Marys Medicine

However, not everyone in Australia knows that drugs for potency cialis australia provide not just a temporary result, but also actually help rid the body of symptoms.


Mark Scheme (Results) Pearson Edexcel GCSE in Biology (5BI1F) Paper 01 Unit B1: Influences on Life Edexcel and BTEC Qualifications

Edexcel and BTEC qualifications are awarded by Pearson, the UK's largest awarding
body. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. For further information visit our qualifications websites a Alternatively, you can get in touch with us using the details on our contact us page at

Pearson: helping people progress, everywhere

Our aim is to help everyone progress in their lives through education. We believe in
every kind of learning, for all kinds of people, wherever they are in the world. We've
been involved in education for over 150 years, and by working across 70 countries, in
100 languages, we have built an international reputation for our commitment to high
standards and raising achievement through innovation in education. Find out more
about how we can help you and your students a
Summer 2015
Publications Code UG042584
All the material in this publication is copyright
Pearson Education Ltd 2015
General Marking Guidance
All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate's response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. For questions worth more than one mark, the answer column shows how partial credit can be allocated. This has been done by the inclusion of part marks eg (1). Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate's response, the team leader must be Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response. Quality of Written Communication

Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: Write legibly, with accurate spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear Select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter Organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Acceptable answers Number
4 marks for 4 correct responses 3 marks for 3 correct responses 2 marks for 2 correct responses 1 mark for 1 correct responses Acceptable answers Number
A  a supporting rod running
the length of their body Acceptable answers Number
B  fish
Acceptable answers Number
An explanation linking the  2 different / similar species named species  who interbreed (1) reproduce / mate Total for Question 1 = 8 marks Acceptable answers Number
Accept two marks for correct 77 ÷ 1.6 x 1.6 / 2.56 (1) accept 30.07 - 30.08 / 30.1 Acceptable answers Number
A description to include two of writing in scientific journals (1) attending scientific conferences meeting / talking to other Acceptable answers Number
Answers must be in this order. insulin pancreas Acceptable answers Number
A description to include two of diet carefully regulated / monitored/ less carbohydrate physical activity undertaken / medication (to lower blood Total for Question 2 = 8 marks Acceptable answers Number
Accept two marks for correct 6 (billion tonnes of carbon dioxide) Acceptable answers Number
23 and 444 and 330 (1) Accept two marks for correct 797 (billion tonnes of carbon Acceptable answers Number
A suggestion from:  more heat trapped in the Earth's atmosphere (1)  (increased) greenhouse  more photosynthesis (1) Do not accept plants grow more Acceptable answers Number
An explanation linking the  photosynthesis (1)  to make carbon glucose / carbohydrates Acceptable answers Number
Any two suggestions from:
 reduce deforestation (1)  reduce burning fossil fuels Accept any practical example of the reduction of burning fossil  increase the planting of trees / plants (1) Total for Question 3 = 9 marks Acceptable answers Number
D  nucleus
Acceptable answers Number
A  chromosome
Acceptable answers Number
Acceptable answers Number
ECF from clipped table for ff 25%, 0.25, ¼, 1 in 4 Reject ratio of 1:4 Acceptable answers Number
An explanation to include two of  build up / thick mucus / sticky mucus (1)  blocking the pancreas / pancreatic duct / blocking the release of enzymes (1)  reduction in food digestion / absorption (1) Acceptable answers Number
An explanation to include the  both parents are both have a recessive allele / heterozygous / carriers (1) gene  person X inherited both the recessive alleles (1) Acceptable answers Number
An explanation to include two of  red blood cells deformed / Accept misshaped / differently lower red blood cell count  blocking of capillaries / less oxygen carried (to muscles) oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is reduced (1)  muscles / joints ache (1) Do not accept "weakening"  less respiration by muscles Do not accept "tired" / less energy released (1) Total for Question 4 = 11 marks Acceptable answers Number
C  sensory neurone
Acceptable answers Number
A  motor neurone
Acceptable answers Number
An explanation linking the  fast (response) (1) automatic / immediate  no (further) damage is Acceptable answers Number
A description linking two of the
 brain connected to the  spinal cord is connected to the skin / finger by Indicative Content Number
*5(c) A description to include some of the following points
Effect of alcohol  Alcohol is a depressant  Alcohol causes people to feel drowsy  Alcohol increases reaction times  Makes reactions slower  Impulses get to the brain slower  Neurotransmission is slower at the synapse Effect of caffeine  Caffeine is a stimulant  Caffeine causes people to be more alert  Caffeine shortens reaction time  Impulses get to the brain faster  Neurotransmission is quicker at the synapse  In extreme cases too much caffeine can have the opposite effect due to over stimulation No rewardable content  a limited description of either the effect of alcohol and / or caffeine  the answer communicates ideas using simple language and uses limited scientific terminology  spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with limited accuracy  a simple description of both alcohol and caffeine and related to reaction times OR a detailed description of alcohol or caffeine related to reaction time  the answer communicates ideas showing some evidence of clarity and organisation and uses scientific terminology appropriately  spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy  a detailed description of both alcohol and caffeine on reaction including their actions as depressants and stimulants and a reference to action on nerve impulses or the synapse  the answer communicates ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of scientific terminology accurately  spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with few errors Total for Question 5 = 12 marks Number
lowest level should be approximately three times the size of the second level which should be approximately twice the size of the top level Acceptable answers Number
Accept two marks for correct 1 500 and 800 (1) Acceptable answers Number
must be in correct order. Indicative Content Number
*6(b) A description of two examples to include some of the following
 parasites live in or on their host  parasite and host live together but only the parasite headlice / ticks  live on their host  live off the blood of their host / suck blood tapeworm  live in their host  within the intestinal system  hooks and suckers attach to host intestines  flat body so tapeworm can easily absorb host's digested food molecules  outer layer has substances to ensure it is not digested by host  tapeworm eggs defecated and can also infect other vertebrates when swallowed  grows on host  roots grow into the hosts xylem and phloem vessels  absorbs the host's water and mineral ions No rewardable content  a limited description of one example of parasitism and / or definition of parasitism  the answer communicates ideas using simple language and uses limited scientific terminology  spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with limited accuracy  a simple description of at least two examples of parasitism or a detailed explanation of one  the answer communicates ideas showing some evidence of clarity and organisation and uses scientific terminology appropriately  spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy  a detailed description of two examples of parasitism with reference to blood / digested food / mineral ions and water  the answer communicates ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of scientific terminology accurately  spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with few errors Total for Question 6 = 12 marks Pearson Education Limited. Registered company number 872828 with its registered office at 80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL, United Kingdom



Actos de libertad: pensando en clave electiva* Ponencia inédita presentada en el III Congreso Iberoamericano de Pensamiento. Holguín, 2006. Por EDELBERTO LEIVA LAJARA ACTO PRIMERO: ÍNTIMA LIBERTAD Estamos demasiado acostumbrados -patrones culturales por medio- a las manifestaciones físicas de la audacia. Yo no pretendo una ingenua exaltación a priori de la actitud contemplativa -por sí mismo el pensar supone un hacer pluridimensional que lo complemente y le dé existencia en el mundo material-, sino una reflexión íntima en torno al siguiente problema: hasta dónde el principio de toda emancipación radica en un primer acto de liberación interior. El fundamento lo ofrece la historia de nuestro pensamiento, cuya lección primera y mayor parece ser, en efecto, que si no somos libres en el pensar, sencillamente no somos libres. Que no hayamos creado sistemas, doctrinas o modelos de pensamiento que hayan llenado épocas en la historia universal, no es un argumento en contra. En buena lid, en el caso cubano, parece ser la clave de todo. A diferencia de otros pueblos en algunas etapas históricas, no hemos pretendido la suma definitoria del conocimiento humano. En nuestro fuero interno, hemos sido lo suficientemente libres para no aspirar a ello, y es posible que haya sido lo mejor para todos. Sería magnífico que siguiera siendo así en el futuro, porque ello implica el reconocimiento de la singularidad e irrepetibilidad de esa escurridiza cualidad que llamamos lo cubano, inaprensible con frecuencia para ese otro, también singular e irrepetible, proveniente de cualquier lugar del mundo. . No se entienda lo anterior como una apología de la incomunicación, o la negación de un fondo de valores comunes a la humanidad y por tanto susceptibles de servir de fundamento a los más disímiles proyectos sociales, políticos o culturales. Tampoco -¡mucho menos!- como un ejemplo más de esa recurrente inclinación a la postura Cuba=ombligo del mundo que por momentos lacera nuestra integridad de pueblo. Es mucho más sencillo. Es una posición de humildad sustentada por la convicción de que no es posible inventar lo que siempre, como grupo humano, hemos rechazado: los grandes sistemas de pensamiento que pretenden explicarlo todo, así sea en sus versiones originales o en trasnochadas interpretaciones de apologetas. Pero vayamos a lo esencial, a la importancia del acto electivo como fundamento de libertad, entendido como posibilidad de asumir una de las opciones viables en un momento dado. Es ingenuo presuponer una libertad absoluta de elección, ajena al estado concreto de la sociedad, la cultura, la política, la economía. El entramado profundamente complejo de una comunidad, sin dudas, condiciona la elección. Cada punto de partida genera un espectro de opciones, más o menos amplias, más o menos viables, y puede darse por demostrado -si la historia en realidad demuestra algo- que son muy raros, casi inexistentes en realidad, los casos en que sólo era posible hacer lo que se hizo y del modo en que se hizo. Por lo demás, las vías por las cuales unas variantes se imponen sobre otras se definen a partir de una multicausalidad ya hoy comúnmente aceptada por la comunidad de estudiosos de las sociedades humanas. Pero también sabemos que todo lo que el ser humano es capaz de crear, en cualquier ámbito, es primero pensado. Lo son los proyectos sociales, y para entenderlos, en el caso cubano, es imprescindible comprender las claves de nuestro modo de pensar, que son claves electivas. Que es decir, de libertad. ACTO SEGUNDO: LA APELACIÓN A LOS ORÍGENES Los cubanos acudimos con asiduidad a la historia como argumento para validar o deslegitimar opiniones y proyectos. Si le concedemos, como nación, una importancia tan significativa al pasado, amerita sin dudas remitirnos a él para rastrear los orígenes de lo que nos ocupa, inserto en lo específico de lo cubano, y por tanto

Katholische Fachhochschule Nordrhein-Westfalen, Abteilung Aachen Diplomarbeit im Fachbereich Sozialwesen Tiere als Therapeuten? Hunde als Helfer in der Sozialen Gruppenarbeit Vorgelegt von: Algenweg 1 Prof. Dr. theol. Rainer Krockauer Dipl.-Päd. Michael Ziemons Alsdorf, den 02. September 2008