resulted from low erratic rainfall which in turn led to poor grazing content. WW and PR was a main determinant parameter of PE. Nguni cattle yielded acceptable levels of growth, CE and PE under the different agro-ecological zones of Limpopo province. #Corresponding auth Production performance of Holstein and Jersey cows in a pasture-
based system
C.J.C. Muller1# & J.A. Botha1
1Western Cape Department of Agriculture, Research and Technology Development Services, Directorate Animal Sciences, Private bag X1, Elsenburg 7607, South Africa It is well accepted that the production performance of Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) cows differ in most production systems. Except for milk recording data, only a few studies have been done locally to compare the production efficiency of H and J cows under similar feeding, management and environmental conditions. Within study groups, breeds are often compared, although differences among herds, management style, genetic and environmental factors are not taken into consideration. In this paper, the production performance of H (n=128) and J (n=103) cows on a pasture-based system were compared using records from several lactations. Cows were on kikuyu pasture, supplemented during winter with a pasture replacement mixture consisting of lucerne hay, oat hay and soy bean oil cake meal. All cows received the same concentrate mixture twice a day, after milking, at a total of 7 kg per cow per day. Holstein cows produced 34% more (P<0.01) milk (6908±1365 vs. 5160±909 kg), 10% more fat (265±53 vs. 240±43 kg), 18% more protein (217±42 vs. 184±32 kg) than J cows although at lower (P<0.01) fat and protein concentrations, being 3.84±0.28 vs. 4.65±0.35% and 3.15±0.20 vs. 3.57±0.20%, respectively. Component values estimated using milk, fat and protein yields also differed (P<0.01), being 2120±413 and 1848±324 kg for H and J cows respectively. Milk recording data of production parameters show larger differences between breeds than the present study, being 52, 24 and 31% higher for H vs. J cows for milk, fat and protein production, respectively. The erosion rate of cows up to sixth lactation is higher for H cows in comparison to J cows following a polynomial vs. linear decrease in cow numbers. This could indicate a greater prevalence for involuntary culling in H cows because of reproductive and other management problems. Further studies are envisaged to compare the production efficiency of H and J cows under this feeding system. #Corresponding auth Production constraints of smallholder pig farms in agro-ecological
zones of Mpumalanga, South Africa
P. Munzhelele1, 2#, J. Oguttu2 & F.O. Fasina3
1Nooitgedacht Research Station, Department of Agriculture, Rural Development, Land Administration and Environmental Affairs, Animal Research, Non-ruminant Sub-directorate, South Africa 2Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, UNISA, South Africa 3Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
The South African pig industry is a major contributor to the primary agricultural sector. A
study was conducted to identify the production constraints in smallholder pig farms and to
compare the management practices in three ecological zones of Mpumalanga province,
South Africa. In total, 216 randomly selected smallholder pig farmers were interviewed using
semi-structured questionnaire. The results indicated that smallholder pig farming was
predominated by males (64%), age group above 50 years (54%), black Africans (98.6%) and
approximately three quarters of the smallholder farmers were classified as being poor to just
below average. Majority (80%) of respondents have no form of pig husbandry training, while
few (33%) have received assistance from government Department of Agriculture. In terms of
stock, mixed breeds (89%) from exotic pigs were mostly kept and majority (87%) of the
farmers kept between 1 – 10 sows in their herds. Many farmers (75%) engaged in the risky
practice of buying auction-sourced boars, free-range boars and untested boars from
neighbours and relatives. Few (17%) farmers practiced vaccination and only 10% kept
records of the pigs. Majority of the responses on pre-weaning mortality (50%) and post-
weaning mortality (90%) were within acceptable range of 1-10% and 1-5%mortality rates
respectively. The lead causes of mortality were weak piglets and crushing(46%), diarrhoea
(27%), poor management knowledge (19%) and malnutrition (16%). Agricultural training and
government incentives will facilitate improved productivity in smallholder pig farms within the

#Corresponding auth
Evaluation of meat safety knowledge, personal hygiene, attitudes
and handling practices of slaughtermen from two selected abattoirs
F. Nyamakwere1, B. Mushonga2 & V. Muchenje1#
1Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, 2Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Neudam Campus, Namibia The objective of the current study was to assess the level of knowledge, practices and attitudes towards meat safety and personal hygiene of slaughtermen from two abattoirs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A survey was conducted in which 40 workers from a low throughput (LTA) and a high throughput (HTA) abattoir were interviewed. Data was collected using a questionnaire comprising questions on slaughtermens' knowledge and attitudes regarding meat safety, as well as personal hygiene and handling practices. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Results indicated that slaughtermen were generally adhering to proper ways of hand washing (LTA: 95.45%; HTA: 100%), drying (LTA: 46.67%; HTA: 90.91%) and wearing protective clothing during the slaughter process, with individuals from the HTA yielding comparatively better scores. The results further revealed that smoking around processing areas (LTA: 53.34%; HTA: 18.19%), cleaning and disinfecting working clothes, reporting illness (LTA: 66.66%; HTA: 37.28%), frequency of medical examinations, lack of health certificates (LTA; 26.67%; HTA: 40.91%) and professional training (LTA: 53.33%; HTA: 13.64%) were the main areas with knowledge deficiencies and practices among those interviewed. Knowledge and practices of respondents were significantly different (p<0.05) according to educational level and professional training. Although the results showed a significant adherence to basic hygiene practices, some aspects such as routine medical examination, health certificates and professional training of slaughtermen still need to be improved. #Corresponding auth Chemical profiling and health benefits of two Cymbopogon species
found in Nkonkobe District, Eastern Cape, South Africa
E.B. Omoruyi1 & V. Muchenje2#
1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa 2Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa Southern Africa has up to eight species of Cymbopogon lemon grasses. Cymbopogon validis and Cymbopogon plurinodis have been identified in Nkonkobe province by the traditional healers and botanist. The oil extracted locally is use by these traditional healers for the treatment of allelopathic respiratory tract infections. Industrially, they are often used in flavours, fragrances, andcosmetics. The leaves of Cymbopogon validis and Cymbopogon plurinodis were hydro-distilled and the extracted oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The result of the analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 76 and 70 compounds, representing 90.36% and 85.3% of the total oils, respectively. The major components of the C. validis oil were identified as linalyl alcohol (18.9%), citronellal (0.77%), citronellol (1.47%), geraniol (2.68%), geranyl acetate (1.97%), Hinesol (4.78%), agarospirol (5.26%) and 4-epi-cubedol (6.08%).While the main components of that of C. plurinodis were characterized as limonene (3.65%), cubedol (2.22%), phytol (0.05%), Epiglobulol (0.09%), 2,4-carene (12.66%) and Nerolidol 1 and 2 (13.6%). The phytochemical profile of C. validis and C. plurinodis and their medical applications by the traditional healers and industrial cosmetics should be considered before eradication from the veld. #Corresponding auth Dairying in Sub-Tropical regions – Makhathini Research station
P.A. Oosthuizen1#, T.J. Dugmore2, F.J. du Toit3 & E.A. van Zyl1
1Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dundee Research station, P.O. Box 626 Dundee, 3000, South Africa 2Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Cedara, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, 3200, South Africa 3Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, OSCA, Private Bag X20013, Empangeni, 3880, The usual dairy breeds have some serious challenges when they are introduced in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. One of the challenges faced in the area was nutrition with distance to feed merchants. The high temperatures deterred animals from grazing during the day and night time grazing occurred. In circumstances where animals had to be kraaled, feeding was necessary during the night. Providing shade and cool clean drinking water is another challenge that faces the dairy farmer in these parts. It is therefore quite debatable whether to do dairying (with traditional dairy breeds) in hot, humid environments – or not. The demand for milk and dairy products however, does not disappear. An initiative was launched at Makhathini Research station in the far north east of KwaZulu-Natal, to breed a crossbred dairy cow combining the adaptability of the local Nguni cattle and the diary characteristics of the Jersey. An added benefit (to hot environs) by using the Nguni and Jersey breeds was keeping the frame of the crossbreed small. Initially all three breeds (Nguni, Jersey and the Crossbreed) were milked in a standard operating milking parlour. The Nguni and Crossbreed's yields were disappointingly low. Therefore the operation was changed to include a restricted suckling regime and the Nguni and Crossbreed cows were milked outside. The crossbreed has proven itself under these conditions with improved milk yields and longer lactation periods (reaching 300 days). Twice a day hand milking was also rejected in favour of once a day milking as some calves were losing condition. A simulation of the communal scenario (regarding feeding and nutrition of the dairy animal) was done to serve as a demonstration unit for local farmers. The breeds were compared in trials within the breeding program. The results of a trial on the effects supplementation have on the milk production of the crossbreed showed a significant increase in milk production, although not economically feasible. The restricted suckling regime resulted in poor calf performance when the cows were milked twice a day. An investigation was done to determine the milk intakes of the calves, with calves weighed before and after suckling. This served as an indication of the mother's ability to retain milk and from the results milk retention indicated figures from 22% to 120% of saleable milk. #Corresponding author An overview of goat meat quality: Part II. Effects of post mortem
electrical stimulation on goat meat quality
P. Pophiwa1#, E.C. Webb1 & L. Frylinck2
1Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa 2Meat Industry Centre, Agricultural Research Council – Animal Production Institute, Irene 0062, Electrical stimulation (ES) has been reported to improve meat colour and tenderness, but there is limited information on the effects of ES on goat meat quality. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ES on goat meat quality. Twenty (20) post weaned Boer and indigenous goats (n =10 /breed; weighing 17.34 ± 2.67 kg) were raised to a marketable weight of ca. 35 kg. The goats were slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedure. Immediately after dressing down, the carcasses were split into two halves, along the vertebral column. Left sides of carcasses were electrically stimulated (220 V for 30 seconds at a pulse 9.5 per second) and right sides remained unstimulated (NS). Carcass pH and temperature values were recorded at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours post mortem. After 24 hours of chilling (0 -40C), the m. longissimus dorsi (LD) and m. semimembranosus (SM), were dissected from both carcass sides and meat quality characteristics such as, colour (L*, a*, b*, Chroma, hue and myoglobin fractions), water holding capacity (meat to fluid ratio), juiciness (thawing and cooking losses) and tenderness (sarcomere length and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values) were evaluated. Carcass pH values were lower in ES carcass sides than in NS carcass sides, during the 24 hour post mortem period. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were lower in ES carcass sides (5.17 ±1.89 kg) compared to NS carcass sides (6.44 ± 2.48 kg). Sarcomeres were shorter in ES carcass sides (2.03 ± 0.10 µm) than in NS carcass sides (2.08 ± 0.12 µm). Parameters for meat colour, water holding capacity or juiciness were not affected by ES. In conclusion, ES accelerated the rate of pH decline and improved meat tenderness, but did not improve meat colour. The present study confirms the potential of ES in counteracting the effects of cold shortening in goat muscles. #Corresponding auth Consumer and handlers' perceptions on meat quality and safety
along the distribution chain
Z.T. Rani1 & V. Muchenje1#
1Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, The objective of the study was to investigate the perceptions and knowledge of consumers and meat handlers' on meat quality and its safety throughout the distribution chain. A survey was conducted where 300 consumers randomly selected from five different municipalities, 50 retailers and 50 meat handlers from two abattoirs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were involved. Data was collected using a questionnaire on perceptions of meat quality, consumer knowledge on meat safety and challenges faced by handlers during distribution. Frequencies for respondent's profiles and perceptions were determined using PROC FREQ of SAS (2010). The Chi-square test was used to determine associations between respondent's demographical characteristics and their perceptions on meat quality and safety. The results revealed that 53.69% of consumers, 81.63% retailers and 99,9% of abattoir workers were male, above 50 years of age, with more than 10 years of experience in the meat sector. There was some general disagreement between the three groups on the use of quality attributes to predict meat quality and safety. Consumers used colour and price to predict meat quality, while handlers used freshness. Expiry dates, change in colour and aroma were considered as the best indicators of meat safety. The results further showed that more than 60% of the consumers perceived that meat purchased from the butcher and retail shops differ in quality. Meat from high class shops was considered to be safer than low class shops. A strong significant association between educational status and awareness on meat safety was observed, where 55% of the consumers had shown lack of knowledge on the pathogenic diseases that they may obtain from consuming raw meat. However, series of loading and offloading, temperature fluctuations, environmental temperatures and queues during offloading were reported as the major challenges during transportation of carcasses from the abattoir to the supply points. It was concluded that consumers and meat handlers have different perceptions on meat quality and meat handlers generally perceived the distribution chain as having an effect on meat quality. #Corresponding auth The effect of sheep breed, attachment area and season on total tick
counts of indigenous and commercial sheep in South Africa
A.J. Scholtz1#, S. Matthee2, J.J.E. Cloete3, 4 & S.W.P. Cloete1, 3
1Directorate: Animal Sciences, Western Cape Department of Agriculture, Private Bag x1, Elsenburg, 7607, South Africa 2Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South 3Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland, South Africa 4Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute, Private Bag x1, Elsenburg 7607, South Africa Sheep form an integral component of livestock production systems, particularly in the arid, pastoral regions of South Africa. Ticks are of veterinary and economic importance and can cause blood loss, damage to the skin and/or udders, lameness, transmit disease or irritate their hosts, causing serious welfare problems and productivity losses. This study reports on the effect of sheep breed, attachment area as well as season on the total tick counts of Namaqua Afrikaner (NA), Dorper and South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) reproducing ewes. Ewes were compared under marginal, extensive conditions at the Nortier Research Farm near Lamberts Bay, Western Cape Province. All the animals grazed together on natural shrub pasture typical of the west coast region. Ticks were counted in December 2011, May 2012 and September 2012. Ewes (n = 73) were upended and a total of 3980 ticks were removed from six attachment areas per animal: head (including the neck); right front leg; belly; udder; right hind leg and perineum area (including the tail in the NA). Animal information was recorded and all the ticks, from each of the body areas, were collected. Ticks were preserved in 70% ethanol and identified to species, sex (male/female) and development stage (mature/immature). Three tick species (Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and R. gertrudae) contributed to >99% of ticks identified. Analyses conducted on the combined tick data recorded higher total tick counts on the legs; belly and udder for Dorper and SAMM compared to NA. Back transformed geometric means (±S.E.) for total tick count on the udder recorded 1.70 ± 0.17 and 1.69 ± 0.18 ticks for Dorper and SAMM respectively, compared to 0.43 ± 0.11 for NA. When the sheep breeds were analysed separately, NA had the lowest total tick counts on the udder all year round. Total tick numbers on the belly area for all the breeds were very low and may be a less preferred attachment site. The higher tick counts on the head of NA ewes were due to higher abundances of R. evertsi evertsi immature stages in autumn. NA ewes had the highest total tick count on the perineum/tail area compared to the other two breeds. This may be due to the fact that the NA breed still has an intact tail compared to the commercial breeds. The advantage in favour of the NA for tick infestation on the udder supports evidence of improved udder health in this breed under tick challenge conditions compared to the commercial breeds. #Corresponding auth Efficiency of small scale poultry farmers in Lepelle-Nkumpi
municipality, Limpopo province
M. Sebaka1#
1North West University, South Africa Efficiency plays a prominent role in increasing productivity of poultry farmers. However, they
are constraints that results in low efficiency of poultry farmers. Inefficiency studies indicated
that there is a possibility to increase productivity through improved efficiency without
increasing resources used. This study analysed efficiency with special reference to small-
scale poultry farmers in Lepelle-Nkumpi Local Municipality, Limpopo province. Data was
collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire on the basis of a sample of 72 poultry
farmers. Among them, 9 egg producing enterprises, 55 broiler producing enterprises and 8
egg and broiler producing enterprises were found. With the use of the stochastic frontier
production function, cost of bird stock, hired labour cost and cost of litter were found to be
highly significant at 1.0% in affecting the level of broiler producing farmers' output. Broiler
production inputs such as electricity cost, family labour cost, cost of feed and cost of
medication had no significant influence on the farmers' output. Broiler producing farmers are
operating close to the frontier with 88.89% of respondents having efficiency levels of more
than 90%. The mean efficiency of farmers was 0.9577 indicating large efficiencies in broiler
production. The socio-economic determinants of inefficiency were education level, gender,
household size and years of farming experience. Years of farming experience had a positive
coefficient which indicated that experienced farmers were more inefficient. Moreover, new
entrants' farmers benefit and rely more on invaluable advice from extension officer. The
study recommends that government should provide adequate agricultural extension agents
coverage for poultry farmers because new entrants were depending on their valuable pieces
of advice and that abattoir facilities should be made available as they will enhance
participation of poultry farmers in formal and good contract markets, thereby increasing their

#Corresponding author
Water conservation and effluent generation in dairy processing
N.W. Sithole1, M. Chimonyo1# & I.V. Nsahlai1
1Animal and Poultry Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P. Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa The objective of the current study was to assess the level of awareness of dairy industries in water conservation and management of effluents. A questionnaire was administered to 233 companies and 103 enterprises responded. Aspects covered include; water usage, types of dairy product, effluent generation and water conservation practices. The influence of period of operation, size and location of company was also assessed. A Proc-Freq procedure and chi-square test of SAS program was used to analyse the data. Water use on different processes was influenced by the size of the company (P<0.05). There was an association (P<0.05) between period of operation and water conservation strategy adopted by companies (80%). Water source was not associated (P>0.05) with size of the company, location and period of operation. The influence of size of company, location and period of operation did not have an impact (P>0.05) on dairy effluent treatment method used. The high proportion of dairy companies adopting irrigation as a major water conservation strategy indicates that alternative sustainable methods of recycling waste water should be developed. #Corresponding auth Sensory evaluation of beef, pork and offal by rural consumers
N.M. Xazela1, A.Y. Chulayo1, A. Hugo2, P.E. Strydom3 & V. Muchenje1#
1Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, P. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, 2Department of Microbial Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of Free State, P.O. Box 339 Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa 3Meat Industry Centre, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Agricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa The aim of the study was to evaluate the rural consumer sensory evaluation of beef, pork and the offal meat. The study was conducted in three villages (Ncerha, Mxalanga and Tyhusha) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The samples of beef, pork and offal bought from a local butchery were used for the sensory evaluation. Consumer panels consisting of 50 people from each village were used for sensory evaluation and were of different age (≤ 30, 31- 35, 36-40 and ≥ 40) and gender (male and female). The consumer sustained impression of juiciness score for pork was highest (P < 0.05) in Tyhusha village (3.53 ± 0.15). Muscle fibre and overall tenderness scores of beef meat were indicated as tender (P < 0.05) by Ncerha village respondents (2.15 ± 0.13). Ncerha (3.10 ± 0.20) and Mxalanga (3.09 ± 0.19) consumers found the offal meat to be fairly tough (P > 0.05) on the first bite. The offal meat first impression was regarded as slightly tough (P < 0.05) by female (4.04 ± 0.13) respondents. The overall flavour intensity of beef was rated significantly highest (P < 0.05) by ages 36-40. The muscle fibre and overall tenderness of the offal meat was regarded as tender (P < 0.05) compared with the other meats. #Corresponding author Health challenges of Indigenous chickens of two rural communities
in Mnquma municipality of the Eastern Cape
C.W. Zamxaka1# & P.J. Masika2#
1University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X 1314, Alice, South Africa 2Fort Cox Col ege of Agriculture and Forestry, P.O. Box 2187, King Wil iam's Town 5600, South Africa
Most households in the rural areas keep indigenous chickens for various socio-economic
purposes. The chickens and eggs are consumed to provide protein, used in traditional rituals
and sold to generate household income. However, the socio-economic contribution of the
indigenous chickens tends to be curtailed by various health challenges that result in reduces
production and mortality. A series of studied were conducted to establish health challenges
and dynamics that affect their prevalence. Indigenous chickens in two locations were tested
and examined for prevalence of Newcastle disease (NCD), internal and external parasite and
salmonella during all seasons of the year in two locations (Gcina – coastal and
Ngcingcinikhwe – inland).
Between 90 and 100% of birds in Gcina tested positive for NCD in winter, summer and
autumn whereas in Ngcingcinikhwe between 70 and 90% of chickens tested positive around
the same period. In both locations the least proportion of NCD positive samples (60% in
Gcina and 50% in Ngcingcinikhwe) was observed in spring. Lice species (Goniodes
, Goniodes gigas and Menopon gallinae) were more prevalent in the coastal
location and the highest prevalence was that of M. galinae (90%) in autumn in Gcina. Higher
prevalence of fleas (Echidnophaga gallenacea) was observed in the inland location
(Ngcingcinikhwe) compared to the coastal. Two tick species (Amblyoma hebraeum and
Argus spp) were observed. A. hebraeum was most prevalent in the coastal location in spring
and autumn at 70%, whereas the Argus spp was most prevalent inland in winter (40%).
Three worm species (Railetina spp., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum) were observed.
There was a generally higher prevalence of all worm species in the inland area. The three
worm species exhibited highest prevalence (80%) in Ngcingcinikhwe in autumn whereas
highest prevalence of Railetina spp. (70%) was observed in winter and autumn in Gcina. In
conclusion, the results of these studies show that there is a seasonal and geographic
location effect on the prevalence of various health challenges of indigenous chickens and,
therefore, these should be taken into consideration when health management strategies are

#Corresponding authors:


Hamilton o. smith - nobel lecture

NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE SPECIFICITY OF RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASESNobel Lecture, 8 December, 1978 HAMILTON O. SMITHDepartment of Microbiology, The Johns Hopkins University School ofMedicine Baltimore, Maryland, U. S. A. In the past seven to eight years we have witnessed the development of anew DNA technology that has fundamentally altered our approach tomodern genetics. The basic ingredients of this new technology are the

Alendronat stada veckotablett 70mg tabl eng

SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Osteomel Once Weekly 70 mg Tablets QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION Each tablet contains 70 mg alendronic acid (as sodium alendronate trihydrate). Excipients: each tablet contains 142.64 mg lactose monohydrate. For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.