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Microsoft word - astham_terms_glossary.doc

astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 1 of 10 acceptance: agreement by patient to a treatment routine they understand
Accolate: brand name for zafirlukast, a leukotriene modifier (oral)
acute: sudden
adrenal insufficiency: inability of the body's adrenal glands to produce an
adequate amount of cortisol, the hormone needed to respond to stress adrenaline (epinephrine): a quick relief medicine, produced by the body and
available in synthetic form adrenergic: adrenaline-like medicine
adverse: undesirable
Aerobid: brand name for flunisolide, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
AeroChamber: brand of holding chamber
Air Watch: airflow monitoring device with electronic link to the doctor
airflow: the rate at which you can blow air out of your lungs
albuterol: generic name of Proventil, Ventolin and ProAir; beta2-agonists, quick
relief medicines allergen: any substance that can induce an al ergy
allergist: doctor who specializes in understanding and treating al ergies
allergy: condition in which the body has an immune reaction to a substance that
is normal y harmless alveoli: air sacs located at the end of the tiniest airways
ampule (ampoule): smal , sealed vial containing medicine in liquid form
anaphylaxis: severe al ergic reaction throughout the body which can be fatal if
not treated immediately; commonly includes respiratory symptoms, itching, hives, and fainting antibody: protein that develops in the body in response to a foreign substance
anticholinergic: type of inhaled quick relief medicine that acts through a
different mechanism than beta2-agonists antihistamine: generic name for medicine that blocks the actions of histamine,
such as swel ing and itching antiinflammatory: medicine that counteracts inflammation
asthma: inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airways that are
hyperresponsive and symptoms that can be reversed Asthma Peak Flow Diary: an individual record of peak flow scores, medicines,
asthma signs, and triggers; helps in monitoring peak flow trends in people 5 asthma signs: physical indicators of asthma that can observed by another
Asthma Signs Diary: an individual record of asthma signs scores, medicines,
and triggers that helps in monitoring the trends in asthma signs in children under 5 years of age asthma treatment zone: a range of peak flow scores or total scores of asthma
signs that cal s for fol owing a particular treatment plan asymptomatic: without symptoms
atopic: al ergic
Atrovent: brand name for ipratropium bromide, an inhaled quick relief medicine
attack: a dramatic term for an episode of asthma
Azmacort: brand name for triamcinolone, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
beclomethasone: generic name for Vanceril, Beclovent, and QVAR, inhaled
steroid medicines, control er
Beclovent: brand name for beclomethasone, an inhaled steroid medicine,
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responses of the sympathetic nervous system beta2-agonist: a class of quick relief medicine
b.i.d.: a dosing schedule cal ing for medicine to be taken twice a day
blood concentration: amount of a substance in a given quantity of blood
expressed as weight per unit volume (e.g., mg/ml) blow-by technique: a low-efficiency method for administering inhaled medicines
breath-activated: method for triggering the release of medicine from a device by
breathing cycle: total time it takes to breathe in and out once
breathing rate: number of breaths per minute
Brethaire: brand name for terbutaline, an inhaled beta2-agonist, quick relief
Brethine: a brand name for terbutaline, an inhaled beta2-agonist, quick relief
Bricanyl: a brand name for terbutaline, an inhaled beta2-agonist, quick relief
bronchi: large air passages or airways
bronchiolitis: inflammation of the smal est airways (bronchioles); caused by a
bronchitis: inflammation of the large airways (bronchi) due to asthma, a virus or
bronchoconstriction: narrowing of the airways caused by contraction of the
smooth muscles encircling them (same as bronchospasm) bronchodilator: medicine that causes the airways to open
bronchospasm: narrowing of the airways caused by contraction of the smooth
muscles encircling them (same as bronchoconstriction) budesonide: generic name for Pulmicort, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
candidiasis: yeast infection in the mouth or vagina; same as moniliasis
capillary: tiniest blood vessel
cartilage: strong, flexible tissue that supports the large airways
cc: abbreviation for cubic centimeter; equivalent to a mil iliter (ml) or 1/1000 of a
liter. This metric measurement is equal to 1/5 of a measuring teaspoon. CDN: compressor driven nebulizer
CFC: chlorofluorocarbon; propel ant used in most metered dose inhalers
chemical mediator: class of chemical that plays a role in the asthma reaction;
includes histamine and leukotrienes chronic: continuous or long-term
cilia: tiny hairlike projections from the surface of the cel s that line the airway
closed mouth technique: a method for inhaling medicine from an MDI; open-
mouth technique is preferred compliance: doing exactly what the doctor says, whether or not you understand
compressor: machine that produces air under pressure
compressor driven nebulizer (CDN): electric- or battery-powered device that
uses compressed air to create a medicine mist consultation: ful review of a patient's asthma history, physical exam, and other
information; leads to the creation of a written asthma management plan controlled-release: same as long-acting, sustained-release, or slow-release;
applies to some theophylline and albuterol preparations controller: medicine that prevents or reduces the frequency and severity of
asthma episodes, taken daily astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 3 of 10 corticosteroid: another term for a steroid or cortisone-like medicine
coughing asthma: form of asthma in which coughing is the only symptom
croup: il ness usual y produced by a virus, in which the larynx and trachea are
inflamed; produces a barking cough dander: scales of dead skin
decongestant: a medicine that reduces congestion (swel ing)
discard date: date when an MDI should be thrown away because it wil no
longer deliver a safe puff of medicine Diskus: brand name for dry powder inhaler device
diurnal variation: change within a day
DPI: dry powder inhaler
dry powder inhaler: device for inhaling asthma medicines in powder form;
depends on the force of inhalation to disperse medicine into the lungs EasiVent: brand of holding chamber
eczema: a skin rash, also known as atopic dermatitis
effort monitor: part of a holding chamber which indicates the effort a person is
making when inhaling medicine electrostatic air precipitator: air cleaner
eosinophils: white blood cel s involved in inflammation
ephedrine: oral adrenergic medicine, bronchodilator; no longer commonly used
because of its adverse effects epinephrine (adrenaline): a quick relief medicine, produced by the body and
available in synthetic form EpiPen: brand name for epinephrine for intramuscular use (injection); used to
treat anaphylaxis episode (flare): period of time when asthma signs or symptoms occur, peak flow
scores drop, breathing is changed, or additional asthma medicine is needed exacerbation: worsening or new episode
exercise induced asthma: a form of asthma in which exercise is the only trigger
exhale: to breathe out
expiration: act of breathing out
extended-release: medicine preparation that acts over a longer period of time
than the standard preparation; also cal ed slow-release, sustained-release E-Z Spacer: brand of holding chamber
family practitioner: primary care physician who sees patients of al ages
FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second. This measurement of airflow is
done using a spirometer or simple FEV1 meter. It provides information about the status of the large and smal airways flare (episode): period of time when asthma signs or symptoms occur, peak flow
scores drop, breathing is changed, or additional asthma medicine is needed Flovent: brand name for fluticasone, an inhaled steroid medicine available in
MDI or DPI, control er flow monitor: part of a holding chamber which makes a sound if inhalation is too
flunisolide: generic name for Aerobid, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
fluticasone: generic name for Flovent, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
gastroesophageal reflux: (also cal ed stomache acid reflux) backward flow of
material from stomach to the esophagus; causes irritation which can lead to
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green zone: asthma treatment zone in which there are no symptoms and peak
flow is 80 to 100 percent of the personal best growth retardation: slowing of rate at which height increases
Gyrocap: capsule containing Slo-Phyllin, a slow-release theophylline
preparation, control er hay fever: al ergic condition of the nose and eyes brought on mainly by ragweed
or other pol en
HEPA filter: abbreviation for a "high-efficiency particulate air" filter; removes tiny
particles from the air HFA propellant: hydrofluoroalkane, a propel ant used in MDIs which does not
destroy ozone in the stratosphere (upper atmosphere) high yellow zone: asthma treatment zone in which there are only mild
symptoms and peak flow is 65 to 80 percent of personal best histamine: one of the chemical mediators of the asthma reaction
hives: itchy swel ings of skin usual y due to al ergy
holding chamber: inhalation device used with a metered dose inhaler that holds
the medicine mist to improve medicine effect home care company: organization that provides many aspects of asthma care
in the home, including teaching, monitoring, and review of environment and hyperresponsive: refers to airways that overreact to various asthma triggers
hyperventilation: excessive rate and depth of breathing
IAQ: indoor air quality
I/E ratio: in/out ratio, or relative length of inhale compared to exhale
IgE: immunoglobulin E, an antibody that reacts with an al ergen, initiating the
immunotherapy: synonymous with al ergy shots, injection treatment,
hyposensitization, desensitization indication: reason to use
indoor air quality (IAQ): overal healthfulness of the air inside a building
inflammation: a response of the body to physical or chemical triggers; includes
swel ing due to movement of cel s, fluid, and chemicals into the area inhalation device: apparatus for inhaling asthma medicine
inhaled steroid: inhaled medicine that prevents inflammation in the airways and
reduces inflammation that already exists; the most commonly prescribed type of control er medicine for people with persistent asthma inhaler: also metered dose inhaler (MDI). Device that uses propel ant to create a
medicine mist that can be breathed into the airways I/O ratio: in/out ratio, or relative length of inhale compared to exhale
inspiration: act of breathing in
InspirEase: brand of holding chamber
inspiration-expiration ratio: see in/out (I/O) ratio
intermittent flow director: a vent in the nebulizer tubing that, when covered,
al ows production of mist internist: primary care physician who sees adult patients
intradermal: into the skin
intravenous: into a vein
intubation: placing a tube into the trachea to enable artificial breathing; can be a
lifesaving procedure during a severe asthma episode ipratropium: generic name for Atrovent, an anticholinergic medicine, quick relief
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kg: kilogram; 1,000 grams or 2.2 pounds
levalbuterol: generic name for Xopenex, a beta2-agonist; quick relief medicine
leukotriene: chemical mediator involved in the asthma reaction
leukotriene modifier medicine: class of medicine that blocks the formation or
action of leukotrienes in the airways, thereby blocking part of the asthma reaction, control er liter (L): metric measurement, slightly more than a quart
liters/minute (L/min): a flow rate, applied to peak flow or oxygen delivery
long-acting: synonymous with slow-release or sustained-release when referring
to a theophylline or beta2-agonist preparation low yellow zone: asthma treatment zone in which symptoms are moderate and
peak flow is 50 to 65 percent of personal best malingering: pretending to be il
mask: a device that fits snugly over the nose and mouth; used to deliver inhaled
asthma medicines mast cell: one of the cel types that contain chemicals which can produce the
Maxair: brand name for pirbuterol, a beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
Maxair Autohaler: brand name for an MDI with a special "breath-activated"
release mechanism; contains pirbuterol (quick relief medicine) mcg: microgram, 1/1,000,000 (one mil ionth) of a gram
MDI: metered dose inhaler
mean (average) peak flow score: the average peak flow score for people of a
certain height, expressed in liters per minute median peak flow score: the peak flow score at which half of the people of a
specific height, gender and age wil be able to blow mediator: a chemical that is the middleman or go-between in the asthma
medicine retaining valve: valve in the exit port of a holding chamber which
holds medicine until a person begins to breathe in Medrol: brand name of methylprednisolone, an oral steroid
metabolize: to change chemical y or physical y in the body
metered dose inhaler (MDI): device that creates medicine mist for inhalation by
using propel ant to expel liquid medicine metaproterenol: generic name for beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
methylprednisolone: generic name for Medrol, oral steroid medicine
methotrexate: immunosuppresive drug used to treat severe asthma that does
not respond to usual treatment; also used to treat cancer micron: micrometer, 1/1,000,000 (one mil ionth) of a meter
mg: mil igram, 1/1,000 (one thousandth) of a gram
mite: tiny arachnid (spiderlike animal); skeleton and feces found in house dust
can cause asthma ml: mil iliter, 1/1,000 of a liter; same as a cubic centimeter (cc)
moniliasis (candidiasis): yeast infection in the mouth or vagina
monitoring: keeping track of
montelukast: generic name for Singulair, a leukotriene modifier medicine,
mouthpiece: part of an asthma device which is put in the mouth
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nose, sinuses, and elsewhere in the body nebulizer (nebulizer cup): the smal plastic device that converts liquid medicine
into a mist for inhalation
normal (tidal) breath: usual breathing volume when no extra effort is made
onset of action: time span from when a medicine is inhaled or swal owed until it
open mouth technique: effective method for inhaling medicine from a metered
osteoporosis: decrease in bone density causing increased bone fragility
ozone: a form of oxygen (O3) that is a respiratory irritant; one component of
smog; see ozone layer ozone layer: layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere which encircles the Earth,
protecting the surface from harmful effects of cancer-causing ultraviolet light
palate: roof of mouth
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR): speed at which air exits the lungs when you
give your fastest blast (a fraction of a second); also known as peak flow peak flow meter: a device used to measure peak expiratory flow rate
peak flow score: the best of three attempts blown on the peak flow meter,
expressed in liters per minute peak flow zone: one of the treatment zones of asthma management as defined
by peak flow scores Pediapred: brand name of prednisolone, an oral steroid
pediatrician: primary care physician for children
persistent asthma: condition in which a person experiences asthma symptoms
two or more times a week (when taking no asthma medicine) personal best peak flow score: highest peak flow score that an individual has
blown on two separate days when the airways are completely clear and technique is good pirbuterol: generic name for Maxair; beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
pollen: potent al ergen shed during a plant's flowering season
pollutant: impurity or substance that contaminates the air
post bronchodilator: airflow that occurs after inhaling a quick relief medicine
ppm: parts per mil ion. Number of molecules of a particular substance (e.g., a
pol utant) found in a mil ion molecules of air, water, etc. prebronchodilator: rate of airflow that occurs before inhaling a quick relief
prednisone: generic name of oral steroid medicine; many brand names
prednisolone: generic name for Prelone and Pediapred; oral steroid medicine
Prelone: a brand name for prednisolone, an oral steroid
prick test: type of skin test for al ergy
Proventil HFA: brand name for albuterol; beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
with non-CFC propel ant in the MDI Proventil Repetabs: brand name for long-acting albuterol preparation; oral
puffer: another word for inhaler or MDI
Pulmicort Turbuhaler: brand name for a dry powder inhaler containing
budesonide; inhaled steroid, control er pulmonary function test: a test or series of tests used to measure various
aspects of lung function and capacity pulmonologist: doctor specializing in the care of people with lung diseases
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q.i.d.: four times per day dosing schedule
quick relief medicine: inhaled medicine that acts to open constricted airways
within minutes (e.g., inhaled beta2-agonists) QVAR: brand name for beclomethasone, an inhaled steroid medicine; control er
rast: radioimmunosorbent test, an al ergy test that measures IgE (antibody) to a
specific antigen rad: abbreviation for reactive airway disease, a name for asthma
red zone: asthma treatment zone in which symptoms are severe and peak flow
is less than 50 percent of personal best; requires immediate treatment relative humidity: amount of water in the air compared to the total amount of
water the air can hold at a given temperature rescue medicine: quick relief medicine
respiratory therapist: health professional who provides assessment, treatment,
and education for people with lung disease respirable range: size of particles that can be inhaled into the smal airways (1
to 5 microns in diameter) retraction: "sucking in" of the skin between the ribs or above and below the
ROAD: reversible obstructive airway disease, a term that is sometimes used to
describe the asthma condition runout time: length of time it takes for the effect of a medicine to disappear after
the last dose; may be minutes, hours, or days
salmeterol: generic name for Serevent; inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist,
sensitization: process of becoming sensitized to an al ergen
sensitizer: al ergen or irritant that primes the asthma reaction
Serevent: brand name for salmeterol, control er
serum: the liquid portion of the blood
serum level: the amount of medicine in a quantity of serum
shake test: shaking the MDI canister, an unreliable method for determining
whether the MDI can deliver a ful puff of medicine side effect: undesired or adverse effect of medicine
sign: an effect that can be seen or heard by an observer
Singulair: brand name for montelukast, a leukotriene modifier medicine,
sinuses: one of the eight bone-enclosed cavities surrounding the nose
sinusitis: inflammation of one or more paranasal (around the nose) sinuses
small airways: airways less than 2 mm in diameter; bronchioles
Space Chamber: brand of holding chamber
spacer: device used with an MDI to improve effectiveness; also known as
"holding chamber" or "extender" Spinhaler: brand name for dry-powder device containing cromolyn; control er
medicine; no longer available in the U.S. spirometer: device used in a doctor's office to measure various components of
spirometry: the act of using a spirometer
step down: method for bringing asthma under control quickly, then gradual y
decreasing medicines to the lowest effective dose steroid burst: a short treatment with oral steroids, usual y lasting for seven days
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anti nflammatory effects. Also, medicine similar to this hormone that is given by inhalation or oral y to help control asthma subcutaneous: under the skin
sustained-release: synonymous with long-acting or extended-release; refers to
theophylline and beta2-agonist preparations sympathomimetic: produces the same effect as epinephrine injection or
stimulation of sympathetic nervous system symptoms: any effect on your body that you can feel that is different from usual;
for example, a tight chest or shortness of breath
terbutaline: generic name for Brethaire, Brethine, Bricanyl; beta2-agonist, quick
Theo-24: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
Theo-Dur: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
theophylline: slow-acting brochodilator medicine; control er, oral
tidal breathing: normal, relaxed breathing
toxicity: quality of being poisonous; the adverse effect(s) of a medicine
triamcinolone: generic name for Azmacort, inhaled steroid preparation
trigger: instigator; precipitating factor in causing airway inflammation and asthma
twitchy: overreactive, hyperresponsive; used in reference to airways
ultrasonic: sound waves above the range that humans can hear; can cause a
medicine solution to turn into a mist. ultrasonic nebulizer: device that uses sound waves to create medicine mist;
usual y smal , light, and portable. It should not be used to deliver a suspension, such as Pulmicort. unit dose: medicine in liquid or pil form that is packaged in individual doses
Uni-Dur: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
Uni-Phyl: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
USN: ultrasonic nebulizer
valve: device that regulates the flow of air or other substance
Vanceril: brand name for beclomethasone; an inhaled steroid medicine,
vent: tube that can be uncovered to interrupt the flow of air into a compressor
driven nebulizer cup Ventolin: brand name for albuterol, a beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
voice box: larynx, part of the upper airways which lies between the throat and
wheeze: high-pitched whistling that occurs when air flows through narrowed
white blood cells: cel s whose main function is to defend the body from bacteria
Windmill Trainer: a feedback device for people who use a MiniWright peak flow
meter to improve their ability to blow peak flow workup: evaluation of a patient
Xopenex: brand name for levalbuterol, a beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
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zone borders: limits of the asthma treatment zones as defined by peak flow or
total score of asthma signs zileuton: generic name for Zyflo, a leukotriene modifier medicine; control er
Zyflo: brand name for the zileuton, a leukotriene modifier medicine; control er
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Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood in the united states representing about 5% to 10% of ed visits annually

The Acute Management of Asthma in Children – Revision Draft Updated May 2014 The Members of the Maryland Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics MDAAP Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine COPEM, have developed a clinical pathway for the management of children presenting to the emergency department with asthma exacerbations. This clinical pathway can serve as a clinical practice guideline and was developed using the latest in evidence-

[product monograph template - standard]

PRODUCT MONOGRAPH Modified-Release Capsule, 40 mg (as doxycycline monohydrate) GALDERMA CANADA INC. Date of Preparation: 105 Commerce Valley Dr. W., Suite 300 November 09, 2011 Thornhill, Ontario L3T 7W3 Date of Revision: Submission Control No: 156056 August 30, 2012 Page 1 of 27 Table of Contents August 30, 2012 Page 2 of 27