Journal_vet_gb.qxdJOURNAL_VET_GB.qxd 6/02/08 21:34 Page 1 > INTERNATIONAL PRESS REVIEW
figures estimate 2.3% of hos- an injection every 3 years.
drugs are frequently adminis- Zylexis® (Pfizer Animal Health)
a possible pulse therapy
pitalised humans can contract Serological testing is a good way tered simultaneously with a possible adjunctive therapy for calicivirus infection in cats.
a nosocomial infection but this of monitoring the immunological immunotherapy protocols. Dermatophytosis is the figure can reach 11% in the response to canine vaccines.
Zylexis® (killed parapox ovis virus D mentally infected with FCV (oro-nasal tive therapeutically and prophylactically most common contagious skin case of "risky" procedures. Dogs should be tested at least Twenty seven atopic dogs were 1701) is an injectable immunomodula- challenge). The product had no effect against FCV and can be used concur- Birmingham – UK n°1 • January - February - March 2008
disease in cats.
2 weeks after the last injection enrolled in a study comparing a tor originally intended for use in horses on FCV shedding and antibody rently with antibiotics.
3d-6th April 2008 Because of the potential zoonotic In veterinary medicine, the pro- low dose with a standard dose as an aid in reducing upper respiratory response but there was a statistically complications, the treatment is portion is estimated to be 5.5% Vaccination might fail for several of ASIT. These dogs were also diseases caused by equine herpes significant reduction in the percentage Dose: 1 ml/cat SC, the injection always very challenging because on average. In addition to health reasons which can be classified followed for 9 months in order virus type 1 and 4. Zylexis ® has been of days these cats showed signs of can be repeated 3 times at 48 hour of the persistence of infectious and safety issues for staff, these to evaluate the occurrence of European Veterinary Conference –
used on 16-17 week old cats experi- ulcers. Zylexis ® is considered effec- material in the environment. unwanted complications have Guidelines for
- Neutralisation by the maternal secondary bacterial and yeast The situation can be extremely obvious financial consequences, the vaccination of
derived antibodies infections, otitis externa and the Source: Raue R et al, Zylexis® - an efficacious treatment for calicivirus infection in cats Poster – Voorjaarsdagen 2007.
24th-26th April 2008 difficult to handle in a cattery, not to mention possible law- dogs and cats
- Poorly immunogenic vaccine need for antipruritic therapy.
Amsterdam – Netherlands not to mention charity shelters compiled by the vaccination guidelines group
- Animal genetically a poor Adverse effect to ASIT was also A few drops
where financial constraints and a long awaited "user friendly"
(VGG) of the World Small Animal Veterinary
responder (i.e. non-responder human resource shortage are A recent trial conducted on phenotype in some UK and device for the measurement of blood pressure in dogs and cats.
AMVQ / FAFVAC
that tell you lots !
35,000 human patients has German Rottweilers) There were no statistically added difficulties. Saint-Hyacinthe - Quebec – Canada lead to a 27% reduction in A few years ago controversy significant differences between The arterial blood pressure is now have not been very practical for the requires repeated takes. The new 25th-27th April 2008 or how to make the most of urinalysis.
nosocomial infections. developed regarding the need The duration of immunity can also the effectiveness of the stan- recognised as an important parameter veterinarian in past times. In daily Petmap® oscillometric method gives To allow the best possible chance for annual booster vaccinations. be evaluated through serological dard and low doses of ASIT in any medical or surgical procedure practice, the invasive "tip catheter" fast (less than 60 seconds) and reli- A matter of passion.
of minimising nosocomial infec- This controversy originated in testing. Cost effective tests are (Colombo et al, 2005).
and even general health screenings.
(catheter equipped with an electronic able results. It can be used on both Recent data show that 70 % of cats pressure sensor inserted into the Vets are family. Wherever From "uromancy" to PCR.
tions, standard aseptic routine developed countries (especially currently under development.
Secondary infections were VPAT regional Veterinary Congress
should be used, surgical proce- the USA and UK). In response In cats, the feline herpesvirus and frequent and antibiotics and with high blood pressure have chronic artery) is seldom used. Vets prefer Petmap® is not only People have examined urine from the In practice, urinalysis
15F2t isoprostane which is considered they live, wherever they dures should be kept as short as to this a task force was set up feline calicivirus vaccines provide antifungal treatments were kidney failure (Elliott J). The techniques indirect BP measurements but this easy to use but it's 27th – 30th April 2008 dawn of civilisation. In ancient Sanskrit is indicated in many
as an accurate marker of the ROS Bangkok – Thailand come from they have possible and the following simple to provide guidelines which could a limited protection since there used for monitoring blood pressure process can be time consuming and affordable (1490 €). literature, the observation of ants and (reactive oxygen species) activity in vivo measures must be implemented be used worldwide. are multiple strains of cali- 74% of the dogs had pyoderma many things in common.
insects accumulating selectively where Useful information can be gained not (McMichael et al, 2006).
For further information:
Dermatophytosis is very frequent in the veterinary hospital.
Below is a brief summary of the civiruses and the herpesvirus and 66.6% Malassezia infec- individuals with diabetes mellitus had only about the urinary tract (from kid- They are scientific, skilled, in Persian cats Lanceau conclusions of the panel of will be activated by stress.
tions and 44.4% had a combi- urinated led to the description of neys to urethra) but also about other The procedure can
Recent in vitro studies have shown Keep them warm! Even a mild experts. The guidelines are That means that a "vaccinated" nation of these. Regular bath Vancouver – Canada committed, hardworking, "honey urine". During the middle ages, organ systems (Table 1). A thorough be grossly divided in
that terbinafine was effective hypothermia will lead to a based on the recommendations cat can still develop signs of with a therapeutic shampoo and treadmills gaining popularity.
uromancy (the art of reading the urine) evaluation of the urine is necessary.
busy, compassionate, against Microsporum canis, reduction of the oxygen concen- of the American Animal Hospital the diseases. The vaccination (2% miconazole and 2% was very popular, not only to define dis- The specific gravity will allow the clini- 1. A gross inspection (mainly visual tration in the tissue, interfering Association and the American against panleukopenia is very chlorhexidine, Malaseb®) The benefits of physiotherapy post sur- overweight and growing dogs. This is down to earth or dreaming Trichophyton mentagrophytes and ease but also to predict the future cian to assess the levels of urea and but smell can be indicative of spe- gery and during rehabilitation are well especially useful when the owner is not Microsporum gypseum with a negatively with the normal neu- Association of Feline Practitioners.
once or twice a week and ear (Bolodeoku & Donaldson, 1999). Recently
creatinine in serum as well as the pro- cific conditions too!) but most of all, they are known. In some countries, specialised able to exercise the animal or when MIC90 = 0.03µg/mL.
trophil and macrophage's func- In developed countries it is cleaning solution were required Dublin – Ireland sophisticated techniques, such as PCR tein and bilirubin in the urine. 2. Specific chemical testing, usually tions. Avoid cold surfaces, cold estimated that only 30 – 50 % After using the recommended to keep the dogs comfortable.
rehabilitation centres are now used for the hot (or cold) climate makes it diffi- passionate about their job MIC = Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of urinary sediment for the diagnosis of The level of specific substances in with a test strip 20th-24th August 2008 perfusions (as the liquid cools of the pet animal population is Only 29.6 % of the dogs dogs and cats. The space constraints cult on a daily basis.
uro-epithelial cancers, have been devel- urine can also be measured as an indi- 3. Microscopic examination of the or should I say mad? A study was conducted on 10 in the tube), draught, damp- similar to dogs, a first booster needed glucocorticoids (oral and maintenance of swimming pools cator of oxidative stress, for example ness… The use of a heating pad The concept of "herd immunity" however prohibit the possibility of most When you think about it, you healthy cats in order to assess should be administered after prednisolone) during the first 6 However, if you know what to look for, 6th World Congress of Veterinary
the persistence of the chemical is recommended as well as is extremely important and is well 12 months and subsequent months of the study to control clinics having a swimming area.
Several companies distribute the machines
http://www.animalrehab.co.uk- this site offers
must lack a few brain cells avoid the pitfalls in sampling and read- in hair. The amount of chemical bubble wrap or warm blankets.
known in human preventative injections every 3 years. the pruritus. The effectiveness Hydrotherapy tanks however represent second hand and reconditioned equipment) and many veterinary schools have dedicated units
ing and use the right technique and a good alternative for clinics.
Hong Kong – China to study many years in order was measured using a HPLC medicine. If the majority of a There is limited availability of of the ASIT doesn't seem to be for example in Dublin, Ireland
material, the simple tests that can be 19th- 22nd November 2008 method (high pressure liquid The interactions between infec- population is vaccinated, the serological tests in cats. reduced by the administration The hydrotherapy tanks can be used You may want to take the opportunity during the next WSAVA congress in Dublin to have
to spend your life in blood, performed "in house" give plenty of chromatography). The cats tion and hyperglycaemia are disease won't be able to reach In a shelter environment it is of the glucocorticoids, bearing for physiotherapy and also exercise of a look at the facilities available.
pus, urine and stools, risk received a daily dose of not clearly understood but it is catastrophic proportions. The important to achieve a balance in mind that the glucocorticoids Don't waste time!
terbinafine (34-45.7 mg/kg) for well known that hyperglycaemic best example is the eradication between financial constraints and were given at the lowest possi- to be bitten or scratched, 14 days and the terbinafine diabetic patients have a higher of smallpox. We should aim to the need to keep the premises ble dosage (0.5 to 0.75 mg/kg be woken up in the middle remained at a detectable level risk of infections. vaccinate every animal in order as disease-free as possible. SID tapering EOD*).
for at least 8 weeks. This is Any patient presenting with a to protect the whole population.
It is recommended to vaccinate Adverse reactions to ASIT have of the night to attend an hyperglycaemia (> 2g:L) either The VGG has defined the core dogs and cats on admission, been reported: increased pruri- similar to findings in human animal whose owner might (from Wamsley & Alleman, 2007) before or after the operation vaccines which all dogs and studies where terbinafine was repeating the injections on tus, urticaria, angioedema and > BOOK REVIEW
must receive insulin in order to cats should receive. puppies and kittens if possible.
more rarely anaphylaxis. In this not even pay you for the job! detected in serum, stratum corneum (for 48 days) and nail return to a "normo-glycaemic" Dog: canine distemper, canine Even if vaccinations are not study, only 18.5 % (5 dogs) You surely don't embrace of serum levels
clippings (up to 90 days).
status.Oxidation is the best adenovirus, canine parvovirus.
needed every year because the developed adverse reactions of urea and creatinine
Cardiovascular Disease in Small Animal Medicine way to destroy pathogens.
Cat: feline parvovirus (pan- that career for the love of Adverse effects were limited to dog/cat has a good immunity, easily controlled with antihista- Hyper-oxygenation (>80 %) leukopenia), feline calicivirus vomiting and skin reaction annual health checks are really mine (anti H1).
Wendy A Ware, Manson Publishing, London, 2007
comfort and money (facial pruritus and macular/ should be maintained during and feline herpesvirus.
important and strongly sup- This study is the first "evi- (otherwise you'd be a papular skin reaction after the surgery and for two hours after Of course, according to the spe- ported by the VGG.
dence-based" paper demon- Much more than the usual "how to ogy this is not always straightforward.
ing. but only after you read the 28 the clinical manifestations of cardiac discontinuation of the drug).
cific situation in each country, Medical records should be kept strating the need for additional dentist or a lawyer!).
read an ECG" manual, this recent 396 Of course we all know that the shape pages "overview of echocardiography".
and circulatory diseases. This will then URINARY TRACT DISEASES This study opens up a new This is indicated mostly for rabies will be added to the list in accordance to the country therapy during the induction page publication is likely to find a prime of a heart on x-ray varies with the You'll then know how M-mode, 2-D and lead you to the third part of the book Having stated all this, intestinal and parietal surgeries. as well as other contagious laws and adverse events must phase of ASIT.
possibility for the treatment location on the practitioner's book- breed but the respiration, the cardiac Doppler can help you to assess the where the different conditions are of ringworm in cats.
diseases (Leptospira, Borrelia, be reported whether their link it's a great pleasure to make • Endocrine (glycosuria, Perfusion with crystalloid solu- Bordetella or Chlamydophila). with the vaccination is proven cycle and the position- cardiovascular status of your patient.
described in detail.
urinary tract infection) " Cardiovascular disease
ing can induce small Still, don't dismiss the good old stetho- Congenital anomalies and acquired you discover the first issue Foust AL, Marsella R,
tions should be routinely admi- Since the maternal derived • Hepatic (bilirubinuria, in small animal medicine "
Akucewich LH et al – Evaluation
The book is divided changes and hide a scope and ECG. They remain invaluable heart or cardiovascular conditions are presence of ammonium nistered at 10 to 20 ml/kg/hour antibody levels vary significantly of Vets today. We hope is a good investment,
of persistence of terbinafine in
mild cardiomegaly. diagnostic tools and the practical described in a very practical way and biurate crystals) during any surgery. between litters, it is recom- The entire document is available
the hair of normal cats after
especially if cardiology
you'll enjoy reading it and • Haematological (heamoglobinuria In veterinary surgery, antibiotics mended that if the animal can on the WSAVA website:
each of them very Things get even more reminders found in this book might the therapeutic options are also 14 days of daily therapy.
is close to your heart.
indicating haemolysis) well illustrated with confusing when you come very handy (how do you stop a Veterinary Dermatology 2007;
are often indicated, the chosen only be given a single dose the hopefully will find it useful • Neurological (bacteriuria in case drug will be injected half an vaccination should occur after photos, diagrams and tables. are interpreting echocardiography cat purring during your auscultation?).
Even if cardiovascular diseases often for your daily practice. of discospondylitis) hour before the operation, at 16 weeks of age. Management of Canine
Cheilitis is one of the clinical sign The first part describes in detail how (especially if you happen to have quali- carry a very guarded prognosis, the double dosage. If the procedure Where possible, puppies and Atopic Dermatitis :
of canine atopic dermatitis Dethioux things should be in an ideal cardiovas- fied before ultrasound machines were The second section looks at the clinical right treatment allows a good survival We certainly created it Follow up:
A new addition to the Urinary S/O range
Easy measures to prevent
17 days only to dissolve struvite uroliths*
lasts more than an hour, the kittens should receive 3 con- the control of secondary
Colombo S, Hill PB, Shaw DJ,
cular system. Before trying to treat standard equipment in clinics).
manifestation of cardiovascular prob- time whilst preserving quality of life. with passion, so enjoy and Maximum efficacy against recurrent struvite or oxalate urolithiasis**
treatment must be repeated.
secutive injections with the final Thoday KL – Requirement for
pathological conditions, it is paramount Learning to read an ultrasound scan lems. Cough, dyspnoea, ascites, oedema Low struvite and calcium oxalate RSS
Nosocomial infections are quite infections is paramount.
dogs with atopic dermatitis
RESPONSE TO TREATMENT one given after 16 weeks of age.
to know what is normal and in cardiol- requires a bit of practice so get prob- and collapse are just a few examples of let us know how you like it! Tournier et al, The dissolution kinetic of feline struvite stones in urine in vitro depends on the urine struvite relative supersaturation ESVCN, Leipzig, 1st - 3rd November 2007.
Among the Royal Canin range (dry food).
common in human medicine.
One of the therapeutic options Pierre Meheust, Neurology
After 12 months, all dogs should POTENTIALLY NEPHROTOXIC The definition of a nosocomial for the management of CAD is and Surgery Referral, based
infection is : an infection that is receive a booster vaccination.
Allergen Specific Immuno- Record 2007, 160, 861-864.
on a lecture given at the AFVAC
Dr Fabienne Dethioux, MRCVS
caused by staying in a hospital. This protocol should ensure a Therapy (ASIT). Antipruritic, Congress, Bordeaux, France,
VETS TODAY - BP 4 - 650 avenue de la Petite Camargue - 30470 Aimargues - France solid immunity maintained by www.royal-canin.com - Telephone: + 33 4 66 73 03 00 - Fax: + 33 4 66 73 06 04 - Email: [email protected] In human medicine the statistical antibacterial and antifungal *SID = once a day and EOD = Every Other Day Editor: Dr Fabienne Dethioux, MRCVS - Deputy editors: Dr Marianne De Vries (BVSc Hons) & Dr Michelle Coles BVSc BSc (Hons) VETS TODAY is published quarterly and sent to selected veterinary professionals. RCS: 700200983 – Nimes - France GA DESIGN - RCS Nîmes B 700 200 983 JOURNAL_VET_GB.qxd 6/02/08 21:35 Page 4 Getting the precious fluid
What does urine tell you?
Did you know?
A mild proteinuria can be physiological Haematuria: Rule out iatrogenic
in case of extreme heat or cold, hyper- haematuria from traumatic collection examination
Cat : Remember that the cat's bladder
Naturally voided samples are a very tension, pyrexia or strenuous exercise and vaginal diapedesis in pro-oestrus.
of the sediment
is very mobile, has a long neck and good option. The mid-stream urine is A few erythrocytes (<5 per high power Dogs receiving long term glucocorticoid treatment when full can be located quite far cra- best. A long-handled dish is very useful A heavy proteinuria is usually indicative field) is considered normal in urine.
Microscopic examination of the are predisposed to UTI, even if the drug is given at nially in the abdomen. for dogs. Cats are usually willing to use of glomerular damage but haemoglobin- When the haem reaction is positive on sediment after centrifugation is a low dose and on an "every other day" pattern.
The cat can be in lateral or dorsal a litter tray. You can line it with special uria and pyelonephritis must be consid- dipstick further test should be per- the best way to detect cells, Even in the absence of clinical signs of urinary tract recumbency. The main thing is to get non-absorbent litter (plastic granular ered too. Serum urea and creatinine formed such as sediment examination casts, microorganisms and crys- infection, it is recommended to check the urine them comfortable. You don't need to Katkor® or fish-tank gravel) or simply a will help assess the renal function.
and blood workup. tals bearing in mind the fact and perform a bacterial culture on the urine "grab" the bladder but simply hold it sheet of kitchen towel (no newspaper NB: Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio (UP:C) that cats fed dry or wet and sample at least once a year gently through the abdominal wall, (Torres et al , 2005)
because the ink might tint the sample).
Ketones: Ketones should not be
UP:C < 1: normal dry food will naturally exhibit pushing it caudally. Needless to say, 1< UP:C <2 : uncertain, perform other tests Catheterisation is another option but detected in the urine of healthy dogs crystalluria (Sturgess et al, 2001).
UP:C > 2: abnormal Calcium oxalate crystals. WCPN Previous treatment with cephalexin and enrofloxacin the bladder must contain urine.
extra care must be taken with frac- may lead to false-positive or false-negative glyco- tious animals since urethral perfora- In dogs with chronic renal failure, a Ketonuria is usually indicative of unsta- Learn to recognise the foreign ele- lead to a false diagnosis of bacteriuria.
suria results. This must be taken into account tions can occur (Whittemore & Zucca,
UP:C > 1 carries a negative prognosis ble diabetes mellitus. Remember that Tip: practise your bladder palpating and sta- ments often found in sediment such as Staining the sediment will eliminate What you need for cystocentesis Dethioux when suspecting or monitoring diabetes mellitus in bilising skills when you have a cat anes- compared to individuals with values < 1 at ketonuria is diuretic leading to urine sperm, talcum powder, plants, fibres… this confounding factor, Wright's stain thetised for neutering. dogs (Rees & Boothe, 2004)
Turbitdity of urine can be assessed at a glance. the time of diagnosis. Regular measures especially if the sample has been (methylene blue and eosin in methanol) What might seem a very straightfor- about it, you will usually do your blood Samples must be analysed immediately of the proteinuria must be has been shown to be a reliable The urine composition varies between breeds, even ward procedure in human medicine sampling with a nurse instead of the You can now puncture the skin and and always within 60 minutes after col- performed to monitor the Sometimes amorphous elements mim- method for detecting bacteria (Swenson
if the dogs are fed the same diet. This must be can turn into a challenging exercise owner holding the dog or cat and this the bladder wall right beneath it using a lection. Storage will lead to crystalluria progression of the disease icking bacteria ("pseudobacteria") can et al, 2004)
taken into account when managing urolithiasis. For when dealing with dogs or cats (and should be no different.
22 (or 25) gauge, 2.5cm needle. That in cats (Sturgess et al, 2001) and dogs,
or the response to treat- example, healthy miniature Schnauzers have signif- means you don't have to insert the full especially if the samples have been ment with angiotensin- icantly higher urinary calcium concentrations than Cystocentesis has very few contraindi- length of the needle. Once you think converting enzyme inhibitors Labrador Retrievers.(Stevenson & Markwell, 2001)
Depending on what you wish to measure, cations or side effects. The practitioner that you are in the bladder, apply a light (enalapril) (Jacob et al, 2005).
several methods can be used. Cats are must be careful if the bladder is over suction on the syringe. Urine should That means that if crystalluria is found Specific gravity: Test strip values are
different from dogs of course. You distended, for example in the case of flow. If not, do not fiddle around with on a sample which has been refriger- not reliable, thus specific gravity (SG) Bilirubinuria: The pres-
must aim to get at least 6 ml of urine.
urethral obstruction. The bladder wall your needle because you are likely to ated, the test must be repeated on must be measured with a refractome- ence of bilirubin in urine Urine that has been in the bladder might be damaged and unable to heal lacerate other structures, rather pull fresh urine. On the other hand, refrig- ter. The scale must be calibrated for is always significant in Buffers are used to calibrate the pH meter. overnight is good for assessing the because of poor vascularisation. The right out and start again with a fresh eration will minimize in vitro prolifera- cat urine which is more refractive than cats and is indicative of kidneys' ability to concentrate, but risk of intra-peritoneal leakage is mini- needle or use a different collection tion of bacteria but storage time and canine or human urine. If using a jaundice. Clinically normal the viability of some fragile bacteria mal and only really of practical concern temperature don't seem to have a sig- human refractometer, the following dogs, especially intact males might be reduced which will lead to with very fractious patients.
nificant effect on pH and SG (Albasan and
conversion formula must be used: can have bilirubin in their false negative bacterial cultures.
Dog: Cystocentesis can be performed
Feline SG = (0.846 x Human SG) + urine. The SG must be Obese or very large pets can be a bit with the dog standing or in lateral or 0.154. Remember also to zero the examined. Concentrated The time elapsed between collection challenging since it's more difficult to dorsal recumbency. For a male, the If the samples are to be refrigerated, refractometer before each reading. urine will have a higher and the last meal must also be known palpate and immobilise the bladder. It puncture point is right under the pre- it's better to let them warm to room amount of bilirubin i.e.: a because of the post-prandial alkaline is not necessary to clip and surgically puce (which you have to pull laterally) temperature before analysing them male dog with 2+ biliru- Special plastic gravel for cat litter. Kaykor wave (which can last up to 1 hour after prepare the site.
and for a female, it's between the last because a cold sample may inhibit the bin and 1.040 SG is very a meal). The gold standard, particu- two mammary glands. A good palpa- Quantity: if possible, this is easier
reaction of the dipsticks, leading to unlikely to suffer from an larly for urine bacterial culture, is cysto- If you suspect a bladder tumour (the tion should allow you to palpate and when the animal is hospitalised. It can false negative results. icteric disease.
centesis or "supra-pubic puncture" most common being canine transi- immobilise the bladder. Then the pro- be monitored for cats using a litter which allows the veterinarian to obtain tional cell carcinoma, because feline cedure is similar to cat's. Use a 22 tray. Special plastic reusable gravel are Keeping the urine in an airtight, ster- Glycosuria: The presence of glucose in
pH : Ideally this should be measured
Struvite crystals. Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition an uncontaminated sample. The proce- urinary neoplasia is very rare), cysto- gauge, 2.5 cm needle, unless the dog available but one can also use non- Refractometer. Dethioux ile, opaque (and labelled!) container will the urine can have several causes but with a pH meter since the dipstick dure might appear a bit frightening to centesis is not the ideal test. First of is really tiny.
absorbent fish-tank gravel.
prevent other artefacts.
the most common is diabetes mellitus estimation varies up to 1 pH unit. Very start with but dogs and cats tolerate it all those tumours might seed along the (or stress in cats). If the glycosuria few clinics have a pH meter because NORMAL VALUES
very well. The main difficulty is to have needle path but also, often, the urine Colour: concentrated urine will appear
(from Wamsley & Alleman, 2007)
persists, the patient will be predis- of the maintenance and calibration them lying down and staying still.
sediment might not contain diagnostic dark but a change in colour from Dog: >1.030 & Cat > 1.035: appropriately posed to urinary infection and urine constraints. Urine samples can be sent Unless you are very skilled it's better tumoral cells, giving a false negative orange to red or brown is usually culture must be performed.
to external laboratories for precise Dog:1.013 to 1.029 & Cat 1.013 to not to perform this procedure in the results. A saline flush of the bladder indicative of haemoglobinuria or biliru- 1.034: minimal concentration (possible measurement (reading within 24h).
Labat/Rouquette presence of the owner. People tend to will be a more reliable test, preferably binuria. Coloured urine might influence renal failure)Dog & Cat: 1.008 to 1.012: isosthenuria imagine what it feels like and they the reading of test strips.
(normal in the case of recent fluid adminis- might be frightened. When you think sonography. (Wilson et al, 2007)
tration or drinking, possible renal failure) Turbidity: urine is normally clear but
Dog & Cat:< 1.008: hyposthenuria several compounds such as mucus, pigments, crystals, blood, pus or lipids What is normal?
can increase the turbidity. Once 24 h protein excretion
Albasan H, Lulich JP, Osborne CA et al – Effects of storage time and temperature on pH, specific gravity and crystal formation in urine samples from dogs and cats, J am vet MedAssoc 2003; 222: 176-179.
centrifuged, the supernatant usually < 20 mg/kg/day: normal Bolodeoku J, Donaldson D – Urinalysis in clinical diagnosis. J Clin Pathol 1996;49: 623-626.
becomes transparent and can then be 90 mg/kg/day: nephrotic syndrome (could Faulks RD, Lane IF – Qualitative urinalyses in Puppies 0 to 24 weeks of age, J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2003; 39: 369-378.
also occur with haematuria or acute inflam- There are many physiological variations in urine.
used for dipstick analysis and measur- Jacob F, Polzin DJ, Osbvorne CA et al – Evaluation of the association between initial proteinuria and morbidity rate or death in dogs with naturally occurring chronic renal failure, mation of the urinary tract) J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226: 393-400.
200+ mg/kg/day: amyloidosis McMichael MA, Ruaux CG, Baltzer WI et al – Concentrations of 15F2t isoprostane in urine of dogs with intervertebral disk disease, Am j Vet Res 2006 ; 67 : 1226-1231.
In puppies younger than 4 week old, urine is more diluted (mean USG Rees CA, Boothe DM – Evaluation of the effect of cephalexin and enrofloxacin on clinical laboratory measurements of urine glucose in dogs, J am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224: 1455-1458.
Odour: urine has a more or less pun-
1.018). Dogs from 1 month of age have USG values and other qualitative The presence of protein in the urine is Stevenson AE, Markwell PJ – Comparison of urine composition of healthy Labrador retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers, Am J Vet Res 2001; 62: 1782-1786.
Sturgess CP, Hesford A, Owen H et al – An investigation into the effects of storage on the diagnosis of crystalluria in cats, Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2001; 3:81-85.
gent ammonia smell, which is directly parameters similar to healthy adults. rapidly evaluated by the results on dip- (Faulks & Lane, 2003).
Swenson CL, Boisvert AM, Kruger JM et al – Evaluation of modified Wright-staining of urine sediment as a method for accurate detection of bacteriuria in dogs, J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; proportional to the concentration.
stick (1 to 4) in relation with the USG.
Male cats have very pungent urine.
Dipstrip is useful and fast. This example shows glycosuria. Dethioux When protein is present in the urine, 10. Torres SM, Diaz SF, Nogueira SA et al – Frequency of urinary tract infection among dogs with pruritic disorders receiving long-term glucocorticoid treatment, J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; Normal urinary output (per kg per day) of an adult dog and cat: Dog cystocentesis C. Hervé 227: 239-243.
Dog = 25-60mls/kg/24 hours. Conditions such as bacterial infection, your first step should be to examine 11. Wamsley H, Alleman R – Complete urinalysis In BSAVA Manual of canine and feline nephrology and urology Eds Elliott J & Grauer GF, BSAVA 2007, UK, p 87-116.
Cat = 10-20mls/kg/24 hours especially if the bacteria produce the urine sediment. In case of lower 12. Whittemore JC, Zucca L – Medical management of urethral and colonic perforation associated with urinary catheterization in a kitten, J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223, 815-816.
urease or ketoacidotic diabetes will urinary tract disease, it will be inflam- 13. Wilson HM, Chun R, Larson VS et al – Clinical signs, treatments, and outcome in cats with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: 20 cases (1990-2004), J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231: 101-106.
modify the odour.
matory (leucocytes, or red blood cells).
Dr Fabienne Dethioux, MRCVS
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