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Medicinal Plants and their Role in Wound Healing Rajinder Raina, Shahid Prawez, P. K. Verma and N. K. Pankaj Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infestation in B. A. Pandit, R. A. Shahardar and L. Jeyabal Effects of Breeding Practice and Sex on Growth of Black Bengal Goats under Village Conditions of West Bengal S. Bera, A. K. Samanta, A. K. Santra and S. K. Maiti Anthelmintic Efficacy of Fenbendazole Feed Pellets against Porcine Ascariasis S. K. Maiti, S. K. Chaurasia and Neelesh Sharma Management of Bovine Papilomatosis with Autogenous Vaccine K. A. Shah, M. Naqati and S. Qureshi VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Medicinal Plants and their Role in Wound Healing Rajinder Raina†, Shahid Prawez†, P. K. Verma†* and N. K. Pankaj† Plants and their extracts have immense potential normally (Mather et al, 1989), or when it is for the management and treatment of wounds. The suppressed by various agents like corticosteroids phyto-medicines for wound healing are not only (Ehrlich & Hunt, 1968), anti-neoplastics (Raju & cheap and affordable but are also purportedly Kulkarni 1986), or non- steroidal anti- safe as hyper sensitive reactions are rarely inflammatory agents. encountered with the use of these agents. These Medical treatment of wound includes natural agents induce healing and regeneration of administration of drugs either locally (topical) or the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms. However, systemically (oral or parenteral) in an attempt to there is a need for scientific validation, aid wound repair (Savanth & Shah, 1998). The standardization and safety evaluation of plants of topical agents used include antibiotics and the traditional medicine before these could be antiseptics (Chulani, 1996), desloughing agents recommended for healing of the wounds. (chemical debridement, e.g. hydrogen peroxide, eusol and collagenase ointment) (Savanth & Mehta, 1996), wound healing promoters (e.g. Wound healing, plant extract, phyto-medicine Tretinoin, aloe vera extract, honey, comfrey, benzoyl peroxide, chamomilia extract, dexpanthenol, tetrachlordecaxide solution, Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the clostebol acetate and the experimental cytokines. cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue Various growth factors like platelet derived (Bennet, 1988). Wound may be produced by growth factor, macrophage derived growth factor, physical, chemical, thermal, microbial or monocyte derived growth factor (Mather et al, immunological insult to the tissue. The process of 1989) etc. are necessary for the initiation and wound healing consists of integrated cellular and promotion of wound healing. Many substances biochemical events leading to reestablishment of like tissue extracts (Udupa et al, 1991), vitamins structural and functional integrity with regain of & minerals and a number of plant products strength of injured tissue. Clinically, one often (Dahanukar et al, 2000) have been reported by encounters non-healing, under-healing or over various workers, to possess pro-healing effects. healing. Therefore the aim of treating a wound is Wound healing herbals encourage blood clotting, to either shorten the time required for healing or fight infection and accelerate the healing of to minimize the undesired consequences (Myers et al, 1980). Attention should be directed towards Plants or chemical entities derived from plants discovering an agent, which will accelerate need to be identified and formulated for treatment wound healing either when it is progressing and management of wounds. In this direction a number of herbal products are being investigated † Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of at present. Various herbal products have been Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, (SKUAST-J), used in management and treatment of wounds R.S. Pura – 181102, J&K, India. over the years. A few plants/plant products with promise are discussed in this paper. ISSN 0973-6980 1 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Aloe vera neem is useful in eczema, ringworm and scabies. Aloe, a native to Africa, is also known as "lily of Neem leaf extracts and oil from seeds has proven the desert" or the plant of immortality. Its name anti-microbial effect. This keeps any wound or was derived from the alloeh meaning "bitter" lesion free from secondary infections by because of the bitter liquid found in its leaves. microorganisms. Clinical studies have also Egyptians recorded use of this herbal plant in revealed that neem inhibits inflammation as treating burns, infections and parasites as early as effectively as cortisone acetate, this effect further 1500 B.C. Its clear gel has a dramatic ability to accelerates wound healing. heal wounds, ulcers and burns by forming a protective coating on the affected areas and Lantana camara speeding up the healing process. The fresh plant Lantana camara Linn, a shrub native of tropical contains 96% of water and rest is essential oil, America has completely been naturalized in many amino acids, minerals, vitamins, enzymes and parts of India as an ornamental plant. The plant glycoproteins. Various constituents of Aloe vera has abortificient, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The hydro-activity. They also stimulate wound healing. alcoholic extract and fresh juice of leaves have Some clinical reports suggest topical Aloe vera favoured wound contraction (Kurian, 1995). The gel is useful in healing minor burns and that such plant is potentially toxic and its toxicities include application of the gel is harmless as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, photosensitization, hypersensitive reactions to it are rare. However, in dermatitis, intestinal haemorrhage, therefore, the some severe burns, aloe gel may actually impede use of this plant in whole or any part thereof healing (Schmidt & Greenspoon, 1991). needs to be carefully regulated until the alarming toxic principles of the plant are properly identified Azardica indica It is commonly called as Neem and the plant has diverse medicinal properties. Neem oil contains St. John's Wort (Hypericum spp.) margosic acid, glycerides of fatty acids, butyric St. John's wort is a bushy perennial plant with acid and trace of valeric acid. Various active numerous yellow flowers. It is native to many principles are nimbidin, nimbidal, azardirachtin, parts of the world including Europe and the nimbin, azadirine, gedunin, salanin. They have United States. It has an age old history of safe and diverse medicinal activities. Neem oil is effective usage in many folk and herbal remedies. especially beneficial for curing skin ailments. Oil It is claimed to be useful in mental depression, is used for dressing for foul ulcers, eczema and anxiety, sleep disorders, menstrual cramping, skin diseases like ringworm, scabies and mange in sciatica and arthritis. The blossoms have been dogs. It is a powerful insect repellant, anti- used in folk medicine to relieve patients suffering bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti- from ulcers, gastritis, diarrhea and nausea. This inflammatory and also strengthens the body's plant has an antiseptic action, relieves overall immune responses. Neem oil contains inflammation and promotes healing when used fatty acids which build collagen, promote wound externally on cut surfaces of the body. The healing and maintain the skin's elasticity. The tincture of Hypericum spp. when given orally has active ingredients of neem oil help in the process a remarkable effect in lacerated and suppurated of wound healing and the skin is able to retain its wounds with restoration of tissue vitality suppleness as the wounds heal. Neem oil has a (Fayazuddin, 1981). Pro-healing action of high content of essential fatty acids. They keep Hypericum spp. tincture is evidenced by enhanced the site moist and give a soft texture to the skin epithelization phase with an increase in wound during the healing process. Alcoholic extract of contraction rate and granulation tissue breaking ISSN 0973-6980 2 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 strengths (Rao et al, 1991). processes (Lee, 1995). The extract also inhibits wound contraction reversibly. Therefore, the plant Tridax procumbens can be of much therapeutic value in minimizing The plant is a native of tropical America and post burn scar contracture and deformities. naturalized in tropical Africa, Australia and Asia including India. Leaf of Tridax procumbens Hydnocarpus wightiana mainly contains crude protein (26%), crude fiber The oil of Hydnocarpus spp. has been used for (17%), soluble carbohydrate (39%) and calcium several years as anti-leprosy drug and as an anti- oxide (5%) (Chadha,1976). The juice of the parasitic drug in the treatment of guinea worm leaves of this plant is used by villagers to arrest infestation. The oil of Hydnocarpus spp. when bleeding from cuts and bruises in animals. This given orally or administered topically helped to juice accelerates two phases of healing namely heal the wounds and gangrene faster in leprosy epithelization and collagenization; however it and diabetic patients (Manjrekar, 1996). The retards scar formation and granulation (Diwan et wound healing effect of oil of Hydnocarpus spp. al, 1983). was studied with reference to collagenation and Tridax procumbens antagonized anti- the strength of scar tissue (Oomen et al, 1999). epithelization and tensile strength depressing The drug treated group showed a significant effect of dexamethasone without affecting its anti- increase in strength of scar tissues in the incision contraction and anti-granulation action. (Diwan et wound model and also increased the strength of al, 1983). The effect of various extracts (whole collagen tissue and hydroxyl-proline content in plant extract, aqueous extract, butanol extract and the dead space wound model. Hydnocarpus oil ether fraction) of this plant has been studied in administered orally promoted epithelization, but dead space wound models. Compared to various not wound contraction (Oomen et al, 2000). extracts, the whole plant extract has the greatest External application of oil of Hydnocarpus spp. pro-healing activity with increase in tensile and its paste significantly shortened the strength and lysyl oxidase activity. Aqueous epithelization period when compared to control extract was also effective in increasing lysyl group. Oil may act as adjuvant in healing of oxidase but to a lesser degree (Udupa et al, 1991). wounds and ulcer in leprosy patients and Leaf extracts of this plant also promote wound therefore, may be clinically useful. healing in both normal and immuno-compromised (steroid treated) rats in dead space wound model. Helianthus annus Linn. The plant increased not only lysyl oxidase but An ornamental annual herb, with erect, rough and also, protein and nucleic acid content in the hairy stem is common in Indian Gardens in granulation tissue, probably as a result of increase swampy areas. In traditional medicine the plant is in glycosamino glycan content (Udupa et al, used by tribals for inflammation of eyes, sores, dysuria, colic, tiger bites and bone fractures (Jain & Tarafdar, 1970). In a study the alcoholic extract Chromolaena odorata: of whole plant of H. annus applied in the form of Chromolaena odorata was first identified in an ointment on the excised wound of rat led to a Central America and Vietnam. The aqueous significant reduction in total healing period. This extract and the decoction from leaves of this plant has been confirmed by histology where earlier have been used throughout Vietnam for the appearances of fibroblasts were seen. Early treatment of soft tissue wounds and burn wounds. appearance and higher accumulation of muco- Aqueous extracts of Chromolaena odorata polysaccharides has been stated as indicators of enhances hemostatic activity (Akah, 1990) and hastened repair (Deshpande et al, 1965). stimulates granulation tissue and re-epithelization ISSN 0973-6980 3 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Jasminum auriculatum flavonoids (Bairy & Rao, 2001). A small herb found in south India and the western peninsula. The alcohol free defatted extract of J. Curcuma longa Linn. auriculatum leaves has been reported to contain Commonly known as turmeric and haldi in Hindi. lupeol and jasminol (Deshpande & Upadyaya, C. longa has been reported to possess anti- 1967). Juice of leaves of J. auriculatum has been bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory shown to be beneficial in wound healing. The activities (Chopra et al, 1986). The part used are juice when applied in the form of jelly, locally on rhizomes and it contains curumin (diferuloyl linear uniform excised wound in rats is found to methane), turmeric oil or turmerol and 1,7-bis, 6- promote wound healing. This has been assessed hepta-diene-3, 5-dione. Curcumin has potent anti- by histological, biochemical and contraction rate inflammatory and analgesic activities (Srimal et studies (Deshpande et al, 1965). Fresh juice of the al, 1971). Volatile oil isolated from C. longa also leaves showed an increase and early gain of the exhibits antibacterial and potent anti- tensile strength in the linear wounds in rats. The inflammatory activity. Curcuma longa also study indicated that collagenation contributed to contains protein, fats, vitamins (A, B, C etc) all of improved tensile strength in the early phase of which have an important role in would healing healing. Such effect was also reported by and regeneration. Turmeric has been used for Deshpande & Pathak (1966). Ghee medicated treating the wounds in the rats (Rao et al, 2003). with J. auriculatum, on topical application The anti-inflammatory property and the presence accelerated the healing time of second degree of vitamin A & proteins in turmeric result in the burn wounds in rats up to six days. The early synthesis of collagen fibers by mimicking mucopolysaccharide accumulation was fibroblastic activity (Kumar et al, 1993). Juice of significantly higher in group treated with the fresh rhizome is commonly applied to recent medicated ghee (Deshpande & Pathak 1966). wounds, bruises & leech bites. A paste of turmeric & leaves of Justica adhatoda with cow urine is Ginkgo biloba rubbed on skin affected with prurigo & eczema. It Ginkgo biloba (Salisburia aduantifolia) is also can also be mixed with ginger oil to prevent skin known as maiden hair tree. The genus ginkgo originated 200 million years ago and is considered as a living fossil (Hori et al, 1997). Extracts of Centella asiatica leaves have been used therapeutically for Centella asiatica (Brahmi) also known as "gotu centuries (Newall et al, 1996). Ginkgo biloba kola", is the main herb in Ayurveda for nervous exhibits a variety of interesting pharmacological system, it is used in the repair of nervous tissue activities such as increase in blood fluidity, from crushing trauma, such as spinal injury, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, improvement neuromuscular disorders, and to increase general in cognition and pro-healing (Bairy & Rao, 2001). brain function and memory concentration. It is Its preparations promote epithelization without used extensively in the treatment of leprosy, a altering wound contraction. In case of dead space host of skin conditions including cellulites, wounds Ginkgo biloba has increased granulation varicose vein and wounds. The active principles tissue breaking strength without altering of Centella asiatica are triterpenes and granulation tissue mass weight. However, it did asiaticoside which are responsible for promotion significantly enhance the content of hydroxyl- of rapid wound healing (Shukla et al, 1999). proline of granulation tissue. The main Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica suspended in constituents of Ginkgo biloba are flavonoids 5% propylene glycol promoted wound healing on and terpene trilactones and the pro-healing action topical administration in experimentally induced of the Ginkgo biloba is due to the presence of open wounds in rats as compared to other extracts ISSN 0973-6980 4 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 (alcoholic, petroleum ether and chloroform). This properties. It is commonly applied in ulcerations, was evidenced by the increase in collagen content fissures of lips, hands and on chapped skin. and thickness of epithelium (Rao et al, 1996). Anecdotal evidence, some clinical observations, However, Suguna et al (1998) demonstrated that animal model studies and few randomized clinical alcoholic extract of Centella asiatica orally or trials support the efficacy of honey in managing topically improved the rate of wound healing in wounds (Molan, 1999). rats. Topical administration of the aqueous extract increased cellular proliferation, promoted the POLY HERBAL PREPARATION collagen synthesis at the wound site as evidenced Various combinations like extracts of by the increase in DNA, protein, collagen content Balsamodendron mukul (guggul), Maharasanadi of granulation tissue and in tensile strength. The kwath, Phyllanthus embica, Tinospora cordifolia, treated wound epithelized faster as compared to Rubia cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra and shanka control. Among the various formulations bhasma which are claimed to have wound healing (ointment, cream and gel) of aqueous extract, the action. Poly-herbal preparations containing these process of healing was better with gel herbs have been claimed to be useful in treating formulation. Gram negative and Gram positive infections. These herbal preparations have been reported to Cedrus deodara promote gain in tensile strength in incision wound Its oil has been reported to possess anti- model, but do not modify the granulation phase of inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. healing (Udupa et al, 1989). These herbs have Cedrus deodara has also shown wound healing also been reported to promote epithelization and properties and is particularly useful in infective wound contraction in cases of excision wound wounds (Dikshit & Dixit, 1982). models (Nadakarni & Nadakarni, 1954). This property may be due to the effect of these herbs MISCELLANEOUS PRO-HEALERS FROM on migration and mitosis of epithelial cells and PLANTS promotion of contraction of myo-fibroblasts. The healing effects of Ocimum sanctum, and These myo-fibroblasts are responsible for wound Begia odorata on infected experimental wounds contraction (Gibbiani et al, 1972). in laboratory animals have been reported. All these plants, notably Ocimum sanctum promote healing (Thaker & Anjaria 1986). The aqueous 1. Akah, PA (1990). Mechanism of hemostatic extract Euphoribia nerrifolia when applied activity of Eupatorium odoratum. Int. J. Crude topically facilitates the healing of surgically Drug Res. 28(4): 253-256 produced cutaneous wounds in guinea pigs. It 2. Bairy, KL; Rao, CM (2001). Wound healing profile of Ginko biloba. J. Nat. Remed. 1: 25- increases the gain in tensile strength, DNA content and promoted epithelization (Rasik et al, 3. Bennet, RG (1988). Fundamentals of 1996). Alcoholic extract of Indigofera cutaneous surgery. St. Louis: C.V.Mosby; 778 aspalathoides has analgesic, anti-inflammatory 4. Chadha, YR (1976). The Wealth of India, Raw and wound healing effect. The crude betal nut Materials - Publication and Information extract and its polyphenols promoted healing of Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 10: 292 incision and dead space wounds (Padmaja et al, 5. Chopra, RN; Nayar, SL; Chopra, IC (1986). 1993). Fresh leaves of Kalanchoea integra Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. CSIR, showed encouraging results in healing inflammatory conditions associated with wounds. 6. Chulani, HL (1996) In: The law of medical Mango butter which is extracted from the seeds of negligence 1st edn. Radhakrishan Medical and Educational Trust: Mumbai; 51-83 Mangifera indica is known to have wound healing ISSN 0973-6980 5 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 7. Dahanukar, SA; Kulkarni, RA; Rege, NN 23. Manjrekar, S (1996). 10th Annual report of (2000). Pharmacology of medicinal plants and the Samidha Charitable Trust. p 10 natural products. Indian J. Pharmacol. 32: 24. Mather, MD; Sherman, M; Frycakowski, A; Jester, JV (1989). Invest Ophthalmol. Vismal 8. Deshpande, PJ; Pathak, SN; Shankaran, PS Sci, 30: 2403-2406 (1965). Healing of experimental wounds with 25. Mazumdar, A; Raghavan, K; Weinstein, J; Helianthus annus. Indian J. Med. Res. 53: 539 Kohn, KW; Pommier, Y (1995). Inhibition of 9. Deshpande, PJ; Pathak, SN (1965). Surg. J. human immunodeficiency virus type – I interase by curcumin. Biochemical 10. Deshpande, PJ; Pathak, SN (1966a). Med. Pharmacology, 48(8):1165-1170 26. Molan, PC (1999). The role of honey in the 11. Deshpande, PJ; Pathak, SN. (1966b). Indian J. management of wounds. J. Wound Care, 8(8): Med. Res, 1(1): 81 12. Deshpande, SM; Upadyaya, RR (1967). 27. Myers, KA; Marshal, RD; Friedin, J (1980). Chemical studies of Jasminum auriculatum Principles of Pathology in Surgery, 1st edn. (VAHL) leaves. Curr Sci, 36: 233 Blackwell Scientific Publications: London, 13. Dikshit, A; Dixit, SN (1982). Cedrus oil – a promising anti-fungal agent. Indian Perfumer, 28. Nandakarni, KM; Nadakarni, AK (1954). Indian Materia. Medica. IIIrd edn. Popular 14. Diwan, PV; Tillo, LD; Kulkarni, DR (1983). book depot, Doota Paperhwar Prakashan Ltd: Steroid depressed wound healing and Tridax procumbens. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 29. Newall, CA; Anderson, La; Philipson, JD (1996). Ginkgo in herbal medicine, a guide for 15. Ehrlich, HP; Hunt, TK (1968). Effects of health care professionals, The Pharmaceutical cortisone and vitamin A on wound healing. Press: London, 138-140 Ann Surg, 167: 324-326 30. Oomen, ST; Rao, CM; Raju, CVN (1999). Int. 16. Fayazuddin, M (1981). Faiz. Homeopathic J. Lepr, 67(2): 154-158 Publication House: Kakinada, 30 31. Oomen, ST; Rao CM; Raju, CVN (2000). Int. 17. Gibbiani, G; Hirschel, BJ; Ryan, GB; Statkov, J. Lepr, 68(1): 69-70 PR; Majno, G (1972). Granulation tissue as a 32. Padmaja, PN; Bairy, KL; Kulkarni, DR contractile organ: a study of structure and (1993). Pro-healing effect of betel nut and its function. J. Exp. Med, 135: 719-734 polyphenols. Fitoterapia LXV(4): 298-300 18. Hori, T; Ridge, RW; Tuleckew; DelT (1997). 33. Raju, SS; Kulkarni, DR (1986). Vitamin a Ginkgo biloba: a global treasure. From reverses the wound-healing suppressant effect Biology to Medicine.Guiller JT, Tobe H. of cyclophosphamide. Indian J. Pharmacol, Springer-Verlag: Tokyo, 350 19. Jain, SK; Tarafdar, CR (1970). Medicine plant 34. Rao, SG; Udupa, AL; Udupa, SL; Rao, PGM; love of Sautals (A review of P.O. Bodding's Rao, Ganesh; Kulkarni, DR (1991). Calendula work), EconBot, 24: 241 and Hypericum: two homeopathic drugs 20. Kumar, AS; Singh, HP; Prem Parkash; Singh, promoting wound healing in rat. Fitoterapia, SP (1993). Efficacy of some indigenous drugs LXII(6): 508-510 in tissue repair in buffaloes. Indian Vet. J, 70: 35. Rao, SGV; Selvaraj, J; Senthil, R; Radhakrishnan, RN; Murali, Manokar B 21. Kurian, JC (1995). Plants that heal. Owners (2003). Efficacy of some indigenous Oriental Watchman Publishing House: Pune, medicines in wound healing in rats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 73: 652-653 22. Lee, TT (1995). The use of Eupolin prepared 36. Rao, VG; Shivakumar, HG; Parthsarathi, G from Eupotorium to treat soft tissue wounds. (1996). Influence of aqueous extract of The 5th European Tissue Repair Society Centella asiatica (Brahmi) on experimental Meeting, Padova, Italy. wounds in albino rats. Indian J. Pharmacol, 28: 249-253 ISSN 0973-6980 6 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 37. Rasik, AM; Shukla, A; Patnail, GK (1996). 43. Suguna, L; Shivakumar, P; Chandra kasan, G Wound healing activity of latex of Euphorbia (1998). Effects of Centella asiatica extract on neriifolia Linn. Indian J. Pharmacol, 28: 107- dermal wound healing in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol, 34: 1208-1211 38. Savanth, SS; Mehta, N (1996). In: Savanth SS, 44. Thaker, HM; Anjaria, JV (1986). Shah RA, Gore D. (Eds.) Text book and atlas Antimicrobial and infected wound healing of dermatosurgery and cosmetology, 1st edn. response of some traditional drugs. Indian J. ASCAD: Mumbai, 50-61 Pharmacol, 18: 171-174 39. Savanth, SS; Shah, RA (1998). In: Savant SS, 45. Udupa, SL; Rao, SG; Kulkarni, DR (1989). Shah RA, Gore D. (Eds.) Text book and atlas Wound Healing Profile of Septilin Indian J. of Dermatology and Cosmetology, 1st edn. Physiol. Pharmacol, 33:1-5 Mumbai: ASCAD; 12-17 46. Udupa, SL; Shaila, HP; Udupa, AL; Ramesh, 40. Schmidt, JM; Greenspoon, JS (1991). Aloe KV; Kulkarni, DR (1991). Biochem Arch, 7: vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet. Gynecol, 78: 47. Udupa, SL; Udupa, AL; Kulkarni, DR (1998). A comparative study on the effect of some 41. Shukla, A; Rasik, AM; Dhavan, BN (1999). indigenous drugs on normal and steroid- Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant depressed healing. Fitoterapia, 69: 507-510 levels in healing wounds. Phytother. Res, *Address for correspondence: 42. Srimal, RC; Khanna, NM; Dhawan, BN c/o Dr. Rajinder Raina, Head, Division of Pharmacology (1971) A preliminary report on anti- and Toxicology, F.V.Sc. & A.H., SKUAST-J, R. S. Pura. inflammatory activity of Cucurmin. Indian J. Jammu 181102, J&K, India. E-mail: drrajinderraina@hotmail.com Pharmacol, 3: 10 Mob: +919419630356, (O): 01923250242 ext. 59 ISSN 0973-6980 7 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infestation in Equines of
Kashmir Valley
B. A. Pandit†*, R. A. Shahardar† and L. Jeyabal‡ A study of parasitic infestations in equines under For identification of larval stages the samples unorganized husbandry practices was carried out were subjected to both sedimentation and in Kashmir valley of Jammu & Kashmir state by floatation techniques (Soulsby, 1982). Third stage faecal samples examination. The overall larval Strongyle species were identified ater infestation was found as high as 93.26%. incubation of the pooled positive samples at 25-Trichonema sp. (96.78%) dominated other types 28° C (±1°) for ten days as per the procedure of parasites, Strongylus sp. (81.19%), described by Soulsby (1965) and Anonymous Triodontophorus sp. (41.39%), Dictyocaulus sp. (1971). The seasonal prevalence of various (14.10%), Oxyuris sp. (9.40%), parasites was then calculated. Paranoplocephala sp. (8.14%), Strongyloides sp. (6.19%), Parascaris sp. (4.01%), Amphistome sp. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (0.91%) and Eimeria sp. (0.34%) were also A total of 935 faecal samples were collected from recorded. equines of Kashmir valley, a total of 872 (93.26%) were found to harbour various types of gastro-intestinal parasites. Most of the horses Equines, Helminths, Kashmir were having more than one type of parasitic infestation simultaneously. The results obtained in the present study during different months and Equines as a means of transport for men and seasons are depicted in Table 1. material provide livelihood to a large number of Overall infestation with Trichonema sp. (96.78%) rural and semi-urban populace of Kashmir. was most common followed by Strongylus sp. Horses do suffer from a number of diseases. Triodontophorus sp. (41.39%), Parasitic infestation is a major cause of illness. Dictyocaulus sp. (14.10%), Oxyuris sp. (9.40%) Documentation of parasitic infestation of horses and Parascaris sp. (4.01%). Among Strongylus in Kashmir valley is lacking. Therefore, the sp. (81.19%), S. edentatus and S. equinus were the present study was undertaken to identify and species identified on the basis of coproculture. assess their prevalence. Only one cestode Paranoplocephala sp. (8.14%) and one trematode Paramphistomum sp. (0.91%) MATERIALS AND METHODS were recorded in the present study. Eimerian Faecal samples from 935 equines were examined oocysts present in 0.34% samples belonged to a to identify gastrointestinal parasites. single specie i.e. E. lukharti. Sengupta and Yadav (1997) have observed high †Division of Veterinary Parasitology prevalence Strongylus endentatus, S. equines and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Triodontophorus in the equines of Tarai region of (SKUAST- K) Kashmir, India UP. The prevalence of these parasites in our study ‡Department of Veterinary Parasitology, NTR College of Veterinary Sciences, Gannavaram, AP, India is also high. In the present study only one type of ISSN 0973-6980 8 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 cestode Paranoplocephala sp. was recorded, 2. Bhatia, B. B., 2000. Text book of Veterinary
however, Aydenizoz (2004) has identified two Protozoology. ICAR Publication, New Delhi. genera of equine cestodes; Anoplocephala and 3. Aydenizoz, M., 2004. The prevalence of
Paranoplocephala from horses of Kirikkale, helminthes in horses in Kirikkale, Turkey. Turkey. The trematode identified in the present Indian Vet. J., 81: 255-258 4. Sengupta, P. P. and Yadav, M. P., 1997.
study is similar to the one identified by Sengupta Occurrence of parasitic infections in ponies of and Yadav (2001). tarai region, Utter Pradesh, India. J.Anim. The only species of Eimeria identified as E. Sci., 67: 460-462. leukharti was in accordance with the 5. Sengupta, P. P. and Yadav, M. P. ,2001.
specifications mentioned by Bhatia (2000). Parasitic infections in equines in Bikaner area of Rajasthan. J.Vet. Parasitol., 15(2): 163-164. 6. Soulsby, E. J. L., 1965. Text book of
High prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Veterinary Clinical Parasitology. Vol. 1. equines of Kashmir is evident from this study. It Helminths. Blackwell Scientific Publications is therefore recommended that broad spectrum Oxford, pp 1-1120. anthelmintic drugs must be given to the horses on 7. Soulsby, E. J. L., 1982. Helminths,
mass campaign basis. The dosing schedule should Arthropodes and Protozoa of Domesticated be followed as per seasonal prevalence and Animals. 7th Edn. The English Language Book Society, Bailliere, Tindall, London. parasitic load. Four dosings per year should also include an anti cestodal drug. *Address for correspondence: Dr. Basharat A. Pandit, Associate Professor & Head, 1. Anonymous, 1971. Manual of Veterinary
Division of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques. Sciences and Animal Husbandry, (SKUAST-K), PO Box Technical Bulletin No. 18, Ministry of 135, GPO Srinagar, Kashmir, India Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Her Majesty e-mail: basharat.pandit@gmail.com Stationary Office, London pp 1-131. ISSN 0973-6980 9 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Month & Samples Samples
examined
(80.26) (91.80) (77.04) (45.90)
(4.09) (6.55)
(98.16) (91.73) (49.54)
(19.26) (20.18) (19.26) (16.51) (3.66)
(91.03) (98.20) (69.25) (23.88)
(3.88) (4.47)
(95.93) (92.38) (59.39)
(11.16) (6.09)
(93.26) (96.78) (81.19) (41.39)
(9.40) (8.14) (0.91)
Figures in parenthesis represent positive percentage Legend: A=Trichonema, B=Strongylus, C=Triodontophorus, D=Parascaris, E=Dictyocaulus, F=Strongyloide, G=Oxyuris, H=Paranoplocephala, I=Paramphistomum, J=Eimeria ISSN 0973-6980 10 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Effects of Breeding Practice and Sex on Growth of Black Bengal
Goats under Village Conditions of West Bengal
S. Bera†, A. K. Samanta†, A. K. Santra†* and S. K. Maiti† The growth performance of Black Bengal goats essential component of farming system of rural reared under village condition of West Bengal was studied. The overall growth rate from first Few reports are available on the performance of week to 24th weeks of age was found to be 42.88 goats under village conditions and are inadequate g/day. The growth rate of first three weeks of age to take up area specific goat improvement ranged from 49.3 to 71.83 g/day. The lowest programme. Growth rate in terms of change in growth rate was observed in between 8 and 13 body weight is directly associated with the weight weeks of age. Further observation revealed that at marketing age which leads to economic return. the overall growth rate up to 24th weeks was The Bengal breeds of goat known for producing almost similar in both treatment (44.09 ± 2.14 excellent quality meat and superior skin to other g/day) and control groups (43.05 ± 1.95 g/day). breeds are widely distributed in West Bengal, The pattern of growth rate of first two weeks was Assam, Jharkhand and adjoining areas. Keeping higher in both the groups. Males were found to be in view of its importance for socio-economic higher daily gain in body weight (48.62 ± 1.98 development of poor people as well as to need g/day) than females (37.60 ± 1.67g/day). The assess potential of local breeds of goat under growth rate according to sex was found to differ village condition a study was conducted to find significantly (p<0.01). the effects of breeding practices and sex on growth performance of Bengal goats reared under village conditions. Bengal goat, growth rate, breeding practices, sex, village condition MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in three different villages namely Ayeshpur-Panchpota, Ganguria The wide distribution of goats in the tropics and and Hatikanda-Daluipur in the Nadia district of subtropics due to their ability to adapt to a wide West Bengal. The goats are managed by the variety of environments and their flexible feeding farmers by extensive grazing system. They are habits reflects that they can be managed under all generally taken out for grazing during day light. types of animal husbandry from the intensive and The data on growth rates were recorded from 71 sophisticated to the most extensive forms of kids. Weekly average daily gain in weight up to nomadic grazing (Acharya, 1992). Goat farm is an 24 weeks of age was calculated based on the formula (Brody, 1945). The body weights of kids †Department of Animal Production and Management, up to 24 weeks of ages were recorded individually West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences in the morning before the kids were fed. The information pertaining to the present study was collected by PRA technique (Schonuth et al, 1995). Data were classified according to breeding ISSN 0973-6980 11 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 practices followed and sex on average daily gain higher daily gain in body weight (48.62 ± 1.98 in weight. Breeding practices were classified in to g/day) from birth to 24th weeks of age than the two groups: treatment and control groups. females (37.60 ± 1.67 g/day). The highest and Treatment groups were those where kids were lowest weight gain in males was observed as born by mating of selected group of bucks, 69.96 g/day and 40.63 g/day in first week and whereas kids born by mating of unselected group 13th weeks respectively. However, in females the of bucks were from control group. The data were highest growth (73.55 g/day) was observed in first subjected to statistical analysis according to week, while the lowest gain (26.73 g/day) was in Snedecor and Cochran (1968). 10th weeks of age. The anabolic effect of male sex hormone could be one of the factors for this RESULTS AND DISCUSSION difference (Hafez, 1962). The analysis of variance The present findings on daily weight gain per showed significant variation of weight gains week up to 24th weeks are presented in Table 1. between male and female (p<0.01). The present The overall growth rate from first week to 24th study was close to those reported earlier (Singh week of age was found to be 42.88 g per day. It and Singh, 1998; Singh and Singh, 2000; Singh et was also observed that the growth rate of first al, 2002). three weeks of age ranged from 49.3 to 71.83 g. From 4th to 7th week of age the rate was varied from 41.30 to 43.46 g. However, the growth rate 1. Acharya, R.M. (1992): Goat genetic resources was lowest in between 8 and 13 weeks of age and their management: research in goats. followed by increased growth rate ranging from Indian Experience. CIRG, Makhdoom, Uttar 39.63 to 47.24 g up to 24th weeks of age. The Pradesh, India. pp:1-21 2. Brody, S. (1945): Bioenergetics and growth. variations in body weights at different age groups Hafner publishing co. in. New York,pp: 489- might be due to differences in the genetic make up of the individuals and management practices 3. Hafez, E.S.E. (1962): Reproduction in farm followed by farmers in different villages. The animals. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. present findings are closely related to the earlier 4. Husain, S. S. and Mafizul Islam, A.B.M.M. workers (Kumar and Singh, 1983; Husain et al, (1992): Reproduction and growth of Black Bengal goats in Bangladesh. Recent advances The effect of breeding practices on growth rate is in goat production. Proc. V International presented in Table 2. The results indicated that the conference on goats. New Delhi. 545-549. overall growth rate up to 24th weeks were close in 5. Husain,S.S., Horst, P. and Islam, A.M.M.M. both treatment (44.09 ± 2.14 g/day) and control (1996): Phenotypic selection on the improvement of growth performance of Black groups (43.05 ± 1.95 g/day). The pattern of Bengal kids. Asian Australasian Journal of growth rate of first two weeks was higher in both Animal Science, 9: 149-153. the groups. The lowest growth rate was observed 6. Kumar,R. and Singh, C.S.P. (1983): Gain in in 10th weeks of age in treatment group (25.67 weight and body measurements of kids. Indian g/day) while it was found lowest (33.20 g/day) in Journal of Animal Science, 53: 563-567. 4th weeks of age. The study also revealed that the 7. Schonuth, M.S., Michael, S. and Kievelitz, growth rate up to 24th weeks age was not H.T. (1995):Participatory learning approaches, significant (p<0.01) between two groups. The PRA, Participatory appraisal-an introductory previous worker (Husain et al, 1996) however guide. Extension Digest, 3:4-10. observed significantly higher daily gain in 8. Singh, N.K. and Singh, D.K. (1998): Growth selected groups. rate of Black Bengal and it's crosses with Beetal under village conditions. Indian Journal Daily gains in body weight according to sex are of Animal Science, 68: 988-990. tabulated in Table 3. It was found that males had a ISSN 0973-6980 12 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 9. Singh, D.K. and Singh, N.S. (2000). Genetic 11. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1968): analysis of pre and post-weaning growth traits Statistical methods. 6th ed. Oxford, IBH of black Bengal kids. Indian Veterinary Publishing Co., Calcutta. Medical Journal, 24: 275-278. *Address for correspondence: Dr. A. K.Santra, Associate Professor, Dept. of Livestock 10. Singh, D.K., Kumar, S., Singh, N.S., and Production and Management, College of Veterinary Singh, C.S.P. (2002): Genetic and non-genetic Sciences & A.H., Anjora, Durg, Chhattisgarh. factors affecting pre-weaning relative growth e-mail: santra_ajit@yahoo.com rate (RGR) in Black Bengal and its half-bred kids. Indian Journal Animal Science, 72: 161- ISSN 0973-6980 13 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Mean values of daily weight gain (grams) at weekly intervals
from birth to 24th week on total basis
No. of observations ISSN 0973-6980 14 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 ISSN 0973-6980 15 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 ISSN 0973-6980 16 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Anthelmintic Efficacy of Fenbendazole Feed Pellets against
Porcine Ascariasis
S. K. Maiti†, S. K. Chaurasia† and Neelesh Sharma‡* A study was conducted to ascertain the efficacy of Therefore, present study was undertaken to fenbendazole feed pellet against natural porcine ascertain the efficacy of fenbendazole feed pellets ascariasis. Twenty middle Yorkshire pigs 7 to 12 against porcine ascariasis. Perusal of literature months old, of either sex suffering from naturally from India provides little information about the infected ascaris infection were divided into two use of fenbendazole in pellet form in India an groups. Efficacy of the feed pellet was evaluated easiest way of antihelminthic administration. on the basis of EPG count of feacal sample of all treated animals before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg body weight) feed pellet For this study, 20 middle Yorkshire pigs of 7 to supplementation for two consecutive days showed 12 months age of either sex weighing 30 to 40 kg 100% efficacy against ascariasis on 7th and 14th and suffering from naturally acquired ascaris day after treatment. Result showed that the EPG infection were selected from college piggery unit. count of treated group was reached zero (0) on The animals were randomly divided into two day 7th post treatment. No apparent untoward groups viz. A and B, each comprising 10 animals. effects of drug administration were noticed. Pigs of group A served as untreated control whereas pigs of group B were administered two fenbendazole 7.5 mg/kg body weight on two Pig, Ascariasis, Fenbendazole, Vetfen 600 consecutive days in the form of feed pellets containing 600mg fenbendazole per gram (Vetfen 600® - Indian Immunologicals Limited, Ascariasis, the commonly prevalent helminthic Hyderabad, India). Eggs per gram (EPG) of feces infection of pig causes economic loss to pig were determined using Stoll's dilution technique industry due to digestive disturbances and poor (Soulsby, 1982) before treatment (0 day) as well growth. It also has public health significance as on day 3, 7, and 14 post treatment to assess the (Lord and Bullock, 1982). The disease has an parasitic load. The efficacy of the drug was enormous significance in pig rearing as eggs of evaluated on the basis of reduction or absence of Ascaris sp. remain viable in soil for years together eggs in the feces. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION †Department of Livestock Production and Management, The result of Antihelminthic trials with College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, fenbendazole feed pellet for two consecutive days Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Anjora, Durg showed 100% efficacy against Ascaris suum (Chhattisgarh), India. infections in pigs. ‡Division of Veterinary Clinical Medicine & Jurisprudence, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, Sher- The efficacy of fenbendazole feed pellet (Vetfen e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & 600®) in pigs naturally infected with Ascaris Technology of Jammu, R.S. Pura, Jammu, India. suum is presented in Table 1. The mean EPG ISSN 0973-6980 17 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 pretreatment of group B pigs was 2422 ± 63.25 and it ranged between 2100 to 2620. On day 3 1. A Batte, E. G., R. D., Mclamb and T.J., post treatment mean egg count reduced from 2422 Vestal, 1976. In proceeding of 4th ± 63.25 to 766 ± 28.72 per gram feces (Table 1). International pig Veterinary Society Congress, Ova were not detected in the feces of the pigs on Ames., June 22-25, 1976. Ames Iowa USA. Helminthic Abstract, 1977. 54:4004. 7th and 14th day post treatment and the EPG 2. Bali, M.K. and R.P., Singh, 1979. Haryana values reduced to zero (0). On the other hand in Agril. Univ. J. Res., 10:110. group A , ‘0' day mean EPG was 2207 ± 105.13 3. Korkin, A.F., 1980. Veterinariya Moscow which increased to 2285 ± 110.68 and 2355 ± 109.29 on 7th and 14th day of observation 4. Kulkarni, D. and B.V., Rao, 1990. Indian Vet. respectively. No symptoms that could be attributed to the drug as its side effects were 5. Lord, W.D. and W.L., Bullock, 1982. New apparent up to the end of the study. Batte et al Eng. J. Med., 30:113. (1976) reported that fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg 6. Stewart, T.B., O.G., Martio and M., Hael, body weight for 3 consecutive days was 100% 1981. Am. J. Vet. Res., 42:1162. effective against A. suum as compared to single 7. Soulsby, E.J.L., 1982. Helminths, Arthropod and Protozoa of domesticated animals. 7th dose of treatment. Bali and Singh (1979) edn., Bailliere Tindal London. evaluated the efficacy of fenbendazole @ 5-10 mg/kg body weight in naturally infected pigs and *Address for correspondence: reported 100% efficacy. Stewart et al (1981) also Dr. Neelesh Sharma, Assistant Professor, observed 100% effectiveness of drug when Division of Veterinary Clinical Medicine & Jurisprudence, administered in the feed for 3 consecutive days. Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, Sher- The observations of the present study are in e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & agreement with those of previous workers. Vetfen Technology of Jammu, R.S. Pura, Jammu-181 102 (Jammu and Kashmir) India. 600® a feed supplement containing fenbendazole e-mail: drneelesh_sharma@yahoo.co.in is acceptable to animals because of its palatability and is an easy way of antihelminthic treatment. ISSN 0973-6980 18 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Mean eggs per gram (EPG) and percentage reduction of eggs treated with Fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg body weight) feed pellets Group Day
2207±105.13 2285±110.68 2309±113.26 2355±109.29 2422±63.25 766±28.72 Percent reduction 00.00 68 100 100 ISSN 0973-6980 19 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Management of Bovine Papilomatosis with Autogenous Vaccine
K. A. Shah†*, M. Naqati† & S. Qureshi‡ Successful treatment of papilomatosis in cattle Samples from older growths under aseptic using autogenous vaccine is reported and conditions and local analgesia were resected and discussed. processed separately. They were finely minced, suspended in saline, filtered through muslin cloth and treated with formalin (by adding 0.5ml of Papilomatosis, bovine, autogenous vaccine 10% formalin to 100ml of mother solution) to inactivate the virus (Blood et al, 2002). Antibiotic (Strepto penicillin 2 mg/ml) was also added to Papilomatosis is a neoplastic disease caused by each vial. The auto vaccine was administered @ 1 papiloma virus. It occurs more frequently in ml/20 kg body weight intra-dermally. Three bovines than other domestic animals (Smith and injections were given fortnightly to each animal. Jones, 1970). In cattle, cutaneous papiloma can be encountered on almost any part of body. Some RESULTS AND DISCUSSION papilomas are topographically specific and caused The multiple growths on the teats of the cow were by distinct virus having different antigenic interfering with the milking procedure. The calf reactions and D.N.A Composition. Therefore a had contracted infection possibly through direct vaccine providing immunity to one of them does contact during suckling (Blood et al loc. cit). not confer immunity to the other. Although, Administration of autogenous vaccine caused cutaneous papilomas are usually benign but those sloughing of the warts from the affected areas. In of alimentary tract may become malignant both the cases complete recovery took two (Canipo, 1980 and Shrivastava and Sharma, months. Autogenous vaccine has also been tried 1991).Successful treatment of papilomatosis has for such domestic animals and poultry by Page, been a great challenge for field practitioners. (1967) Calnek et al (1991), Chawdry (2004) and Surgical intervention may not be possible if a Blood et al loc. cit. large area is involved and some times aggravates the condition. The present clinical report pertains to the use of an autogenous vaccine in cattle. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cow aged 7 years having developed multiple, irregular warts on teat surface and its suckling calf with cauliflower like rough multiple growths on lips were presented for treatment. †Institute of Animal Health and Biological Products, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir, India ‡Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, India ISSN 0973-6980 20 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 1. Blood, D.C., Radostits, O.M. and Handerson 5. Page EH (1967) J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.150, JA (2002) Veterinary medicine 8th edition English language Book Society/ Bailliere 6. Shrivastva,A. K and Sharma D.N. (1991) Tindall p838-40. Indian Vet med.J.15:69-70. 2. Calnek BW, John Barnest.Beard C.W. Reid 7. Smith,H.A and Johnes T.C (1970) Veterinary W. M. and Yoder (1991) Disease of Poultry Pathology 3rd edition Lea and Febiger, 9th edition. Wolfe Publishing Ltd.p 690-99. Philidelphia p418-420 3. Canipo MS (1980) Nature, London.286,180. 4. Chowdary (2004) Poultry planner 10th issue p *Address for Correspondence: Dr. Khurshid Ahmad Shah, Department of Animal Husbandry, Red Cross Road, Gow Kadal, Srinagar, Kashmir 190001, India e-mail: khurshid@kashvet.org ISSN 0973-6980 21 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 VETSCAN EDITORIAL BOARD
Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Nowshari
Dr. Shakil Ahmad Wani
B. V. Sc. & A.H. (Hons), M. V. Sc. (Gyn. & Obst.)
M. V. Sc., Ph.D PDF (NII, New Delhi; CDC, USA;
Dr. med. vet. (Germany), Diplomat European Tufts University, USA)
College of Animal Reproduction (ECAR)
Professor and Head, Division of Veterinary Microbiology and KinderWunschzentrum Bad Schwartau Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Anton Baumann Str. 1 Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences 23611-Bad Schwartau and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, India Tel.: +49-451-889887-76 Tel: +91-194-2262211 Fax: +49-451-889887-19 e-mail: shakilwani@gmail.com
e-mail: nowshariblue@gmail.com
Dr. Abdul Aziz Teli
Dr. Prabir Kumar Sanyal
M. V. Sc., Ph.D
M. V. Sc., Ph.D
Ex-Professor and Head, Professor and Head, Division of Animal Nutrition, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Anjora, Durg - 491001 Srinagar, Kashmir, India e-mail: sanyalpk@rediffmail.com
Dr. Mujeeb-ur-Rehman Fazili
Dr. Farooq Ahmad Kaloo
M. V. Sc., Ph.D
Associate Professor, Division of Veterinary Surgery M. V. Sc. (Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and
Obstetrics) Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir Deputy Director (Animal Husbandry) University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Animal Husbandry, Kashmir and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar, Kashmir, India Tel: +91-94190-15608 Tel: +91-94190-95830 e-mail: fazili_mr@yahoo.co.in
Dr. Nisar Ahmad Wani
Dr. Khurshid Ahmad Shah
M. V. Sc., Ph.D
Central Veterinary Research Laboratory M. V. Sc. (Livestock Production and Management)
P. O. Box 597, Dubai, U. A. E. Department of Animal Husbandry, Kashmir Tel: +971-4-3375165 (O) +971-4-2272922 (R) Fax: +971-4-3368638 Tel: +91-94190-58692 e-mail: nwani@cvrl.ae
e-mail: khurshid@kashvet.org
ISSN 0973-6980 22 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Dr. Shagufta Nasreen
Managing-cum-Associate Editor
M. V. Sc. (Veterinary Parasitology)
Department of Sheep Husbandry, Kashmir Dr. Syed Anjum Andrabi
B. V. Sc. & A. H. (Hons.)
Department of Animal Husbandry, Kashmir Tel:+91-94190-17753 Technical Editors
e-mail: anjum@kashvet.org
Dr. Neelesh Sharma
Consultant (Business and HR)
M. V. Sc.
Assistant Professor, Division of Veterinary Clinical Dr. Shuja ul Rehman
Medicine and Jurisprudence, B. V. Sc. & A. H.
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir PG Diploma Business Administration
University of Agricultural Sciences PG Diploma Computer Application
and Technology of Jammu, Department of Animal Husbandry, Kashmir RS Pura, Jammu, India Tel: +91-94192-44292 Tel:+91-94195-33513 e-mail: drneelesh_sharma@yahoo.co.in
e-mail: shujrehman@yahoo.com
Associate Editors
Dr. Shabir Ahmad Mir
B. V. Sc. & A. H.
Department of Animal Husbandry, Kashmir Srinagar Tel: +91-94199-01229 e-mail: mirshabir@hotmail.com
Dr. Abrar Hassan
B. V. Sc. & A. H.
Department of Animal Husbandry, Kashmir Srinagar Tel: +91-94190-54178 e-mail: abrar@kashvet.org
ISSN 0973-6980 23 www.kashvet.org/vetscan VetScan 2008 Vol 3 No 1 Copyright VetScan 2005-2008 All Right Reserved with VetScan and www.kashvet.org
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math.helsinki.fi

Second order logic and set theory Both second order logic and set theory can be used as a foundation for mathematics, that is, as a formal language in which propositions ofmathematics can be expressed and proved. We take it upon ourselvesin this paper to compare the two approaches, second order logic on onehand and set theory on the other hand, evaluating their merits andweaknesses. We argue that we should think of first order set theoryas a very high order logic.

atoda.org.au

options for options for LeeJenn Health Consultants A discussion paper prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs, November 2013 © Australian National Council on Drugs 2014 This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without the written permission of the publisher.