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Sri Lanka Journal of Indigenous Medicine
Peer reviewed research publication of the
INSTITUTE OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINE
University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka Journal of Indigenous Medicine (SLJIM)
Volume 01 Number 02 Page 51 - 99 December 2011
Prof. W. D. Rathnasooriya PhD
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Prof. A. P. G. Amarasinghe PhD
Professor and Head, Department of Prasutitantra Prof. Jayantha Welihinda PhD
Additional Director, Postgraduate Section Department of Bio Chemistry Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo Former Director, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of ColomboEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Prof. S. Bhavani MSAM
Dr. H. A. S. Ariyawansa PhD
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Bacopa monnieri (L) Pennel (Scrophulariaceae)
Volume 01 Number 02 Page 51 - 99 December 2011
Sinhala: Lunuwila; Tamil: Pirami; Hindi: Brahmi;
English: Thyme-leaved gratiola
Brahmi or Lunuwila possesses numerousmedicinal properties. Its uses are documented in Published by ancient Ayurvedic texts and the herb has been Institute of Indigenous Medicine
widely used to promote the intellect, and treat University of Colombo neurological and mental problems. This plant is commonly distributed in moist and damp areason the edges of streams and water trenches. It is a prostrate, glabrous and fleshy herb. The leaves Tel: + 94 11 2694308 are sessile, soft, and succulent up to 2.5 mm long Fax: + 94 11 2697175 with obscure venation. The stem is 10-30 cm long and 1-2 mm thick, with soft ascending branches.
Flowers white or blue with purple veins, axillaryand solitary on peduncles usually longer thanthe leaves. Fruits ovoid, acute capsules includein the persistent calyx.
Printed by The herb is mainly used to promote intellect and Ananda Press
as a potent nervine, cardiotonic and diuretic.
82/5, Sir Ratnajothi Leaves and whole plant are used in Indian tribal Saravanamuttu Mawatha, veterinary medicine, especially in the treatment Colombo 13, Sri Lanka.
Tel: +94 11 2435975E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Brahmine and Herpestine are major alkaloidpresent in the aerial parts. Flavonoid such asglucuronyl-7-apigenin and glucuronyl-7-luteolinare present. Bacosides and Bacosaponins areimportant saponin constituents.
Brahmi has the capacity to improve the higherorder cognitive processes and improve learningcapability. It also has anxiolytic activity, antidepressant activity, intellect promoting activityantioxidant property, analgesic activity,spasmolitic activity, and bronchodilatory activity.
The original paper on page 55 and review paper Single issue: Rs. 300/= (Local) on page 91 describe the findings of scientific Rs. 350/= (Local Institutions) studies of B. monnieri.
$ 25 (Foreigners)$30 (Foreign Institutions) Method of payment
Cheque / Bank draft / Money order / Cash
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Sri Lanka Journal of Indigenous Medicine (SLJIM)
Volume 01 Number 02 Page 51 - 99 December 2011
Experimental evaluation of gastroprotective and adaptogenic activity of Amalakayas Rasayana and its vehicle (ghee and honey) S M S Samarakoon, S K M K Herapathdeniya, H M Chandola, B Ravishankar Study of the efficacy of an ayurvedic treatment regimen on balaka pakshaghatha with special reference to cerebral palsy Saroja Weerakoon, A P G Amarasinghe Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti on management of primary dysmenorrhoea Kaumadi Karunagoda, Shilpa Donga, Lakshmi Priya Dei In vitro evaluation of different aqueous extracts of Senna alata leaves for antibacterial activity E Christy Jeyaseelan, S Tharmila, A C Thavaranjit Selection of the most suitable pot height and harvesting stage for higher growth, yield and oil quality of Vettiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) N D N Priyadarshani, M K T K Amarasinghe, S Subasinghe, I R Palihakkara, H K M S Kumarasinghe Anti hyperlipidemic effect of Vara Asanadi Kwatha against high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats Anju P Ramachandran, M Shyam Prasad, Vijay Kumar, B K Ashok, B Ravishankar, H M Chandola Antibacterial properties of "Accmus" mouth wash S Tharmila, T Thileepan, A C Thavaranjit, R Srikaran Anti rheumatic herbal compound drug Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) as selective cytokines target in rheumatoid arthritis Pathirage Kamal Perera, Yunman Li Evidence based Ayurveda for revitalization of mental health Nisha Ojha, Abhimanyu Kumar Guidelines for authors
Experimental evaluation of gastroprotective and adaptogenic activity
of Amalakayas Rasayana and its vehicle (ghee and honey)
S M S Samarakoon1, S K M K Herapathdeniya2, H M Chandola3, B Ravishankar4
Ayurvedic physicians. However, no report on thepharmacological screening on this formulation is available; Amalakayas Rasayana (AR) was tested for its anti- ulcer activity in forced swimming induced hypothermia hence, this study was designed to assess adaptogenic and stress induced gastric ulceration. AR was and anti-stress activities of AR to provide pharmacological administered in the dose of 270 mg/kg orally for 7 basis to clinical claims and to justify its use as anti-ageing consecutive days prior to the experiment. The adaptogenic activity was assessed by determining andcomparing the changes in rectal temperature and ulcerindex and compared in AR and vehicle treated group Materials and Methods
against stress control group. In forced swimming Test drug: The raw materials (Table 1) of the test formulation
induced gastric ulceration, pretreatment with AR caused were collected from Gujarat Ayurveda University pharmacy significant attenuation of ulcer index when compared with and were subjected to pharmacognostical studies in order both stress control (p<0.001) and vehicle control (p<0.05)groups. AR exhibits significant reduction in ulcer index in to establish their authenticity. From the raw materials, the comparison to stress control group (p<0.05) and vehicle test drug AR was prepared following the classical control (p<0.001) groups. The results suggest that AR guidelines . The vehicle viz., honey and ghee of standard possesses significant adaptogenic and gastro protective brands were purchased from the local market.
Chemicals: All the chemicals and reagents used in the
experimental study were procured from standard and
reputed firms and are of analytical grade regularly being Ageing is the accumulation of changes in humans used in the laboratory.
refers to a multi-dimensional process of physical, Animals: Charles Foster strain albino rats of either sex
psychological, and social changes . The ageing process weighing between 200 ± 30g were selected and procured is a biological reality which has its own dynamic course from the animal house attached to the institute (Registration that is beyond human control. Ageing is defined as a No.548/2002/CPCSEA). They were housed in large progressive generalized impairment of function resulting spacious polypropylene cages and fed with Amrut brand in a loss of adaptive response to stress and in a growing rat pellet feed supplied by Pranav Agro Industries and tap risk of age associated disease .
water given ad libitum. The animals were acclimatized for Ayurveda has classified ageing into two viz., Kalaja at least one week in lab condition before commencement jara (Physiological ageing) which is natural process of of the experiment in standard laboratory conditions 12 ± ageing and Akalaja jara (premature ageing) . Ayurveda 01 hour day and night rhythm, maintained at 25 ± 3°C and has described various rejuvenative therapies with the help 40 to 60% humidity. Before the test, the animals were kept of special class of medicinal preparations called Rasayana fasting for 12 hours. Institutional Animal Ethics Committee that are believed to rebuild the body, mind, prevent dege- had approved the experimental protocol (Approval neration and postpone ageing . Amalakayas Rasayana number: IAEC 05/09-10/Ph.D.08) and the care of animals (AR) is one among many Rasayana formulations was taken as per the CPCSEA Guidelines (Committee for mentioned in Ayurvedic classical text Charaka Samhita for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments the treatment of ageing related disorders  and used by on Animals) .
1 Department of Kayachikitsa, Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Institute, University of Kelaniya, Yakkala, Sri 2 Department of Dravyagunavignana, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka.
3 Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India. 4 Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India. Correspondence: Dr. S. M. S. Samarakoon, Senior Lecturer, Department of Kayachikitsa, Gampaha WickramarachchiAyurveda Institute, University of Kelaniya, Yakkala, Sri Lanka. E-mail: email@example.com. Received 04August and revised version accepted 12 November 2011. Samarakoon et al. Experimental evaluation of gastro protective…SLJIM 2011; 01 (02): 51-54 Table 1: Formulation composition of Amalakayas Rasayana
Botanical Name Alpenia galanga Boerhavia diffusa Dose selection and schedule: The classical dose of AR in
Effect of drugs on stress-induced ulcer was evaluated human beings is 3 g/day . The dose for experimental by following the method of Parmar and Jagruti . which animals was calculated by extrapolating the human dose was modified according to the experimental need. The rats to animals (270 mg/kg) based on the body surface area after noting their final rectal temperature were again ratio by referring to the standard table of Paget and Barnes exposed to the swimming stress inside the same container (1964) . The drug solution was made by adding unequal for 16 hours. At the end of 16 hour period blood was quantity of ghee (700 mg/kg) and honey (1350 mg/kg) as obtained from the retro-orbital puncture under light ether per the classical indication  and administered to animals anaesthesia using capillary tubes. The body weight was orally with the help of gastric catheter sleeved to syringe.
noted and then they were sacrificed. Blood samples were The drugs were administered to over night fasted animals.
collected for assessing different types of haematological Adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activity : The selected
parameters by using automatic haematological analyzer animals were divided in to four groups of six animals in (ACRUS automated haematology auto-analyzer). The vital each. Normal control (water control – WC) animals were organs like liver, heart, kidney and adrenals were dissected kept under standard laboratory conditions, left undisturbed out, cleaned for extraneous tissues, blotted with tissue in their home cages without stress exposures. Second paper, weighed and computed per 100 g body weight.
group received only distilled water and served as stresscontrol (SC) group where as the third group received The stomach was excised, cleaned and opened along combination of ghee (700 mg/kg) and honey (1350 g/kg) the greater curvature. The inner surface was cleaned gently and served as vehicle control (VC). Fourth group (AR) by washing with cold saline solution and spread on wax was administered with the AR (270 mg/kg) plus vehicle.
board with the mucous surface upwards avoiding For the experimental group, drugs were given for seven corrugation and examined for ulceration with a magnifying consecutive days. On sixth day the rats were kept in lens. Severity of ulcer and total number of ulcers in each individual metabolic cages to prevent coprophagy and rat was recorded for calculating ulcer index. Ulcer index fasted for 36 hours with access to water ad libitum. On was calculated according to the method described by the seventh day one hour after drug administration, the Kulkarni and Goel . Mean ulcer scores for each initial rectal temperature of individual rats was noted. Afternoting initial rectal temperature rats are kept inside experimental group were calculated and expressed as the specially arranged containers, which were made up of ulcer index.
plexiglass with holed lids. The water level was maintained Statistical analysis: The results were presented as mean
up to 25 cm height and temperature of water was maintained ± SEM for six rats in each group. Statistical comparisons at 22 ± 2 °C. Rats were placed in the container and exactly were performed by unpaired student's t test and one way after 20 minutes of exposure to stressed condition, the Anova with Dunnets' multiple t test as post-hoc test by rats were taken out individually and final rectal temperature using Sigma Stat Software (version 3.1) and the level of of each rat was noted. The drop in rectal temperature was significance was set at p<0.05.
Samarakoon et al. Experimental evaluation of gastro protective…SLJIM 2011; 01 (02): 51-54 promotion of health by revitalizing the metabolism andenhancing immunity. Rasayana therapy encompasses Effect of AR on rectal temperature
procedures of revitalization and rejuvenation to increasethe body's power of resistance to disease and supposed Table 2: Effect of AR and vehicle on rectal temperature
to slowdown the advancement of ageing .
in rats subjected to forced swimming stress
Swimming stress in small laboratory animals has been widely used for studying the physiological changes and Group Dose (g/kg) Percentage decrease % the capacity of the organism to adjust in response to stress in rectal . Swimming is not always a simple exercise stress, temperature (ºC) because emotional factors are difficult to be eliminated.
Even short single stress like one day forced swimming stress is as effective as prolonged stressor in bringing 22.608 ± 1.909 * about the stress induced alterations in the body .
Swimming induced hypothermia is an inevitable outcome 0.27+0.7+1.4 16.470 ± 0.530 ** of swimming at water temperature lower than the animal'score temperature. In this study, forced swimming lead *p<0.05 **p<0.001 Vs stress control (unpaired t test); p<0.05 Vsvehicle control (unpaired t test) to remarkable hypothermia and pre-treatment with bothvehicle (p<0.05) and AR (p<0.001) attenuated it insignificant manner. The magnitude of attenuation Administration of vehicle and test drug significantly observed in AR treated group is comparatively high in decreased rectal temperature in comparison to stress comparison to vehicle (p<0.05). Thus, the observed ada- control group. Further, test drug shows statistically ptogenic effect can mainly be due to adaptogenic significant decrease in rectal temperature in comparison properties of AR.
to vehicle control group (Table 2).
Stress ulcers are due to both physiological and psychological factors, which is crucial for gastrointestinaldefense and increased accumulation of acid and pepsin Effect of AR and vehicle on ulcer index
leading to auto-digestion of the gastric mucosa . Stressin animals is known to increase gastric motility and acidity Table 3: Effect of AR and vehicle on ulcer index in rats
which could lead to ulceration manifested by severe subjected to forced swimming stress
mucosal damage and haemorrhage . Importance ofimpaired mucosal blood flow also appears among the Dose (g/kg) Ulcer index important factors in the pathogenesis of stress-inducedulcers .
The other factors that may be involved are platelet- activating factor , increase in gastric motility, vagalover activity , mast cell degranulation  and decreased prostaglandin (PG) synthesis . The reactiveoxygen species generated by the metabolism of #One way Anova - F value 102.50; p<0.001: p<0.05 for VC and arachidonic acid, platelets, macrophages, and smooth AR Vs stress control.
muscle cells may also contribute to gastric mucosal *p<0.001 Vs vehicle control (Unpaired t test) damage . Results presented in this work showed thatoral administration of AR and vehicle before stressinduction decreased the incidence and severity of stress Administration of vehicle and test drug significantly induced gastric ulcers in rats (p<0.05). Attenuation of ulcer attenuated stress induced ulceration in comparison index in pretreated with AR against vehicle control group to stress control group. Further, test drug shows is highly significant (p<0.001).
statistically highly significant decrease in ulcer index incomparison to vehicle control group (Table 3).
Many of the drugs in AR are reported to have anti- Ageing is universal but complex biological process stress and adaptogenic activity. Further the vehicle; with definite manifestations characterized by impairment combination of ghee and honey is also reported to have of various functions and decreased ability to respond to adaptogenic activity. Thus, the observed adaptogenic stress . Rasayana chikitsa is a specialized section of profile of AR may be attributed to one or more bioactive Ayurveda, which mainly deals with the preservation and principles present in these drugs. From this study, it can Samarakoon et al. Experimental evaluation of gastro protective…SLJIM 2011; 01 (02): 51-54 be concluded that AR is having significant adaptogenic 13. Kulkarni SK, Goel RK. Gastric antiulcer activity of UL- and gastroprotective activity. The observed adaptogenic 409 in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1996; 34: 683-8.
and anti-stress effect may probably be either through 14. Samarakoon SMS, Chandola HM, Ravishankar B, Ashok attenuation of stress induced stimulation of hypo- BK, Gupta Varun B. Evaluation of an adaptogenic activity thalamus-pituitary-axis (HPA), quenching of free radicals, profile of a compound Ayurvedic formulation – Amalakayas and enhancement of cell proliferation or cellular Rasayana. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2011;
15. Handa SS. Rasayana drugs. Pharmatimes 1993; Part-I: 9- Kirkwood T, Ebrahim S, Kalache A. Mechanisms of Ageing 16. Gehlot A, Godhwani JL, Godhwani S, Aseri ML, Jain P, in Epidemiology in Old Age, BMJ Publishing Group, Vyas MCR. Sound stress-induced changes and their London. 1996; 3.
modification by drugs in albino rats – an experimental study.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1997; 29: 187-9.
Hamilton IS. The Psychology of Ageing: An Introduction,Jessica Kingley Publishers, London. 1998; 1.
17. Nagaraja HS, Jaganathan PS. Forced swimming stress induced changes in the physiological and biochemical Acharya JT. Sushruta Samhita, Chaukmbha Surabharati parameters in albino rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1999; Prakashan, Varanasi. 2008; 8.
Acharya JT. Charaka Samhita, Chaukambha Prakashan, 18. Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK. Gastroduodenal mucosal Varanasi. 2004; 377.
defense and mucosal protective agents. Indian Journal of
Experimental Biology 1991; 29: 701-14.
Acharya JT. Charaka Samhita, Chaukambha Prakashan,Varanasi. 2004; 383.
19. Salim AS. The significance of removing oxygen derived free radicals in the treatment of acute and chronic duodenal Acharya JT. Charaka Samhita, Chaukambha Prakashan, ulceration in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 1990; 42: 64-7.
Varanasi. 2004; 384.
20. Schiessel R, Feil W, Wenzel E. Mechanisms of stress Samarakoon SMS, Chandola HM, Ravishankar B. A clinic- ulceration and implications for treatment. Gastroenterology experimental study on the efficacy of Amalakayas Rasayana Clinics of North America 1990; 19: 101-20.
in the management of premature ageing, PhD thesis, GujaratAyurveda University, Jamnagar. 2010; 139-67.
21. Cho CH. The role of endogenous ulcerogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. Life Sciences 1994; 55:
Anonymous. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Department of AYUSH, New Delhi, 2007; Part-I: 96.
22. Cho CH, Ogle CW, Dai S. Acute gastric ulcer formation in Paget GE, Barnes JM. Evaluation of drug activities.
response to electric vagal stimulation in rats. European Pharmacometrics, Academic Press, New York. 1964; 1:
Journal of Pharmacology 1976; 35: 215-9.
23. Cho CH, Ogle CW. Cholinergic mediated gastric mast cell 10. Acharya JT. Charaka Samhita, Chaukambha Bharati degranulation with subsequent histamine H1 and H2 Academy, Varanasi. 2004; 520.
receptor activation in stress ulceration in rats. European
Journal of Pharmacology 1975; 55: 23-33.
11. Sheth MD, Rege NN, Dahanukar SA. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on gastrointestinal dysmotility induced by 24. Miller TA. Mechanism of stress-related mucosal damage.
chronic, unpredictable wrap-restraint. Indian Journal of American Journal of Medicine 1987; 83: 8-14.
Pharmacology 2001; 331-5.
25. Repetto MG, Llesuy SF. Antioxidant properties of natural 12. Parmar NS, Jagruti KD. A review of the current methodology compounds used in popular medicine for gastric ulcers.
for the gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer agents. Indian Journal Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research of Pharmacology 1993; 25: 120-35.
2002; 35(5): 523-34.
Samarakoon et al. Experimental evaluation of gastro protective…SLJIM 2011; 01 (02): 51-54 Study of the efficacy of an ayurvedic treatment regimen on Balaka
Pakshaghatha with special reference to cerebral palsy
Saroja Weerakoon1, A P G Amarasinghe1
condition that affects movement, posture and co-ordination, and it is caused by damage to the brain before, Balaka Pakshaghatha (BP) is a condition that affects movement, posture and co-ordination, and it is caused during or soon after birth . Most of the children have by Shiromarmabhighata (damage of the brain), before, to face many motor activity dysfunctions due to this during or soon after birth. Because of this problem most problem and it becomes a common developmental of the children have to face many motor activities disability problem. It has been recognized as one of the dysfunction and it becomes a common developmental Vatha vyadhi in the field of Ayurvedic medicine .
disability problem. Cerebral palsy (CP) is also a condition, Annual incidence of BP/CP is 2-2.5 per 1000 births  described in modern medical science resulting from Extrapolated statistics for Balaka Pakshaghatha in Sri damage to the brain before, during or soon after birth.
Lanka is 39810 per 19, 905, 165 . The objectives of Etiopathogenisis and symptoms of Balaka Paksha- this study were to evaluate the efficacy of an Ayurvedic ghatha are similar to cerebral palsy. Objectives of this treatment regimen with selected Pancha Karma (Bio study were to evaluate the efficacy of an Ayurvedic Purification measures) treatments available in Paediatrics treatment regimen with selected Pancha Karma (bio Ward at Boralla Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital for the purification measures) treatments for the management management of Balaka Pakshaghatha with special of Balaka Pakshaghatha with special reference to reference to Cerebral Palsy and to compare the cerebral palsy and to compare the effectiveness of effectiveness of Ayurvedic treatment and Physiotherapy Ayurvedic treatment and Physiotherapy treatment for the treatment for the management of Balaka Pakshaghatha.
management of Balaka Pakshaghatha. Sixty patients inthe age group of 1-6 years of CP/BP were taken for thestudy from the Paediactric Clinic of Ayurveda Teaching Materials and Methods
Hospital, Colombo and Physiotherapy Unit of Sixty patients in the age group of 1-6 years of BP/CP Awissawella Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patientswere divided in to two groups, 30 patients in each group.
were taken for the study irrespective of their sex, race and The test group of 30 patients were selected for Ayurvedic religion etc. from the Paediactric Clinic of Ayurvedic treatment. 30 patients were randomly selected for Teaching Hospital Colombo and Physiotherapy Unit in physiotherapy treatments. Ayurvedic treatment regimen Awissawella base Hospital.
was of three rounds of treatment of 45 days in each round Patients with history of delayed milestone, spasticity with two months gap and six months follow up. The in one or all the limbs, persistence of primitive reflexes efficacy of each therapy was evaluated by Gross Motor were diagnosed by using performa as BP/CP and Function Classification System. Both Ayurvedic and selected for the study. Children who have history of Physiotherapy treatments had significant result of ‘p' valueat < 0.05. In Ayurvedic, treatment ‘p' value is 9.44 E-13 and delayed developmental milestone, body stiffness, commu- in the Physiotherapy treatment, has been 3.32 E-08.
nication difficulties, restless behaviour, abnormal reflexes, Ayurvedic treatment regimen and Physiothrapy have the BP/CP with history of convulsion were included in this capacity to improve the gross motor functions of Balaka present study. Children those who are suffering from Pakshaghatha. However, Ayurvedic treatment regimen convulsion, who are not in progress after two months is highly effective than Physiotherapy treatment in the OPD treatment, children below one year and above 6 years management of Balaka Pakshaghatha.
of age, and those who have other systemic disorders likeAsthmatic condition, Heart disease etc. were excluded.
The sample of sixty patients was divided in to two Balaka Pakshagatha (BP) or Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a groups, including 30 patients of each group. Test Group 1Department of Prasutitantra Kaumarabhrithya, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo,Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka. Correspondance: Dr. Saroja Weerakoon, Lecturer, Department of Prasutitantra Kaumarabhrithya, Institute ofIndigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Received 24 August and revised version accepted 16 November 2011. Saroja and Amarasinghe. Ayurvedic Treatment Regimen on Balaka Pakshaghatha…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 55-58 (Group A), who had some progress after two months positioning. Bracing, abduction pillows, knee immo- O.P.D. treatments, were selected for Ayurvedic bilizers, wheelchair inserts, sitting recommendations and Treatment. Patients in Phsiotherapy group (Group B) were handling techniques were used in physiotherapy selected considering their age range such as 1-2 years, according to the affected parts of the body.
2-4 years and 4-6 years for Physiotherapy Treatments.
Duration for physiotherapy was 45 minutes per day.
It continued with three rounds of treatment of 45 days, Ayurvedic treatment schedule
each round with two months gap and six months follow Outdoor treatment period was two months.The patients who had some progress were treated in IndoorPatient Department with three rounds of treatments of 45 days, each round with two months gap, and six months The criteria for assessment of treatment was based on gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Before starting the treatment for the children, they Methods of administration of drugs
were assessed by using the assessment criteria of In first two weeks Patients were treated with GMFCS. Then patients were categorized according to Etamadeduru Decoction  and Bhrahmi Mandukaparnie the age and levels of their conditions. GMFCS contains Maduyashti Decoction (Bacopa monnieri L., Centella of five levels. Level 1 is the best (maximum improvement) aciatica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) 60 ml each twice a and level 5 is the least (minimum improvement). After day, Vacha Ashvaganda [Acorus calamus L., Wilhania completion of the treatment, they were assessed by using somnifera L. Dunal] powder ¼ tea spoon at night with GMFCS, compare pre treatment, and post treatment bee honey, and Mahadalu Anupana  with Chandrakalka  250mg twice a day with bee honey. Asan external treatment, used Narayana oil application (Taila Abyanga) over upper limbs, lower limbs and head. In Inter group statistical analysis was performed by third week, Dashamooladi Decoction  and Bhrahmi using sample t test of pre-treatment and post-treatment.
Mandukaparnie Maduyashti Decoction 60 ml. each twice Level of significance was set at p < 0.05 in both groups.
a day and Vacha Ashvaganda powder ¼ teaspoon atnight with bee honey given internally and externally usedShiro Dara with Narayana oil.
During the period of fourth week, used the same The efficacy of each therapy was studied by using internal treatment as third week and externally treated GMFCS and results were derived after subjecting to with Pizichil using Narayana oil. During the period of fifth week, internally treated with Danthimoolade In group A, only five patients were found between Decoction  and Bhrahmi Mandukaparnie Maduyashti the age from 1-2 years. One patient was in level 5, three Decoction twice a day, Vacha Ashvaganda Powder at were in level 4 and one was in level 3 at the beginning of night and Saraswatha Powder  ¼-tea spoon with bee Ayurvedic treatments. After completion of this treatment honey in the morning. Externally patients were treated regimen, they were found to be in the levels of 1, 2, and with Sashtika shali Pinda sweda.
3 (Table 1) Seventeen patients were between the ages of After the fifth week, patients were treated three days 2 and 4 years. All of them had a significant progress and with Darthri Powder  ½ tea spoon at night, which has came forward (Table 2). Eight patients were found mild purgative action. During the last week of treatment between the ages of 4 and 6 years. Most of them achieved regimen, internally used Mashabalade Decoction  progress after the Ayurvedic treatment (Table 3).
and Bhrahmi Manduka parnie Maduyashti Decoction 60 In Group B, 10 patients were found between the age ml each twice a day, Saraswatha Powder ¼ tea spoon in of 1-2 years. They too were in the levels of 3, 4, and 5 at the morning with bee honey and Vacha Ashvaganda first, after treatments they acquired some improvement.
Powder ¼ tea spoon with bee honey at night.
Some of them remained in the same level even after Administered Vasti treatment (Enema) using one ounce treatment (Table 1). There were only 10 patients between of Narayana oil.
the age group of 2 and 4 years. Some patients remainedin the same levels even after the treatments (Table 2).
Physiotherapy treatment schedule
Only 10 patients were found between the age groups of Physiotherapy treatment depended on the affected 4 to 6 years. After treatment, they achieved some limbs and the body parts. It consists of a number of progress. However, no one succeed to the level 1 and 2 exercises that include stretching, strengthening, and Saroja and Amarasinghe. Ayurvedic Treatment Regimen on Balaka Pakshaghatha…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 55-58 Table 1: Effects of treatment of patients between 1 and 2 years of age (Group A and B) (n=15)
No. of patients No. of patients progressed after treatment (GMFCS Levels) before treatment Table 2: Effects of treatment of patients between 2 to 4 years of age (Group A and B) (n=27)
No. of patients No. of patients progressed after treatment (GMFCS Levels) before treatment Table 3: Effects of treatment of patients between 4 to 6 years of age (Group A and B) (n=18)
No. of patients No. of patients progressed after treatment (GMFCS Levels) before treatment Saroja and Amarasinghe. Ayurvedic Treatment Regimen on Balaka Pakshaghatha…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 55-58 Table 4: Intra Group analysis of the overall effect of Ayurvedic Treatment Regimen
and Physiotherapy Trearment regimen
Ayurvedic(Group A) Physioth.
( Group B) P values are significant at p < 0.05 According to the Table 4, Inter group analysis of pre behavioural disorders. Indian Journal of Paediatrics 2005; treatment and post treatment progress levels of both the 72: 865-6.
groups revealed significant ‘p' value (p < 0.05). The ‘p' US Census Bureau, International Data Base 2004.
value of treated group is 9.44E-13 whereas ‘p' value of Ailapperuma IAS. Vatika Prakaranaya Havest Guli Kalka physiotherapy group is 3.32 E-08.
Pota, Jinalankara Piriwena, Chandra kalka Anupana. 1915;221: 2424.
Ailapperuma IAS. Vatika Prakaranaya Havest Guli KalkaPota, Jinalankara Piriwena, Chandra Kalka Anupana. 1915; Ayurvedic treatment regimen and Physiothrapy have the capacity to improve the gross motor functions ofBalaka Pakshaghatha/Cerebral Palsy. However, ayurvedic Ailapperuma IAS. Vatika Prakaranaya Havest Guli KalkaPota, Jinalankara Piriwena, 1915; 220: 2421, 2422.
treatment regimen is highly effective than that ofPhysiotherapy treatment in the management of Balaka Ayurvedic Pharmacopia, Department of Ayurveda. 1975; Pakshaghata/Cerebral Palsy. Further studies are proposed Part I, Vol I: 98.
to evaluate the efficacy of combine therapy, i.e. Ayurvedic Ayurvedic Pharmacopia, Department of Ayurveda. 1975; treatment regimen and Physiotherapy for the management Part I, Vol I: 97.
of Balaka Pakshaghatha/Crebral Palsy.
10. Ayurvedic Pharmacopia, Department of Ayurveda. 1975; Part I, Vol I: 127.
11. Ayurvedic Pharmacopia, Department of Ayurveda. 1975; Cerebral palsy – hope through research. National Institute Part I, Vol I: 123.
of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (Retrieved on 13 July 12. Ayurvedic Pharmacopia, Department of Ayurveda. 1975; Part I, Vol I: 97.
Kumarasinghe A, Charaka Samhita, Department of 13. Robert P, Peter R, Stephan W, Dianne R, Ellen W, Barbara Ayurveda,1994; 2nd Edition, Chikitsa Stana/28.
G. Gross motor function classification system for cerebral Shankar C, Mandkur N. Symposium on developmental and palcy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1977; 39: 214-23.
Saroja and Amarasinghe. Ayurvedic Treatment Regimen on Balaka Pakshaghatha…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 55-58 Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti on management of
Kaumadi Karunagoda1, Shilpa Donga2, Lakshmi Priya Dei3
reproductive aged women . It is a condition which hasno any underline pelvic pathology or anatomical defect Primary dysmenorrhoea is the most common . There is several pathophysiologies and risk factors gynaecological complaint among young women.
have been identified as a etiology of this condition.
Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is estimated as 45% to85% among reproductive aged women. It is a condition Treatment in practice for the condition depends upon which has no any underline pelvic pathology or analgesics and oral contraceptive drugs which give several anatomical defect. In modern sciences, nonsteroidal anti unwanted effects as well as short term. Several Ayurvedic inflamatory drugs and oral contraceptive pills are used oral therapies give significance results on management of as a symptomatic treatment for this condition but they primary dysmenorrhoea without adverse effect, but its are having many side effects and they are not curative.
long lasting effect is debatable. Though Uttara Vasti has Hence study was carried out to find out a reliable and proven long lasting effect on this condition it cannot beimplemented to unmarried girls who are the most common longlasting Ayurvedic management for the condition and sufferers of Primary dysmenorrhoea .
to find out the efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vastion primary dysmenorrhoea. The dose of Dashamoola Pain is the main feature of primary dysmenorrhoea, Taila Matra Vasti was 60 ml and duration was 7 days for so it has strong relation with Vata Dosha. Matra Vasti was two consecutive cycles. Results were assessed on the taken as a treatment since Vasti has been mentioned as basis of specially prepared grading system for pain. The one of the best therapeutic procedure for alleviation of results obtained were highly significant. Total effect of vitiated Vata . The present study was carried out as a therapy was, 38.89% got complete remission while very preliminary step to find out a reliable and longlasting marked improvement was there in 50%. In the follow up Ayurvedic management for the condition and to find out period no patient complaint recurrence of symptoms.
the efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti on primary The study suggests that Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti can be established as a reliable longlasting treatmentfor relieving primary dysmenorrhoea.
Materials and Methods
Selection of drug
Kashtartava especially manifesting as primary Dysmenorrhoea is a medical condition characterized dysmenorrhoea is a Vata predominant condition and by severe uterine pain during menstruation. While many selected drugs are also good Vatashamaka drugs as individuals experience minor pain during menstruation, mentioned in classics. Dashamoola Taila has been dysmenorrhoea is diagnosed when the pain is so severe mentioned for the treatment of Udavarta Yonivyapad , as to limit normal activities, or requires medication . It which is one of the main disease conditions coming under has been defined as painful menstruation of sufficient primary dysmenorrhoea in Ayurveda.
magnitude so as to incapacitate day to day activity .
Primary dysmenorrhoea is the most common gynae- Contents of Dashamoola [7, 8] are Aegle marmelos cological complaint among young reproductive age Corr., Premna integrifolia L., Oroxylum indicum Vent., women. By 40 high quality studies, prevalence of Steriospermum suaveolens DC, Gmelina arborea Roxb., dysmenorrhoea is estimated as 45% to 85% among Desmodium gangeticum DC., Uraria picta Desv., 1 Department of Prasutitantra Kaumarabhritya, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka. 2 Department of Stree Roga and Prasutitantra, Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India. 3 Department of Stree Roga and Prasutitantra, Institute for Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India. Correspondence: Dr. Kaumadi Karunagoda, Lecturer, Department of Prasutitantra Kaumarabhritya, Institute ofIndigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka. E-mail: email@example.com. Received 20August and revised version accepted 15 November 2011. Kaumadi et al. Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti …SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 59-63 Solanum indicum L., Solanum surattense Brum and F., left hand below the head. 60 ml of lukewarm Taila was Tribulus terrestris L.
taken in enema syringe. Rubber catheter oleated with Taila Ten ingredients of dried Dashamoola are collected was attached to enema syringe. After removing the air from the pharmacy, identified with the help of organoleptic from enema syringe, rubber catheter was administered into and powder microscopic studies. Equal amount of the anus of the patient up to the length of 4 inches. The Dashamoola made in to Yavakuta form is dipped in water patient was asked to take deep breath while introducing for overnight and next day Kwata is prepared. This Kwata the catheter and drug.
along with Kalka of Dashamoola is added in Tila Taila Criteria of assessment
(sesame oil) and oil is prepared as per standard protocol.
The effect of the therapy was assessed considering to the overall improvement in signs and symptoms. For Selection of patients
this purpose, following categories were maintained.
Patients attending the O.P.D. and I.P.D. of Department Severity of pain (multidimensional scoring pattern)
of Striroga and Prasutitantra, Institute of PostgraduateTraining and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved Menstruation is not painful and daily activity University, Jamnagar complaining of pain in menstruation and fulfilling the criteria of inclusion were selected for the Menstruation is painful and daily activity not affected.
present study. An elaborative case taking proforma was No analgesic required.
specially designed for the purpose of incorporating allaspects of the disease on Ayurvedic and modern parlance.
Menstruation is painful and daily activity affected.
Patients of age group between 15-25 years, coming with Analgesic drug were needed.
chief complaint of painful menses from more than 3 cycles Menstruation is painful, she cannot do even her normal with scanty or average amount of menses. Patients below routine work and has to absent from class / office 15 years and above 25 years, patients with chronic illness, during menses. Had to take analgesic but poor effect.
patients with intrauterine contraceptive devices, patientswith menorrhagia or any uterine pathology – fibroid, Duration of pain
adenomyosis, endometriosis etc. were excluded from the no pain in menstruation pain persist less than 12 hours pain continue for 12 -24 hours pain continue more than 24 hours Routine haematological and urinary examinations were done before and after teatment. Sonography for Criteria for the assessment of overall effect of the
uterine and adnexal study was done for exclude pathological cases.
Complete remission: 76%-100% relief in the signs and
Method of administration
symptoms were considered as complete remission.
Daily 60 ml of Dashamoola Taila was administered in Marked improvement: 51%-75% relief in the signs and
morning hours through rectal (Matra Vasti) for 07 days for symptoms were considered as markedly improvement.
two consecutive menstrual cycles starting from mid cycle.
Improved: 26%-50 % relief in the signs and symptoms.
After stopping the administration of the drugs under trial, patients were advised to report weekly for follow up study, Unchanged: Below 25% relief in the signs and
which was carried out for 2 months.
symptoms were considered as unchanged.
Method of administration of Matra Vasti
Investigations : Laboratory investigations – Hb%, WBC/DC, ESR, PCV, were carried out before and after treatment The patient was advised to take light meal, not more to rule out any other pathological conditions as well as to than 3/4th of the usual quantity. Before administration of record any specific change by the treatment.
Vasti, Abhyanga (application of oil) with Tila Taila wasdone on the region of lower back and lower abdomen.
Thereafter, Nadi Sweda was performed.
After this pre preparatory measures (Purvakarma), Total 20 patients were registered for the study among the patient was advised to take left lateral position with them 18 patients had completed the treatment and 02 left left lower extremity straight and right lower extremity flexed against medical advice. So observations and results drown on knee and hip joint. The patient was asked to keep her from 18 completed patients.
Kaumadi et al. Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 59-63 Table 1: Risk factors
Risk factor No. of patients (n=18) Early age (<20years) Early menarche (12-13years) Positive family history Lose weight (BMI <20) Table 2: Features related to primary dysmenorrhoea
No. of patients Chronicity (4-6 years) Onset of pain (1 day before) Aggravation of pain (1st day) Severity of pain (grade 2) Site of pain (Hypogastrium) Duration of pain (12-24hrs.) Table 3: Effect of therapy (% of relief)
% of relief Table 4: Effect of therapy (paired t test)
%of relief Table 5: Total effect of therapy
Effect of therapy No. of pts. Complete remission (76%-100% relief ) Marked improvement (51%-75% relief) Improved (26%-50% relief) Unchanged (25% -0% relief) Kaumadi et al. Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti …SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 59-63 dysmenorrhoea. Nulliparity, which is considered as therisk factor for primary dysmenorrhoea was found in 83.33% In this study maximum numbers of patients were (Table 2) of patients. It is believed that vaginal delivery suffering form dysmenorrhoea since 4-6 years (Table 2) removes the stenosis or pin hole of cervical canal and among them grade 2 type of severity was found in 65.71%.
internal os [1 ] and thus, facilitates the flow of menstrual The 48.71% of patients were on analgesics/antispasmodics blood. It reduces that pain during menstruation, because (Table 3). The data are suggestive of the chronicity of the the flow of blood through the cervix becomes easier. Lose problem and also supports the reality that even people weight also a risk factor given as per modern science.
suffering from such common problem visit Ayurvedic clinic Present study it is noticed 33.33% (Table 2) patients are quite late and after taking several other trials.
below 20 in B.M.I. (Body Mass Index). It supports the Majority (54.28%) of them had onset of pain one day modern findings regarding in this issue .
before to the onset of menstruation (Table 3), pain Effect of therapy on primary dysmenorrhoea shows 75% aggravation on first day on menstruation was found in relief on severity of pain and 68.33% relief in duration and 94.28% and pain persisted for 12 to 24 hours in 60% (Table (Table 4) according to ‘t' value highly significant results 3). These observations show typical characters of primary (P < 0.001) on both the components (Table 5) evidence dysmenorrhoea . It is a known fact that two days prior that treatment is effective on both severity as well as to onset of menstruation, large quantity of progesterone duration of menstrual pain. When considering total effect and estrogen secretes from corpus luteum. This high level of therepy 50% of patients got complete o marked of progesterone induce increases the tone in the isthmus remission. Not a single show negative respond to the and upper part of the cervix . An exaggeration of this therapy (Table 6).
could therefore be the basis of the non-coordinating actionof the uterus. Again high level of ovarian hormones stop In follow up period, most of the patients show FSH (Folicular Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Lutinising prolong and lasting effect on primary dysmenorrhoea. The Hormone) secretion causes sudden stoppage in secretion prolongation in recurrence of symptom can be due to the of progesterone and oestrogen which results to mens- strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of truation. Withdrawal of progesterone preceding Dashamoola. It is a proven drug, effective on primary menstruation probably causes break down of lysosomes neurological disorder and improves nerve conduction and the synthesis of various prostaglandins . These velocity . This effect of Dashamoola on nervous prostaglandins are responsible for pain in menstruation system can be the responsible factor behind its lasting by myometrial contraction, vasoconstriction and increase sensitivity of nerve endings for pain . It is the courseof strong pain on starting of menstruation and withdraws after 24 hours as prostaglandins are of short lifespan .
Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti is effective to relieve On the basis of site all the patients showed pain in primary dysmenorrhoea. Matra Vasti seems to be better hypogastrium (Table 3), while in 71.43% complain pain than oral analgesics and oral contraceptive pills used in radiated towards inner and front aspect of the thighs. It dysmenorrhoea, because it is found efficacious in whole could be because sympathetic nerves, arising from the feature complex related to dysmenorrhoea.
segments T5 and T6 in the case of motor nerves and from Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti helps to protect from the segment T10 to L1 in the case of sensory nerves, pass recurrence of dysmenorrhoea. With some further down from the celiac plexus through the intermesentric researches, Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti can be plexus, lying retroperitoneally in the front of the abdominal established as line of treatment for Primary dysmenorrhoea.
Discussing the risk factors of disease, it is similar to those mentioned for dysmenorrhoea. Early onset of Dutta DC. The Text Book of Gynaecology, New Central menarche and early age; below 22 years, which are Book Agency (P) Ltd, Kolkata 2007; 30.
mentioned as risk factors for dysmenorrhoea, were found Andrew A. Primary Dysmenorrhoea. American Family in 61.11% and 77.77% (Table 2) patients respectively.
Physician 1999: 06, No. 02, (Retrived on 08/07/2009).
The theory postulated behind this finding is that in Howkins & Bourne. Shaw's Textbook of Gynaecology, eds this age, pituitary and other endocrine gland do not attain Padubidri VG, Daftary SN. Elsevier India Private Limited, their maturity till the age of 20 . It can lead to hormonal New Delhi, 2004.
imbalance and thus, dysmenorrhoea.
Jeffcoate's Principles of Gynaecology, eds. Kumar P, Concept of 'Bija' given as the Nidana of Yonivyapada Malhotra N. Jaypee Brother Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, in classics was supported by the data obtained, as positive New Delhi, 2008; 618.
family history was found in 66.66% (Table 2) of patients. It Vagbhata. Ashtanga Samgraha, with Hindi Commentry edt.
suggested that there is a definite relation of a person's Kaviraj Atridev Gupta, Krishnadas Aadamy, Varanasi 2002; genetic trait and Prakriti with the condition of Kaumadi et al. Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 59-63 Srikantha Murthy. Vagbhata, Astanga Hrdayam, Krishnadas 12. Rajan R. Postgraduate Reproductive Endocrinology, Jaypee Academy, Varanasi. 2001; Vol 3 (A.H./Uttara/39/42).
Brothers Madical Publisher (P) LTD, New Delhi, 2004;162.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Firstedition, Govt. of India, 2006; Part 1 vol 1.
13. Dutta DC. The Text Book of Gynecology, New Central Book Agency (P) LTD, Kolkata. 2007.
Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and SiddhaDatabase on Medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, 14. Arulkumaran S (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Obstetrics and Department of Ayush, Ministry of Health and Family Gynaecology, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2004.
Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi, 2004, Vol 01: 08.
15. Andersch B, Milsom I. An epidomiologic study of young Sharangadhara, Sarngadhara Samhita,eds. Srikanta Murthy women with dysmenorrhea. American Journal of Obstetrics K.R. Chaukambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 2001;115.
and Gynecology, 1982; 144: 655-60, www.emedicine.com
(retrieved on 01/10/2008)
10. Rajan R. Postgraduate Reproductive Endocrinology, Jaypee Brothers Madical Publisher (P) LTD, New Delhi, 2004.
16. Chen C, Cho SI, Damokash AI, Chen D, Li G, Wang X.
Prospective study of exposure to environmental tobacco 11. Dutta DC. The Text Book of Gynecology, New Central smoke and dysmenorrhea. Environ Health Prospect 2000; Book Agency (P) LTD, Kolkata. 2007; 3.
Kaumadi et al. Clinical efficacy of Dashamoola Taila Matra Vasti …SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 59-63 In vitro evaluation of different aqueous extracts of Senna alata leaves
for antibacterial activity
E Christy Jeyaseelan1, S Tharmila1, A C Thavaranjit1
used in the treatment of ringworm and parasitic skindiseases . In Belgian Congo, the plant is employed as a The present study was to enrich the knowledge of antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts (cold, hot and remedy for leprosy. In Ghona the leaves are crushed, fresh juice) of leaf of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. and to confirm mixed with black peppers and applied on dhoby's itch, their effect through qualitative phytochemical analysis.
craw – craw and ringworm on the head and skin. In the The preliminary antibacterial assay was performed Pacific Island and Mauritius the leaves are used for skin against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, disease .
Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus Owoyale et al. (2005) carried out antibacterial and vulgaris by agar well diffusion method. The Minimum antifungal screening of different organic solvent extracts Inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal of Senna alata, and they reported that the flavonoid Concentration (MBC) of the cold and hot extracts were glycoside is an active ingredient of the extracts .
determined by macro broth dilution method. Streptomycin Adedayo et al. (1999) demonstrated the antifungal activity and sterile distilled water were used as the standard of methanolic crude extract and partially purified fractions and control respectively. Qualitative phytochemical of flowers of Senna alata against standard and local analysis was done to identify the chemical compoundspresent in the extracts. The antibacterial activity of the fungal isolates . Sule et al. (2010) reported the in vitro test extracts differed significantly (P <0.05); the hot and control of fungi; Microsporum canis, Trichophyton cold extracts were able to inhibit the growth of all tested jirrucosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and bacteria, while the fresh juice inhibited only B. subtilis Epidermophyton jlorrcosum using hot ethanol leaf extract and S. aureus. The cold extract revealed significantly (P of Senna alata . The present study is an attempt to <0.05) higher inhibition on all test bacteria except B. enrich the knowledge of antibacterial activity of different subtilis, which was highly inhibited by fresh juice. The forms of aqueous extract of leaf of S. alata against some MIC of the cold extract ranged from 5 mg/ml to 40 mg/ selected bacteria known to be pathogenic in human. The ml. The lowest value was against P. vulgaris. The MBC phytochemical components were also investigated as a of the cold and hot extracts ranged from 20 mg/ml scientific assessment of the claim of therapeutic potency to 160 mg/ml. Phytochemical analysis revealed the of the extracts.
presence of glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, cardiacglycosides, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids,terpenoids and anthraquinones. This study has proved Materials and Methods
the feasibility of in vitro control of tested bacteria by Preparation of plant extracts
aqueous extracts of S. alata leaves.
The healthy plant leaves were collected from botanical garden of Department of Botany, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.They were dried in shade. Completely dried leaves Senna alata (L.) Roxb (formerly known as Cassia were ground into fine powder using an electric blender.
alata Linn.) (Family-Fabaceae) (Tamil-Vandugolli, Sinhala- The powder was used to get cold and hot aqueous Et-tora) is a tropical plant, widespread in South East extractions as described below.
Asian countries . It is a large shrub with very thick,finely downy branches; leaves large, sub sessile and a). Cold extract
pinnate; flowers are irregular, bisexual, golden yellow in 20 g powder was soaked in 60 ml sterile distilled water spiciform pedunculate racemes; pod is long, ligulate with with intermittent shaking for one hour at ambient a broad wing down the middle of each valve . This temperature. Then the mixture was filtered through doubled plant is traditionally used for the treatment of various layered muslin cloth and the filtrate was further filtered ailments including several infections caused by bacteria, through Whatman no 1 filter paper. The filtrate was protozoa, fungi and viruses. The aqueous leaf extracts are completely dried in an oven at 45 °C .
1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Correspondence: E. Christy Jeyaseelan, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Received 15 August and revised version accepted 10 November 2011. Jeyaseelan et al. Antibacterial activity of Senna alata leaves… SLJIM 2011;01(02): 64-69 b). Hot extract
f). Test for cardiac glycosides
20 g powder was soaked in 60 ml sterile distilled water and 1 ml of concentrated H SO was taken in to a test tube. 5 kept in boiling water bath with intermittent shaking for ml of extract was mixed with 2 ml of glacial CH CO H one hour. Then the mixture was filtered through doubled containing one drop of FeCl .The above mixture was layered muslin cloth and the filtrate was further filtered carefully added to the 1 ml of concentrated H SO . Presence through Whatman no 1 filter paper. The filtrate was of cardiac glycosides was detected by the formation of a completely dried in an oven at 45 °C .
c). Fresh extract
g). Test for phlobatannins
20 g fresh healthy leaves were crushed with 20 ml distilled 10 ml of extract was boiled with 1% HCl in a boiling tube.
water using motar and pestle. The crushed material was Deposition of a red precipitate indicated the presence of filtered through two layered muslin cloth, and the filtrate was further filtered through Whatman no 1 filter paper.
h). Test for Alkaloids
The filtrate was immediately used for the study .
1ml of 1% HCl was added to the 3 ml of extract in a test tube. Then it was treated with a few drops of Meyer's Test bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, reagent. A creamy white precipitate indicated the presence Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus of alkaloids.
vulgaris were obtained from a bacterial culture collection, i). Test for Resins
Department of Botany, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
5 ml of copper solution was added to the 5 ml of extract.
The resulting solution was shaken vigorously and allowedto separate. A green precipitate indicated the presence The phytochemical analysis of the fresh leaf juice was carried out to determine the presence of the followingbiomolecules using the standard qualitative procedures j). Test for Glycosides
as described by Trease and Evans (1989) .
10 ml of 50% H SO was added to the 1 ml of extract in a a). Test for tannins
boiling tube. The mixture was heated in a boiling waterbath for 5 min. 10 ml of Fehling's solution (5 ml of each 1 ml of distilled water and one to two drops of ferric chloride solution A and B) was added and boiled. A brick red solution were added to 0.5 ml of extract solution and precipitate indicated the presence of glycosides.
observed for brownish green or a blue black coloration.
k). Test for Anthraquinones
b). Test for terpenoids
Extract was mixed well with benzene, and then half of 5 ml of extract was mixed with 2 ml of CHCl in a test tube.
its own volume of 10% ammonia solution was added.
3 ml of concentrated H SO was carefully added along the Presence of a pink, red or violet coloration in the ammonial wall of the test tube to form a layer. An interface with a phase indicated the anthraquinones.
reddish brown coloration indicated the presence ofterpenoids.
Determination of antibacterial activity
c). Test for steroids
Agar well diffusion method was used to determine 0.5 ml of extract was treated with 0.5 ml of acetic anhydride the antibacterial activity. 20 ml molten nutrient agar media and 0.5 ml of chloroform. Then concentrated H SO was were mixed with 1 ml of 106 colony forming units /ml) each added slowly. Bluish green color was observed for test bacterial inoculum and poured into sterile Petri dishes separately. After complete solidification, 8 mm diameterwells were made using sterile cork borer.
d). Test for saponins
The cold and hot test extracts were dissolved in 5 ml of extract was shaken vigorously to obtain a stable distilled water. The wells were filled with filter sterilized persistent froth. The frothing was then mixed with three 100 µl of (50 mg) cold extract, (50 mg) hot extract, fresh drops of olive oil and observed for the formation of an juice, (50 µg) streptomycin and sterile distilled water.
emulsion, which indicated the presence of saponins.
Streptomycin and sterile distilled water were used asstandard and control respectively. The plates were e). Test for flavonoids
incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and antibacterial activity A few drops of 1% NH solution was added to the 2 ml of was determined by measuring the diameter of clear zone extract in a test tube. A yellow coloration was observed around the well using Vernier caliper . Each experiment for the presence of flavonoids.
was repeated three times.
Jeyaseelan et al. Antibacterial activity of Senna alata leaves… SLJIM 2011;01(02): 64-69 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
produced by the cold and hot extracts on S. aureus. The (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)
B. subtilis was highly inhibited by the fresh juice of S. The minimum inhibitory concentration was alata leaf (Table 2).
determined by the macro broth dilution method . The The antibiotic streptomycin inhibited the growth of hot and cold extracts were diluted to 320, 160, 80, 40, 20, all test bacteria except P. aeruginosa. In most of the cases 10, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/ml and the streptomycin was diluted the diameter of clear zone produced by the (50 mg/ml) from 5.12 mg/ml to 0.02 mg/ml as two fold dilution in crude test extracts on test bacteria were found to be larger nutrient broth. The tubes were inoculated with 1.0 ml (0.5 than that produced by the (50 µg/ 100 µl) streptomycin to McFarland standards) of test bacteria and incubated at the respective bacteria (Table 2).
37°C for 24 hours. The MIC was taken as the lowest The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of hot concentration of test samples that did not permit any and cold extracts ranged between 5 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml.
visible growth. For the determination of MBC, two loops The lowest MIC value, 5 mg/ml was exerted by cold extract full of culture were taken from each of the broth tubes that on P. vulgaris. The required MIC value of the cold extract showed no growth in the MIC tubes and inoculated onto for E. coli, P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa were found to be fresh nutrient agar plates. After 24-hour incubation, the lower than the hot extract. However, for B. subtilis and S. plates were observed for the growth of bacteria. The concen- aureus, the required MIC values were equal in both hot trations of the extracts that showed no growth were recorded and cold extracts. The MIC value of streptomycin was as the MBC. Each experiment was repeated three times.
found between 0.04 mg/ml and 1.28 mg/ml. The minimumbactericidal concentration (MBC) of test extracts ranged from 20 mg/ml to 160 mg/ml, and the hot and cold extracts Results were expressed as mean ± SD of three revealed the lowest MBC against P. vulgaris (Table 3).
experiments. Statistical significance was determined usinganalysis of variance and Tukey test at p = 0.05 using Table 1: Phytochemical constituents of fresh leaf juice
statistical software SPSS Windows version 13.0.
of Senna alata
Presence / Absence The qualitative tests for the presence of phyto- chemicals revealed that the fresh juice of S. alata possess glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides,tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and Cardiac glycosides anthraquinones. But, the tests for steroids and resins did not show positive results (Table 1).
The hot and cold extracts were able to inhibit the growth of all test bacteria, while the fresh juice failed to inhibit the growth of E. coli, P. vulgaris and P. aeruginosa.
The cold extract showed significantly highest inhibition on all test bacteria except B. subtilis compared to other two test extracts and the largest zone of inhibition was produced against P. vulgaris (23.1 ± 0.2 mm). There wasno significant difference between the inhibitory effects + present, - absent Table 2: Antibacterial activity of different form of aqueous extracts of S.alata leaf
Diameter of inhibition zone (mm)* Gram positive bacteria Gram negative bacteria B. subtilis P. vulgaris P. aeruginosa - No activity; * Zone of inhibition includes the diameter of well (8 mm); Values are mean ± SD, Values with different superscript on the samecolumn are significantly (P < 0.05) different.
Jeyaseelan et al. Antibacterial activity of Senna alata leaves… SLJIM 2011;01(02): 64-69 Table 3: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)
of Senna alata leaf extracts and streptomycin
Test bacteria MIC (mg/ml) MBC (mg/ml) B. subtilis P. vulgaris P. aeruginosa The inhibitory effect of a plant extract resulted from the activity of phytochemicals was present in the extract.
The present study was undertaken to determine the The type of phytochemical present in an extract depends feasibility of in vitro control of bacteria by using three on the type of solvent used for the extraction and the different forms of aqueous extracts of leaf of Senna alata.
mode of extraction. In this study, the plant material was In indigenous medicine, these three forms of extracts are extracted in three different methods with water. It can be widely used for the treatment of various diseases. The clearly seen the variation in the inhibitory effect with the results revealed that both cold and hot extracts were more variation of extraction method (Table 2).
effective than fresh juice, and these two extracts wereable to inhibit the growth of both Gram negative and Gram The result of this experiment correlates with a former positive bacterial species selected for this study.
study, where the E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa The activity of the plant extracts against both Gram were inhibited by aqueous leaf extract of S. alata in agar positive and Gram negative bacteria is an indication of the well diffusion method. In a previous study done by Okoro presence of broad spectrum antibacterial compounds .
et al. (2010) documented that S. aureus was susceptible to Generally Gram positive bacteria shows higher sensitivity polyphenol extracts of S. alata, while E. coli appeared to to plant extracts than Gram negative bacteria [14-17]. This be resistant to the extracts . But in the present study variation is due to the differences in the cell wall structure both bacteria were inhibited by aqueous extracts. In and composition of Gram positive and Gram negative .
another study, hot (soxhlet) aqueous leaf extract of S. alata In this study, even though the cold extract had broad failed to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and P. vulgaris, spectrum of activity, the Gram negative bacteria were highly where the antimicrobial screening was performed by agar inhibited than Gram positive bacteria. This suggests that disk diffusion method . The variation in the results there might be specific substances which inhibit the may be due to the variation in the extraction method or growth of Gram negative bacteria more.
method of antibacterial screening or by both. It wasalready reported that agar well diffusion method is more The lower or absence of bacterial growth inhibition effective than disc diffusion method for antibacterial by the fresh juice of the leaf may be due to the lower screening as filter paper disc composed of cellulose where concentration of active ingredients which are toxic to many free hydroxyl groups present on each glucose bacteria. Further study with higher concentration may give residues makes the surface of the disc hydrophilic , better inhibition. The amount of active ingredients in plant and therefore if an extract contains cationic active extracts depend on the climate conditions where the plants constituents with a good antibacterial activity it will not grow. Wandee (2010) reported that the amount of be expressed in disc diffusion method . In the present anthraquinone glycosides in the leaves of S. alata varied study the hot extract showed comparatively lower activity with season. In winter (November-February) and summer than cold extract. Generally, treatment of plant extracts to (March-May) plants contain the highest amount of total high temperature could inactivate volatile compounds, but antraquinone glycosides (1.24% dry weight). But, the could also increase the release of active components and samples collected in rainy season (June-October) containonly 0.16% dry weight . In the present study, the sample free radicals .
was collected from botanical garden where the plant is The result for the qualitative phytochemical analysis irrigated well. Therefore, the amount of active ingredients also correlates with some previous studies [4,7]. It has may be lower than that grow in wild.
been reported that different phytoconstituents have Jeyaseelan et al. Antibacterial activity of Senna alata leaves… SLJIM 2011;01(02): 64-69 different degree of solubility in different type of solvents Adedayo O, Anderson WA, Moo-Young M, Kolawole DO.
depending on their polarity . In traditional preparations Antifungal properties of some components of Senna alata water is largely used as the solvent.
flower. Pharmaceutical Biology 1999; 37 (5): 369-74.
The inhibition of tested bacteria by S. alata leaf Sule WF, Okonko IO, Joseph TA, Ojezele MO, Nwanze extracts confirmed their antibacterial activity and this is JC, Alli JA, Adewale OG and Ojexele OJ. In vitro antifungalactivity of Senna alata Linn. crude leaf extract. Research most likely due to the action of different phyto-constituents Journal of Biological Sciences 2010; 5 (3): 275-84.
present in the extract. Owoyale et al. (2005) reported thatthe antimicrobial activity of S. alata is associated with the El-Mahmood AM, Doughari JH. Phytochemical screening presence of phytochemicals such as phenols, tannins, and antibacterial evaluation of the leaf and root extracts saponins, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids and carbo- of Cassia alata Linn. African Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmacology 2008; 2 (7): 124-9.
hydrates . Flavonoids act as cytoplasmic poisons andalso they have been reported to inhibit the activity of Suleiman MN, Emua SA, Taiga A. Effect of aqueous leaf enzymes . Saponins are surface active agents which extracts on a spot fungus (Fusarium Sp) isolated from interfere with or alter the permeability of the cell wall.
compea. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture 2008; 2(3):261-63.
Therefore, this facilitates the entry of toxic materials orleakages of vital constituents from the cell. Tannins act Mohana DC, Raveesha KA. Anti-fungal evaluation of some by coagulating the cell wall proteins . Anthraquinones plant extracts against some plant pathogenic field and storage react irreversibly with amino acids in proteins, often fungi. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2007; 4 (1): 119-
leading to inactivation of the protein and loss of function.
The alkaloids have ability to intercalate with DNA .
10. Trease GE, Evans WC. Phytochemical screening. In: Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Trease GE, Evans WC (Eds.).
The standard antibiotic streptomycin showed higher 10th Edn., Bailiere Tindal Limited, London 1989; 541.
activity with lower MIC and MBC values compared to thetest extracts. Streptomycin is refined and purified product, 11. Jeyaseelan EC, Pathmanathan MK, Jeyadevan JP.
whereas the test extracts are a mixture of varies plant Inhibitory effect of different solvent extracts of Vitex negundo constituents. Some of these constituents can interfere L. and Allium sativum L. on phytopathogenic bacteria.
Archives of Applied Science Research 2010; 2 (6):325-31.
within them and this ultimately affects the antibacterialactivity of the extract . Therefore, further study with 12. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of pure (NCCLS). Methods for dilution in antimicrobial compound(s) is necessary to authenticate the effect of susceptibility tests: approved standard M2-A5. Villanova these extracts.
1993; P.A., NCCLS.
13. Doughari JH. Antimicrobial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2006; 5 (2): 597-603.
The results of the present study have confirmed the 14. Smith-Palmer A, Stewart J, Fyfe L. Antimicrobial properties long history of the use of aqueous leaf extracts of S. alata of plant essential oils and essences against five important in traditional medicine for the treatment of microbial food-borne pathogens. Letters in Applied Microbiology 1 infections. Even though the hot and cold extracts had 998; 26: 118-22.
inhibition on all test bacteria, the cold extract showedcomparatively better effect. Therefore, cold aqueous leaf 15. Zaika LL. Spices and herbs – their antimicrobial activity and its determination. Journal of Food Safety 1988; 9:
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16. Ceylan E, Fung DYC. Antimicrobial activity of spices.
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Wandee G. Ethnomedicinal plants popularly used inThailand as laxative drugs. Ethnomedicine: A Source of 17. Lopez P, Sanchez C, Batlle R, Nerin C. Solid- and vapor- Complementary Therapeutics. 2010; 295-315.
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Lanka 1981; 173.
18. Shan B, Cai Y-Z, Brooks JD, Corke H. The in vitro Somchit MN, Reezal I, Elysha Nur I, Mutalib AR. In vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spice and medicinal herb antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia extracts. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2007; alata. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 2003; 84.
Owoyale JA, Olatunji GA, Oguntoye SO. Antifungal and 19. Okoro IO, Osagie A, Asibor EO. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Alcoholic Extract of Senna antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal alata Leaves. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt 2005; 9 (3): 105-7.
plants of Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 2010; 9: 2989-93.
Jeyaseelan et al. Antibacterial activity of Senna alata leaves… SLJIM 2011;01(02): 64-69 20. Makinde AA, Igoli JO, TA'Ama L, Shaibu SJ, Garba A.
natural products. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2007; Antimicrobial activity of Cassia alata. African Journal of 38: 369-80.
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KG. Microbial antagonism: a neglected avenue of natural 24. Onwuliri FC, Wonang DL. Studies on the combined products research. Journal of Biotechnology 1999;70: 27-32.
antibacterial action of Ginger (Zingiber officinale L) and 22. Valgas C, Machado de Souza S, Smânia EFA, Artur Smânia Garlic (Allium sativum L) on some bacteria. Nig J Bot 2005; Jr. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of 18: 224-8.
Jeyaseelan et al. Antibacterial activity of Senna alata leaves… SLJIM 2011;01(02): 64-69 0 Original Paper
Selection of the most suitable pot height and harvesting stage for higher
growth, yield and oil quality of Vettiver (Vetiveria zizanioides)
N D N Priyadarshani1, M K T K Amarasinghe1, S Subasinghe1, I R Palihakkara1,
H K M S Kumarasinghe1
planting could be used as most promising pot heightand harvesting interval in order to enhance bio-mass Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash is a valuable production, oil content and quality of Vettiver.
medicinal and aromatic plant used in both indigenousmedicine and perfumery industry. Economically mostimportant part of the Vettiver is root system. Vettiver roots are directly used for the medicinal purposes and indirectly Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Sinhala – Sevendara, for extraction of essential oils. Low yield and poor quality Tamil – Vettiver) which belongs to the family Poaceae is roots as well as oil are the problems associated with one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants Vettiver production. Yield and quality of Vettiver roots widely used in indigenous medicine and perfumery depend on climatic c onditions, growing media, industry. Vettiver oil is one of the most valuable product agronomic practices, time of harvesting etc. Objective of of Vettiver roots. Vettiver oil has 442 extensive applications the present study was to select the most promising pot in the soap and cosmetic industries, pharmaceutical height and harvesting stage in order to enhance bio- companies and as antimicrobial and anti-fungal agent .
In Sri Lanka, annual national demand for Vettiver is 41175 mass production, oil content and quality of Vettiver. A pot Kg (dry basis) and this is valued as 4 million rupees .
experiment was conducted at Medicinal Plant Garden, The root system of Vettiver consists of long fibrous roots Faculty of Agriculture, from March 2008 to April 2009. Three and rootlets. These roots grow more than 2 m in depth pot heights, namely, 35, 40 and 45 cm with four different and about 80% of the roots can be found in the first 30-35 harvesting intervals such as 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after cm . Even after the careful harvesting, 40% of the roots planting were used for this experiment. Data on number remain in the soil yielding highly damaged roots. One of of tillers, number of leaves, dry weight of roots and shoots the main problems in Vettiver production is poorly were recorded at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of planting as developed low quality roots. These roots produce lower different harvesting stages. Root oil contents, chemical oil yields as well as low quality oils. Such problems in composition of oils such as Khusimol, -Vetivenene, - Vettiver production could be avoided by adopting proper Vetivone, -Vetivone, Iso-valencinol and fiber content agronomic and crop management practices. Therefore, the were also analyzed. Results revealed that, Vettiver present study was carried out to select the most promising planted in 45 cm pot height showed higher biomass pot height and harvesting stage in order to enhance bio- production. Oil content of Vettiver increased with the mass production, oil content and quality of Vettiver.
increasing harvesting intervals. Higher oil content(2.15%) was rec orded 12 months after planting.
Materials and Methods
Subsequently higher oil percentage (2.13%) was A pot experiment was conducted from March 2008 to recorded in 9 months after planting. However, there were April 2009 at Medicinal Plant Garden, Faculty of no significant differences between oil content of 9 and Agriculture, University of Ruhuna. Three pot heights, 12 months after planting. It was also observed in the namely, 35, 40 and 45 cm with four different harvesting present study that the Vettiver harvested at 9 months of intervals such as 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting were planting had significantly (P< 0.05) high Khusimol used for this experiment. Three different heights of black (14.5%), -Vetivone (1.4%) and Iso-valencinol (4.9%) polythene bags were filled using top soil: sand (1:2).
contents in root oil. Relatively lower fiber contents (36%) Leaves of tillers were cut down by keeping 3 cm from the were associated with 9 months after planting compared base. Tillers were planted in pots keeping one tiller per to 12 months after planting. Therefore, Vettiver planted in pot. Pots were arranged in a Completely Randomized 45 cm pot height and roots harvested at 9 months after Design (CRD) with four replicates. Watering was done at 1Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhana, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, SriLanka. Correspondence: Dr. N. D. N. Priyadarshani, Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University ofRuhana, Mapalana, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka. E-mail: email@example.com. Received 15 August andrevised version accepted 12 November 2011. Priyadarshani et al. Suitable pot height and…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 70-75
two day intervals up to four weeks after planting and usin g Steam Distillation Procedur e an d Gas thereafter plants were subjected to rain fed condition. Hand Chromatography Internal Normalization method, weeding was practiced at two month intervals.
respectively. Data with percentage values were subjected As non destructive measurements, number of tillers to angular transformation where necessary and analyzed per bush and number of leaves were taken in 3, 6, 9 and 12 using ANOVA (analysis of variance) with Statistical months after planting. Roots were harvested manually and Analysis System (SAS version 6.12).
roots were air dried in the laboratory for three weeks periodto a constant weight. Dry weight of roots and shoots were taken in Vettiver roots harvested at 3, 6, 9 and 12months after planting as different harvesting stages. Total Effect of different pot height and harvesting stages on
root oil content, chemical composition of oil (Khusimol, biomass production of Vettiver
-Vetivenene, -Vetivone, -Vetivone, Iso-valencinol) and A pot height of 45 cm (T ) showed higher root (dry) fiber content were determined. Vettiver root samples were weights 84.5 g, 242 g, 641 g and 777 g respectively at 3, 6, air dried in the laboratory for three weeks period and rootswere cut into 1 cm length of root pieces using a secatier.
9 and 12 months after planting. At 9 months after planting Then prepared root samples were used for the oil extraction it was more than double the root (dry) weight at 6 months and the residue after the oil extraction was used for the after planting (Figure 1).
analysis of fiber content of Vettiver roots with the four Higher shoot weights (dry) were recorded in 45 cm replicates from each treatment. Samples were subjected to pot height (T ) 192.25 g, 584g, 1572.8 g and 1836.8 g AOAC method for determination of crude fiber . Oil respectively at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting content and chemical compounds in oil were analyzed Figure 1: Changes in dry root weight of Vetiver as affected by different pot heights (cm) at
different harvesting stages (3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting) (=0.05). T -35 cm, T -
40 cm T -45 cm.
Figure 2: Changes in shoot dry weight of Vetiver as affected by different pot heights (cm)
at different harvesting stages (3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting) (=0.05). T -35 cm, T -
40 cm T -45 cm.
Priyadarshani et al. Suitable pot height and…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 70-75 2 Original Paper
Figure 3: Changes in number of leaves of Vetiver as affected by different pot heights (cm)
at different harvesting stages (3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting) (=0.05). T - 35 cm,
T - 40 cm T - 45 cm.
Figure 4: Changes in number of tillers of Vetiver as affected by different pot heights (cm)
at different harvesting stages (3, 6, 9 and 12 months after planting) (=0.05). T - 35 cm,
T - 40 cm T - 45 cm.
Pot height had not shown significant differences (P> Effect of different harvesting stages on oil content and
0.05) in number of leaves up to 3 months after planting.
quality of Vettiver
However, numbers of leaves were significantly (P<0.05) Oil content of Vettiver increased with the increasing affected by pot height after 6 months of planting.
harvesting intervals. Highest oil content (2.15%) was Significantly higher (P<0.05) number of leaves of 215, 471and 543 were recorded in 45 cm pot height (T ) at 6, 9 and observed 12 months after planting (T ). Subsequently 12 months after planting respectively (Figure 3).
higher oil percentage (2.13%) was recorded in 9 monthsafter planting (T ) (Figure 5).
Similarly, pot height had not shown significant differences (P>0.05) in number of tillers up to 3 months of Results of chemical compound analysis revealed planting. However, it was significantly affected by pot that a significantly highest (P<0.05) Khusimol content height after 6 months of planting. A significantly higher (14.5%) was recorded in Vettiver harvested 9 months after (P? 0.05) number of tillers of 36, 67 and 79 was recorded in planting (T ). It varied as 10.5%, 7.7 % and 13.5 % 45 cm pot height (T ) at 6, 9 and 12 months after planting respectively at the 3, 6 and 12 months after planting.
respectively (Figure 4).
Khusimol content was higher in 3 months old plants All the growth and yield parameters (root dry weight, (10.5%) than in the 6 months old plants (7.7%). Production shoot dry weight, number of leaves and number of tillers) of Khusimol showed a twofold increase 9 months after of Vettiver were higher in 45 cm pot height (T ) compared planting (14.5%) compared to the 6 months after planting to other treatments (pot height of 35 and 40 cm).
(7.7%) (Figure 6).
Priyadarshani et al. Suitable pot height and…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 70-75 Figure 5: Oil content (%) of Vetiver at different
A significantly (P<0.05) higher -Vetivenene (0.8%) harvesting periods. Means with the same letter are not
content was recorded 6 months old plants (T ) compared significantly different at =0.05. T -3 MAP, T -6 MAP,
to 3, 9 and 12 months old plants (Figure 7).
T -9 MAP, T -12 MAP.
A significantly higher (P<0.05) -Vetivone content (1.4%) was recorded at the 9 months after planting (T ) compared to the other harvesting intervals. Production of-Vetivone increased during the first nine months andafter that it decreased to 0.8%, when it reached to 12 monthsafter planting (Figure 8).
Figure 8: -Vetivone content (%) of Vetiver oil at different
harvesting periods. Means with the same letter are not
significantly different at =0.05. T -3 MAP, T -6 MAP,
T -9 MAP, T -12 MAP.
Figure 6: Khusimol content (%) of Vetiver oil at different
harvesting periods. Means with the same letter are not
significantly different at =0.05. T -3 MAP, T -6 MAP,
T -9 MAP, T -12 MAP.
There was an increasing trend in -Vetivone content (%) with increasing intervals of harvesting. Significantlyhigh (P<0.05) -Vetivone content (5.2%) was recorded 12months after planting (T ) (Figure 9).
Figure 7: -Vetivenene content (%) of Vetiver oil at
Figure 9: -Vetivone content (%) of Vetiver oil at different
different harvesting periods. Means with the same letter
harvesting periods. Means with the same letter are not
are not significantly different at =0.05. T -3 MAP, T -6
significantly different at =0.05. T -3 MAP, T -6 MAP,
MAP, T -9 MAP, T - 2 MAP.
T -9 MAP, T -12 MAP.
Priyadarshani et al. Suitable pot height and…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 70-75 4 Original Paper
A significantly higher (P<0.05) Iso-valencinol content 45 cm. Yoon (1993) found that, larger bag sizes of 6" × 13", (4.9%) was recorded at 9 months after planting (T3) 7" × 15" and 8" × 12" are considered too large for practical compared to other harvesting intervals (Figure 10).
use and there was a decrease in the number of tillers andtop dry weights production from the largest bag to thesmallest bag, which is in agreement to results in this study. Chomchalow (2001) reported that digging of soil for Figure 10: Iso-valencinol content (%) of Vetiver oil at
root harvesting may be environmentally undesirable, an different harvesting periods. Means with the same letter
alternative means of growing Vettiver could be in poly- are not significantly different at =0.05. T -3 MAP, T -6
bags and other containers . He further pointed out that, MAP, T -9 MAP, T -12 MAP.
this would not only mitigate soil erosion concerns butalso increase cost benefit ratio of Vettiver cultivation forits roots and root oil, as well as optimum utilization ofdegraded lands as poly-bag platforms.
It was reported in the present study that oil content (1.24%) doubled 6 months after planting when comparedto the oil content (0.63%) at 3 months after planting.
Similarly, when considering the oil content between 6 and9 months after planting it was nearly double at 9 monthsafter planting. But there was no such increment between 9and 12 months after planting. The most promisingharvesting time with respect to the root yield was 9 monthsafter planting. Therefore, it is not economically viable tokeep extra 3 months in the field as it increases the cost ofproduction.
Different harvesting intervals showed significant Maffi (2002) pointed out that the Vettiver roots give differences (P<0.05) in fiber content of roots. Fiber content a yield of about 0.3 to 2 % essential oil depending upon of roots increased with the increasing harvesting intervals.
the biotype, cultural practices, age of roots and mode and A significantly high (P<0.05) root fiber content (44.1%) duration of distillation . However, in the present study, was recorded in Vettiver harvested 12 months after planting the oil yields were 2.13% and 2.15% respectively, 9 and 12 (T ) (Figure 11).
months after planting on a dry weight basis and therewere no significant differences oil contents between 9and 12 months. Therefore, harvesting interval of 9 monthsafter planting could be recommended to obtain an Figure 11: Changes in root fiber content of Vetiver as
economically viable root and oil yields.
affected by different harvesting intervals. Means with the
same letter are not significantly different at =0.05. T -
It was also observed in the present study that the 3 MAP, T -6 MAP, T -9 MAP, T -12 MAP.
Vettiver harvested at 9 months of planting (T3) had significantly (P<0.05) high Khusimol, -Vetivone and Iso-valencinol contents in root oil. However, during the periodof 9 to 12 months of planting -Vetivone content (5.2%)of Vettiver increased while Khusimol, -Vetivone and Iso-valencinol contents in Vettiver oil decreased.
There were no remarkable changes in temperature, monthly average rainfall and number of rainy days up tonine months of planting. However, there were remarkablereductions in monthly average rainfall and number of rainydays during the period between harvesting intervals of 9and 12 months. Present study was conducted under therain fed conditions (watering was done at two day intervalsup to four weeks after planting).
Water stress conditions are highly associated with the secondary metabolites production of Vettiver. These There was a positive correlation between biomass may be the reasons for such changes in active ingredients.
productions of Vettiver and pot height. Increase in pot Maffei (2002) reported that in North India, there is no heights facilitates the downward movement of roots definite period for harvesting and the roots are harvested providing more space. This may be the reason for higher both for the manufacture of articles and for oil distillation growth and yield observed in 45 cm than other treatments.
when plants are 10-12 months old. Chadha (1995) pointed It is not practically feasible to handle pot heights above out that tremendous diversity of oil composition exists Priyadarshani et al. Suitable pot height and…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 70-75 with respect to pattern of growth, orientation and thickness of roots, as well as for occurrence of secondary roots and Singh G, Singh BS, Kumar BRV. Antimicrobial activity of harvesting time . Aggarwal et al. (1998) demonstrated essential oils against keratinophilic fungi. Indian Drugs that the age, quality and stage of root harvest, andprocessing for distillation are vital components for essential 1978; 16(2): 43-5.
oil distillation .
Abeywardana N, Hettiarachchi LJK. Statistics on the High fiber content reduces the yield and quality of National Deman d for Medicinal P lants, Sri Lanka roots as well as oil. Therefore, it is necessary to select Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants best possible harvesting interval with lower fiber content Project 2001; 76-9.
for yield and quality improvement of the Vettiver oil. Anon Peyron L. Vettiver in Perfumery, Quintessenza. Taylor (1976) reported that Vettiver has a high content of and Francis Publishers, London 1989; 4-14.
hemicelluloses and its cellulose content is 45.8% (DryWeight basis) . He also revealed that Vettiver American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) Dietary containing short fiber and pulp has to be used in admixture Fiber Technical Committee. The definition of dietary fiber.
with 30-40% of a long-fibered pulp. Though the high fiber Cereal Foods World 2001; 46-112.
content of Vettiver is important for the paper industry it isnot a good feature in oil distillation as it creates practical Yoon PK. A look-see at vettiver grass in Malaysia, Part 2: difficulties in processing, oil extraction as well as loses establish men t an d managemen t of qu ality ve ttiver the essential ingredients in oil.
hedgerows. Vetiver Information Network 1993; 53.
Chomchalow N. The utilization of vettiver as medicinal and aromatic plants with special reference to Thailand.
Pot height of 45 cm and Vettiver harvested at 9 PRVN Tech. Bull. No. 2001/1, Office of the Royal months of planting could be used as most appropriate pot Development Projects Board (ORDPB), Bangkok 2001; height and harvesting interval in order to enhance bio- mass production, oil content and quality of Vettiver. Period Maffei M. Vetiveria (the genus Vetiveria). Taylor and of harvesting highly depends on the soil and climatic Francis Publishers, London 2002; 191.
conditions, agronomic practices adopted and purpose ofharvesting.
Chadha YR. The Wealth of India – a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. Raw materials vol.
Therefore, further research has to be carried out to select proper harvesting time in relation to the soil types x-: sp-w, Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, and climatic condition of the different regions to obtain New Delhi 1995; 451-6.
maximum yield in good quality.
Aggarwal KK, Singh A, Kahol AP. Parameters of vettiver oil distillation. Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants 1998; Department of Ayurveda, Ministry of Indigenous 10. Anon. The Wealth of India – raw materials. Council for Medicine is greatly acknowledged for the funds provided Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India 1976; for this research project.
Priyadarshani et al. Suitable pot height and…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 70-75 Anti hyperlipidemic effect of Vara Asanadi Kwatha against high fat diet
induced hyperlipidemic rats
Anju P Ramachandran1, M Shyam Prasad1, Vijay Kumar2, B K Ashok3, B Ravishankar4,
H M Chandola5
form of decoction, which claims to be effective in themanagement of overweight and obesity . An Changing life style and diet patterns along with experimental evaluation of the drug on its anti- significant role played by genetics made Hyperlipidemia/ hyperlipidemic action will certainly give thoughts Dyslipidemia as one of the most common metabolic regarding the efficacy of Vara Asanadi Kwatha in aberration of lipids among people all over the world. An counteracting the ill effects of dyslipidemia. With this extra cavernous research study on classical Ayurvedic judgment the present experimental study was carried out formulations which are not in the limelight of routine to screen anti-hyperlipidemic potential of VAK in clinical practice is essential to explore the most effective and target oriented anti hyperlipidemic drugs. Objectiveof this study was to evaluate anti-hyperlipidemic activityof Vara asanadi kwatha against high fat diet induced Materials and Methods
hyperlipidemic Wistar strain albino rats. Wistar strainalbino rats of either sex weighing 180 ± 25 g six animals were selected and housed with each cage containing 6 The ingredient wise composition of Vara Asanadi animals. Test drug treated animals were managed with Kwatha has been provided in Table 1.
Vara Asanadi Kwatha at a dose of 8 ml/kg in which the Each raw constituent of VAK was subjected to efficacy of medicine has been assessed on various pharmacognostical identification and was certified as serum biochemical parameters, histopathological genuine and of good quality in the Department of sections and weights of liver, kidney and heart. One group Pharmacognosy, Institute of Post Graduate Teaching and kept as cholesterol control and the remaining as water Research in Ayurveda (IPGT and RA), Gujarat Ayurved control. Findings are in favour of mild anti hyperlipidemic University, Jamnagar. The test drug was prepared by and significant hepato-protective and nephro-protective adding one part of the crushed raw drug to sixteen parts activities of the test formulation. Vara Asanadi Kwatha is of water, boiled and reduced to half. Thin sheets of Iron a mild anti-hyperlipidemic and potent hepato-protective was added during the boiling period of kwatha and later as well as renoprotective drug.
removed while filtering. The prepared drug was procuredfrom Ayurveda Pharmacy, Kannur, Kerala.
Lipid and lipo-protein abnormalities have become enormously common in the general populace. The Wistar strain albino rats of either sex weighing 180 ± metabolic aberrations of lipids are linked as risk factor 25g were obtained from animal house attached to with numerous numbers of serious systemic illnesses Pharmacology Laboratory of IPGT and RA Gujarat including cardio vascular disorders and metabolic Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Six animals were housed syndrome . Obesity and hyperlipidemia often exist in each cage made up of poly-propylene with stainless together clinically and share much in common from the steel top grill. The dry wheat (post hulled) waste was used etio-pathology to the complications . Vara Asanadi as bedding material and was changed every morning. The Kwatha [VAK] is a classical Ayurvedic formulation in the animals were exposed to 12 hour light and 12 hour dark 1 Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (IPGTR&A), Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India. 2 PGT-SFC, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India.
3 Pharmacology Laboratory, IPGTR&A, Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India.
4 SDM College of Ayurveda, Laxminarayana Nagar, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, India5 Department of Kayachikitsa, IPGTR&A, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, India. Correspondence: Dr. Anju. P. Ramacahndran, w/o Dr. Shyamprasad. M. Mahalakshmipuram, Thekkil P.O Pin-671541, Kasargod (dist) Kerala, India E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Received 24 August and revisedversion accepted 10 November 2011. Anju Ramachandran et al. Anti hyperlipidemic effect…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 76-82 Table 1: Composition of Vara Asanadi Kwatha
Plant and part used Latin name Curcuma longa Thin sheets added on boiling kwatha (Decoction) andremoved afterwards cycle with the relative humidity of 50 to 70% and the animals were weighed again and blood was collected from ambient temperature during the period of experimentation retro-orbital plexus under ether anaesthesia. From was 22 ± 03ºC. Animals were fed with Amrut brand rat separated serum; biochemical parameters like glucose , pellet feed supplied by Pranav Agro Mills Pvt. Limited.
serum total cholesterol , serum triglyceride , and For their drinking purpose tap water ad libitum was serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) , used. The experiment was carried out after obtaining the Serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol+ very low permission from institutional animal ethics committee.
density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C + VLDL-C) were (Approval number; IAEC (Institutional Animal Ethics estimated. Serum (LDL+VLDL) was calculated by subtracting HDL cholesterol value from total cholesterolinstead using both values separately, as in rats whose Dose fixation and schedule:
serum cholesterol is <100 mg/dl Friedewald formulaoverestimates LDL levels . Further blood urea , The human dose of Vara Asanadi Kwatha is 45ml serum creatinine [(13], serum glutamic oxaloacetic twice a day (90 ml per day) . The suitable dose for rats transaminase (S.GOT), serum glutamic pyruvic was calculated by referring to table of Paget and Barnes transaminase (S.GPT) , alkaline phosphatase , total (1964)  and the dose obtained thus was 8 ml/kg rat. The bilirubin , direct bilirubin  and serum uric acid test formulation was administered with the help of oral were also estimated as per standard procedure. Further, catheter attached to a disposable syringe.
all the rats were sacrificed by overdose of ether anesthesiaand from the sacrificed animals liver, kidney, heart and aorta were excised out. The liver, kidney and heart were The effect of test formulation on diet induced weighed and fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin solution.
hyperlipidemia was carried out as per previous study .
After fixation, tissues were embedded in paraffin and serial The selected animals were divided into three groups of six sections were cut and each section was stained with animals each. First group was kept as normal control (NC) hematoxylin and eosin . The slides were viewed which received only tap water.
under trinocular research microscope (Germany) at various To second group hyperlipidemic diet was magnifications to note down the changes in the administered and served as cholesterol control (CC) group.
microscopic features of the tissues studied.
Third group received hyperlipidemic diet and Vara AsanadiKwatha (VAK). Test drug was administered at morning hour and hyperlipidemic diet (to second and third group) The results were presented as mean ± SEM for six was administered at evening hours for 20 consecutive rats in each group. Statistical comparisons were performed days. The hyperlipidemic diet includes hydrogenated by unpaired student's t test by using Sigma stat software vegetable oil (Vanaspati Ghee - ‘Raag' brand, Batch No.
(version 3.1) for all the treated groups with the level of BA 76, Adani Wilmar Ltd., Gujarat) and cholesterol extra significance set at P<0.05.
pure powder (Batch No. 14036 Suvidhnath Laboratories,Baroda) made in to 20% suspension in coconut oil (Parachute coconut oil, Batch No. GSW002, Ponda-Goa.).The suspension was administered at the dose of 0.5 Data related to effect of VAK on body weight of ml/100 g rat. On the 21st day after overnight fasting, the albino rats have been provided in Table 2.
Anju Ramachandran et al. Anti hyperlipidemic effect…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 76-82 Table 2: Effect on body weight
Body weight (g) Initial body Final body Actual change in % change in comparison weight (g) weight (g) body weight (g) to control Data: Mean ± SEM (standard error of mean), ↑- Increase, *P<0.05, **P<0.01, (Compared with initial body weight, paired t test) In normal control rats a progressive gain in body weight was occurred in comparison to its initial values. In contrast to this, significant increase in body weight was occurred in cholesterol control group in comparison to both initial values.
In VAK treated group also significant increase in body weight was occurred in comparison to its initial value. Marginalincrease of relative weight of liver and heart was found in cholesterol control group in comparison to normal controlgroup which is found to be statistically non-significant (Table 3).
Table 3: Effect on weight of important organs
3061.83 ± 102.96 3356.85 ± 185.82 591.58 ± 10.42 αα *P<0.001(Compared with normal control group, unpaired t test) αα P<0.01(Compared with cholesterol control group, unpaired t test) Treatment with VAK attenuated weight of these organs in non-significant manner. Further, cholesterol control group significantly increased the kidney weight and treatment with VAK significantly attenuated it. The data related tothe effect of VAK on serum biochemical parameters were provided in Table 4.
Feeding of cholesterol diet led to significant increase in serum glucose in comparison to normal control group and treatment with VAK non-significantly attenuated it. Further blood urea, serum creatinine and serum lipid profiles weresignificantly increased by feeding with hyperlipidemic diet. These parameters were also non-significantly attenuated byadministration of VAK. S.GOT, Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantlyenhanced by feeding with hyperlipidemic diet in rats. VAK significantly attenuated activity of these enzymes in comparisonto cholesterol control group. Further total bilirubin and serum uric acid levels were also elevated by feeding of hyperlipidemicdiet and VAK significantly attenuated them.
Histopathological sections from control group shows normal cytoarchitecture of liver, kidney and heart (Fig. 1A, 2A and 3A). In contrast, hyperlipidemic diet produced perivascular cell infiltration and micro fatty changes in liver, cellinfiltration and fatty changes in kidney and cell infiltration and fatty changes in majority of sections of heart (Fig. 1B, 2Band 3B). Simultaneous treatment with VAK significantly attenuated cholesterol induced pathological changes in all thethree organs (Fig. 1C, 2C and 3C).
Anju Ramachandran et al. Anti hyperlipidemic effect…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 76-82 Table 4: Effect of on various serum bio-chemical parameters
% change in % change in comparison to NC comparison to CC Blood sugar (mg/dL) Cholesterol (mg/dL) Triglyceride (mg/dL) Blood urea (mg/dL) Serum creatinine (mg/dL) Alkaline phosphatase Bilirubin total (mg/dL) Bilirubin D (mg/dL) Uric acid (mg/dL) Data: Mean ± SEM, ↑ - Increase; ↓ - Decrease, *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001(Compared with normal control group, unpaired ‘t' test) P<0.01 (Compared with cholesterol control group, unpaired ‘t' test) Anju Ramachandran et al. Anti hyperlipidemic effect…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 76-82 Figure 1A. NC-liver showing normal
Figure 1B. CC-liver showing micro
Figure 1C. VAK liver showing
and macro (Fc) fatty changes, (CI)
almost normal cytoarchitecture.
Kc-Kupffer cell, S-sinusoid.
Figure 2A. NC-kidney showing
Figure 2B. CC-kidney showing
Figure 2C. VAK kidney showing
normal cytoarchitecture G-
micro (Fc) fatty changes, and (CI)
almost normal cytoarchitecture.
glomerulus; Ct-convoluted tubule.
Figure 3A. NC-heart showing normal
Figure 3B. CC-heart showing
Figure 3C. VAK heart showing
CI - cell infiltration.
after the prescription of dietetic, lifestyle and therapeutic Elevated levels of different types of lipids have been interventions the incidence and prevalence of lipid implicated in the production of atherosclerosis. In this abnormalities and resultant fatal complications are hiking stipulation the blood vessel wall thickens due to up. Hence there is huge scope for the introduction of cholesterol deposition ensuing to inflammatory reaction.
effective hypolipidemic and anti-hyperlipidemic drugs This ultimately leads to loss of elasticity of affected in to existing therapeutic armamentarium.
vessel wall and becomes the major pathology involved In the current experimental work, in comparison to in the occurrence of a number of serious systemicdisorders such as cardio vascular diseases, cerebro- cholesterol control group, the VAK treated animals vascular accidents, peripheral arterial disease which exhibited moderate level of decrease in S.cholesterol, account as the significant culprit for mortality/disability S.triglycerides and HDL-C, but the variations were in both developed and developing countries. Even statistically non significant.
Anju Ramachandran et al. Anti hyperlipidemic effect…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 76-82 Statistically significant changes were attained in the blood glucose and renal lesions. It had been demonstrated values of SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin to reduce smooth muscle cell proliferation and endothelial and uric acid revealing the high hepatoprotective and dysfunction . As per recent research studies Curcumin nephroprotective properties of the test formulation. SGOT has been reported to have the nephroprotective effect to determination is of immense value in the assessment of improve creatinine and urea clearance and also can protect coronary artery diseases and myocardial infarction.
the chronic renal allograft nephropathy .
Elevated serum enzyme activity associated with Furthermore the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective cardiac disorder is assumed to reflect activity of enzyme activities of Pterocarpus marsupium (Asana) are also well released from the injured cardiac tissue too . The established by several studies [28,29]. Most of the significant change attained in the value of SGOT may also Ayurvedic drugs such as E. officinalis and C. longa are have noteworthy role in the cardio-protective activity of stronger and efficient anti-oxidants; which may be helpful the trial drug. The observations attained in bio chemical in preventing lipid peroxidation .
parameters are in line with the histopathological findings Thus multiple constituents of VAK are reported to of this study. The normal cytoarchitecture and absence of have antihyperlipidemic, anti-hepatotoxic and hepato- cholesterol induced pathological changes in the protective activities. The ingredient such as Curcuma histopathological sections of liver, heart and kidney shows longa is having nephroprotective properties also and the the efficacy and capability of VAK in the management of same is reflected in present study. The non-significant dyslipidemia induced complications.
changes obtained in the most of the values of lipid profileand blood sugar cannot be interpreted negatively, as the Vara is well known as triphala (combination of results are definitely pointing towards the direction of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica reduction. The weak action obtained in terms of these officinalis) in Ayurveda is the foremost ingredient of VAK parameters may be because of the fact that the drug is and Ayurvedic science has identified its benefits in administered in the form of decoction. Otherwise most of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hepatic disorders. There the individual components of the Vara Asanadi Kwatha are many reports with regard to pharmacological effects are proven anti-hyperlipidemic drugs when used in single of triphala, including its anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti- or in combinations. The alcoholic extract of the same drugs oxidant and hepatoprotective properties [21,22]. Emblica may show more potent and significant anti-hyperlipidemic officinalis (Amalaki) given in a ration of rabbit at 1g/kg activity as reported by the various studies in this regard.
has found to have anti-hypercholesterol activity. In oneof the study; T. arjuna, T. bellerica and T. chebula wasfed to rabbits on cholesterol rich diet inducing athero- sclerosis which showed that T.chebula as the most potent From the present study it can be concluded that hypolipidemic agent among the three drugs and induced Vara Asanadi Kwatha is having mild anti-hyperlipidemic partial inhibition of rabbit atheroma as seen from plasma and remarkable hepato-protective and nephroprotective and tissue lipid content and the lesions of aorta. Haritaki activities. Exclusive experimental works on hepato- (T. chebula) is also well known for its anti-hepatotoxic protective and nephroprotective properties of Vara activities. Hepatoprotective activity of T.bellerica is also Asanadi Kwatha may reveal hidden and highly informative been reported as the alcoholic extract of fruit of T. bellerica facts regarding this wonderful classical formulation.
in a dose of 30 mg/kg given I/V to dogs showed significantbile stimulant activity and increased solids in bile secretion.
Further numerous studies have been conducted on the The authors wish to thank Dr Sulakshan Chavan, anti-hyperlipidemic acivity of Citraka (Plumbago Miss Hetal Aghera and staff of pharmacology laboratory, zeylanica), which is the one of the ingredient of VAK.
IPGT and RA, and Jamnagar for their technical support.
In the study conducted on hyperlipidemic rabbits –Plumbagin; the active constituent of Plumbago zeylanica reduced serum cholesterol by 53-86% and elevateddecreased HDL cholesterol significantly .
Chan DC et al. Realtionships between cholesterolhomeostasis and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein remnant Curcuma longa (Haridra) is an established hepato metabolism in the metabolic syndrome. Journal of Clinical protective drug and is been used widely in the management Science 2003; 104; 383-8.
of jaundice and hepatic disorders . C. longa prevents Reader DJ, Hobbs HH. Disorders of Lipoprotien the formation of fatty liver by the modulation of metabolism. In: Kasper, Braunwald, Fauci et al. Harrison's expressions of enzymes that are important to fat metabolism Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th edition, McGraw- Hill Medical Publishing Division, New York, USA. 2005; In a usual mutant obesity, Curcuma longa had Vol 2: 2294.
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Anju Ramachandran et al. Anti hyperlipidemic effect…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 76-82 Short Communication Antibacterial properties of "Accmus" mouth wash
S Tharmila1, T Thileepan2, A C Thavaranjit1, R Srikaran3
overcome such harmful effect natural mouth washes areavailable in markets and are produced from plant based Antimicrobial herbs can be used individually or in healthy ingredients such as organic aloe vera, peppermint, combination to prepare mouth wash which is healthierand safer than the synthetic ones. In this study a new clove bud essential oils, perilla seed extract etc. The "Accmus" herbal mouth wash was prepared and its present study is to prepare a new "Accmus" mouth wash antibacterial properties were evaluated. Alcoholic, boiled from the bark of Acacia arabica, bark of Acacia speciosa alcoholic and aqueous extracts of "Accmus" mouth wash and root of Calamus rotang. Acacia arabica (Karuvel- were prepared from the bark of Acacia arabica, Acacia "T") is a tree, becomes under family leguminosae. Its bark speciosa and root of Calamus rotang in combination by has medicinal properties, mainly used in oral diseases.
tincture and hot extract methods respectively. Alcohol Hence, it has 24-42% of tannin. Acacia speciosa content and pH were also determined. Antibacterial (Kadduvakai – "T") becomes under family mimosaceae.
properties of the above extracts were also studied against Its bark decoction is being used in orodental diseases for Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp of Gram (+)ve and gargle. Powder of root bark is used for bleeding. Calamus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp of Gram (-) ve rotang is a climber one and it is classified under family in vitro by using agar well diffusion method. This study palmae. In traditional medicine the root of Calamus rotang showed that the alcohol content and pH of mouth wash has been used against many oral diseases such as gum preparations were in acceptable levels. Aqueous extract bleeding and aphthous ulcer in form of decoction for exhibited better antibacterial activity compared withalcoholic extract and had maximum sensitivity towards gargling [5,6]. The objective of this study is to prepare a Bacillus sp and low towards Klebsiella sp. Staphylo- natural new "Accmus" mouth wash and test its coccus aureus was only inhibited by all preparations of antibacterial activity against Gram (+) ve and Gram (-)ve mouth wash. So the hot extraction method was efficient than the alcoholic extraction and this could berecommended with antibacterial properties rather than Materials and Methods
the alcoholic extract of mouth wash. Further study isneeded for further purification and characterization of Collection of plant materials
active constituents from various solvent extracts of mouth The plant Acacia speciosa was collected by the Unit wash against oral diseases.
of Siddha Medicine, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and itwas identified based on herbarium records in the Department of Botany, University of Jaffna and otherrelevant materials [7,8]. And healthy bark was obtained, Mouth wash or mouth rinse is a product used to washed under running tap water, dried in sun shade for enhance oral hygiene. Commercial brands of mouth wash three weeks. Then ground into fine powder. Bark of Acacia contain synthetic and semisynthetic chemical substances arabica and root of Calamus rotang were also collected such as thymol, methyl salicylate, menthol, chlorhexidine from local market and their characters were compared with gluconate, methylparaben, hydrogen peroxide etc  and herbarium records [7,8]. The above parts were washed also include water and sweetness such as sorbitol, sodiumsaccharin . Sometimes a significant amount of alcohol under running tap water, dried in sun shade for five days is added as the carrier for the flavour. Sodium benzoate is and then ground into fine powder, by using electric a common preservative in commercial mouth washes .
blender. The powder was stored in air tight dark bottles at The risk of acquiring cancer rises almost five times for room temperature.
users of alcohol containing mouth wash who neithersmoke nor drink . Mouth washes containing Preparation of mouth wash
cetylpyridinium chloride are also associated with loss of "Accmus" mouth wash was prepared by two taste sensation and brown discoloration of teeth . To 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna.
2Unit of Siddha Medicine, University of Jaffna.
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna. Correspondence: Miss. S. Tharmila, Assist. Lecturer, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Jaffna.
E-mail: Tharmila9@gmail.com. Received 15 August and revised version accepted 10 November 2011. Tharmila et al. Antibacterial properties of "Accmus". SLJIM; 01:(02) 83-85 Short Communication The bacterial isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 25 g of each of the above herbal powder was mixed Bacillus sp from Gram positives and Gram negative and mixture was soaked in 93.75 ml of 25% ethanol and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp were obtained 281.25 ml distilled water for two weeks under direct sun from bacterial culture collection, Department of Botany, light with occasional shaking. The mixture was filtered University of Jaffna for this study. Test organisms were through double layered muslin cloth and the filtrate (355 stored on nutrient agar slants at 4°C and these were sub ml) was collected into a clean dried dark bottle.
cultured before 24 hours of the experiment and incubatedat 37°C. After the incubation a loop full of young bacterial Half of the above volume of the filtrate was boiled at inoculum was transferred into the 10 ml of sterile saline 85°C for 30 minutes and poured into a clean dried dark water (0.85%) in an aseptic condition. Inoculum bottle as boiled alcoholic extract .
concentration was estimated by haemocytometer and thenumber of cells per ml was adjusted to 106 cells by using Hot extract method
tenfold dilution .
25 g of each of the above herbal powder mixture was mixed with 250 ml distilled water in a sterile beaker. It was Determination of antibacterial activity
heated at 50°C on hot plate for 6 hours continuously till Nutrient agar medium was autoclaved and cooled to the final volume of extracts reached as 150 ml. Then 40°C. The antibacterial assay was performed by agar well extracts were filtered through double layered muslin cloth diffusion method . 1 ml of test culture (106 CFU/ml) and the filtrate was concentrated by heating. It was kept was inoculated into a sterile petridish with 20 ml sterile at 4°C until used for assay .
nutrient agar and mixed well and allowed to solidify. Then Determination of pH was determined by pH meter.
wells were made by using sterile cork borer (8 mm indiameter) on the surfaces of agar plates and were filled Determination of alcohol content
with 100 µl of each extracts using sterile Pasteur pipette.
Alcohol content of mouth wash was determined by 100 µl of commercially available "Chlorhexidine ebuliometer. Durability of mouth wash also noted based digluconate" mouth wash was used as standard and on its characters such as color change, (odour) smell alcohol and water were used as control. Then plates were formation, turbidity and change in viscosity.
incubated at 37°C for 24-48 hours. Antibacterial activitywas determined by measuring the diameter of the clear zone around the well. The above experiment was repeatedfive times and the mean diameter of the zone of inhibition was calculated.
Results and Discussion
Table 1: Antibacterial activity of mouth wash extracts on test bacteria
Mean zone of inhibition (mm) Bacillus sp P. aeruginosa Klebsiella sp Alcoholic extract of mouth Alcoholic extract of mouthwash after boiling (Tincture) Aqueous extract of mouthwash digluconate (Standard) Zone of inhibition includes the diameter of the well (8mm in diameter). (-) No activity.
Tharmila et al. Antibacterial properties of "Accmus". SLJIM; 01:(02) 83-85 Short Communication Table 2: pH and alcohol content of mouth wash extracts
Mouth wash extracts Alcohol content (%) Alcoholic extract of mouth wash Alcoholic extract of mouthwash after boiling Aqueous extract of mouthwash Out of five samples of alcoholic mouth wash, turbidity could be recommended with antibacterial activity rather was observed after 8 months in two samples and 11 months than the alcoholic extract of mouth wash.
in other three samples. Whereas in aqueous mouth wash,cloudiness and colour change were observed after 3 days.
This indicated that the durability period of alcoholic mouth Goldberg S, Konis Y, Rosenberg. Effect of Cetylpyridinium wash was higher (8-11 months) than that of aqueous mouth chloride on microbialadhesion to hexadecane and wash (2-3days) at room temperature. But aqueous mouth polystyrene. Appl Environ Microbiol 1990: 1678-82.
wash could be kept safe at 4°C for 6-8 months.
Giertsen E, Emberland H, Scheie AA. Effects of mouth In commercially available mouth wash, alcohol rinses with xylitol and fluoride on dental plaque and saliva.
content goes up to 27% and the pH ranges from 5-7 .
Caries Res (1999); 33(1): 23-31.
These two parameters were in acceptable ranges in newly Lachenmeier DW, Keck WA, Sauermann A, Mildau G. Safety prepared mouth wash (Table 2). Results also showed that assessment of alcohol containing mouth washes and oral aqueous extract of mouth wash containing natural rinses. SOFWJ 2008; 134: 70-8.
ingredients, exhibited better antibacterial activity when Farah C, Mclntosh L, McCullough M. Mouth washes.
compared to alcoholic extract. It had maximum sensitivity Australian Prescriber 2009; 32: 162-4.
towards Bacillus sp, while it had low sensitivity towardsthe Klebsiella sp. Among the tested bacterial growth, National Institute of Science Communications. The Wealthof India, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol Staphylococcus aureus was only inhibited by both II, New Delhi 2001; 97.
preparations of mouth wash. All tested bacterial growthwas inhibited by the aqueous extract of mouth wash and Muthaliyar M. Kunapadam (Moolikaivakuppu). 1936; I:
the positive control "Chlorhexidine digluconate". But alcohol alone (control) didn't inhibit the growth of any Pandey BP. Taxonomy of Angiosperms, S. Chand and tested bacteria (Table 1). This is due to less alcoholic Company Ltd, 6th edition, Ram Nagar, New Delhi, 1997; concentrations and the tolerance of test bacteria. Aqueous natural mouth wash showed greater antibacterial activity Kugathasan KS. Check List of Some Plants of Botanical than alcoholic extracts of mouth wash. Hot extract method and General Interest With Brief Descriptions, Field was highly efficient for the extraction of antibacterial Workcentre, Thondaimannaru, Jaffna. 2004; Bulletin no :16.
compounds rather than tincture method. Long term use of Melntyre A. Herbs For Common Ailment, Gaia Books alcoholic mouth wash is not preferable, because of the Limited, UK. 1992; 13.
hazardous effects especially for children and causes 10. Chikitsai S. Sarabenthiravaiththiyamuraikal, Saraswathi- dehydration in mouth . Recently the possibility that Mahal, Thanjavour. 1951; 89.
the alcohol used in mouth wash acts as a carcinogen hasbeen raised . Even though the durability period of 11. Nester W, Evans Roberts C, Pearsall N, Anderson G, Nester aqueous mouth wash was low at room temperature, it T. Microbiology. A human perspective, WCB/Mc Graw- showed greater range of antibacterial activity against test Hill, 2nd edition, 1998; ISBN-0-697-28602-9: 86-96.
bacteria and absence of alcohol. So this could be recom- 12. Lino A, Deogracious O. The in vitro antibacterial activity mended rather than the alcoholic extract of mouth wash.
of Annona senegalensis, Securidacca longipendiculata andSteanotaenia araliacea – Ugandan medicinal plants. Afr Further studies should be done clinically and test Health Sci 2006; 6: 31-5.
the effectiveness of this "Accmus" aqueous extract ofmouth wash against oral diseases.
13. Lachenmeier DW, Keck-Wilhelm A, Sauermann A, Mildau G. Safety assessment of alcohol-containing mouthwashes
and oral rinses. SOFW J 2008; 134: 70-8.
14. Cole P, Rodu B, Mathisen A. Alcohol-containing mouthwash In both preparations of mouth wash pH and alcohol and oropharyngeal cancer: a review of the epidemiology. J content were in acceptable level. Staphylococcus aureus Am Dent Assoc 2003; 134(8): 1079-87.
growth was only inhibited by both mouth wash 15. Weaver C. Mouthwash linked to cancer. The Daily preparations. Hot extraction method was efficient than Telegraph (News Ltd). 2009; http://www.news.com.au/ that of alcoholic extraction. Aqueous mouth wash showed greater antibacterial activity against test bacteria and it (retrieved 12 January 2009).
Tharmila et al. Antibacterial properties of "Accmus". SLJIM; 01:(02) 83-85 Anti rheumatic herbal compound drug Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) as selective
cytokines target in rheumatoid arthritis
Pathirage Kamal Perera1, Yunman Li2
generally applied. RA is a prevalent condition often leadingto a high burden of suffering in patients . Conservative Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory treatment is mostly symptomatic and often associated with disease often resulting in increased morbidity, mortality adverse effects. Therefore, it is understandable that many and disability. Cytokines regulate a broad range of RA patients seek complementary and alternative medicine inflammatory processes that are implicated in the (CAM) to manage their illness . In the USA, about 60 to pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In rheumatoid 90% of arthritis patients use CAM . An Indian study joints, it is well known that an imbalance between pro reported that around 40%of RA patients use either and anti-inflammatory cytokine activities favours the Ayurvedic or homeopathic medicines or TCM alongside induction of autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and conventional medicines . According to the World Health thereby joint damage. During recent decades a better Organization (WHO), traditional herbal preparations understanding of the pathogenesis of RA has led to the account for 30-50% of the total medicinal consumption in development of new strategies for disease control which have transformed the management of RA. However, none The suppression of auto immunity in RA can be of them are effective in curing rheumatoid arthritis.
observed either as the induction of cell cycle arrest, which Furthermore, the potentially greater efficacy of treatment slows down inappropriate or uncontrolled cell division, with TNF antagonists comes at a cost that is too high for or as the induction of apoptosis in stressed cells. Some the majority of the world's population and with more side anti-inflammatory plant natural products have been found effects. In this review we discussed about effective to be very effective regulators of the cell cycle of compound herbal drug Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) derived autoimmunity by targeting specific cell signaling from traditional medicine as cytokine target in molecules, leading to apoptosis or cellular senescence.
rheumatology. According to our published research Many anti-inflammatory plant natural products have findings YJB significantly ameliorate symptoms and molecular signaling targets that can be potentially prevented severe arthritis development in rats. Our employed for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A main studies showed that YJB significantly reduced the feature of a number of anti-inflammatory plant natural production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vivo and in vitro.
products is their action on the suppression of These data indicate that YJB may have the potential to autoimmunity by upregulating key signaling molecules regulate the immunomodulatory cytokines. So these like Bax, Bak, and Bid and the subsequent down herbal compound drugs are more effective in the regulation of expression of various other key signaling treatment of RA. It is our hope that this kind of traditional molecules such as NF-κB, Bcl-2, and activate the drugs can be developed to become new pharmaceutical caspases, in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm, which agents that can be used in cost and clinically effectively eventually induces apoptosis of target cells. Also most for people suffering from rheumatic diseases.
plant natural compounds respond to inflammatorymediators including IL-1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 17, 18, 21,TNF-α, TGF-η, IFN-γ, VIP, iNOS, and cyclooxygenase- 2, prostaglandin E2.In this review we discussed herbal Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common, chronic medicine cytokines targets in rheumatology special disease, for which multiple pharmacotherapies are regards to Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) [5-8] (Table 1) .
1 Department of Dravyaguna Vignana, Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri 2 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Mailbox 207, Tongjiaxiang 24, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009, P. R. China. Correspondence: Pathirage Kamal Perera, Department of Dravyaguna Vignana, Institute of Indigenous Medicine,University of Colombo, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka. E-mail: email@example.com. Received 20 August and revisedversion accepted 15 November 2011. Kamal Perera and Yunman Li. Anti rheumatic herbal compound…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 86-90 Table 1: Ingredients of Yi Shen Juan Bi (patent
Subsequently, other proinflammatory cytokines were also number: ZL200510040550) [5-8].
inhibited if TNF alpha was neutralized, leading to the newconcept that the proinflammatory cytokines were linked in a network with TNF alpha at its apex. This led to the hypothesis that TNF alpha was of major importance inrheumatoid arthritis and was a therapeutic target. This hypothesis has been successfully tested in animal models of, for example, collagen-induced arthritis, and thesestudies have provided the rationale for clinical trials of Angelica sinensis anti-TNF alpha therapy in patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis. Several clinical trials using a chimeric Herba epimedii anti-TNF alpha antibody have shown marked clinicalbenefit, verifying the hypothesis that TNF alpha is of major Herba erodii importance in rheumatoid arthritis. Retreatment studies Buthus martensi have also shown benefit in repeated relapses, indicating that the disease remains TNF alpha dependent .
Immunomodulatory and anti-arthritic potential of
Panax ginseng Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and other traditional systems are today yielding their theoreticaland experiential frameworks to investigation by modern scientific techniques, applied mainly for the purpose of Rhizoma drynariae illustrating the effectiveness of remedies that have been developed over the centuries. In this context, theunderlying theoretical framework fades away, and the tested substances become the focus of a new international effort at preventive health care and disease treatment.
Zaocys Dhumnades Herbal formulas developed today rely on a combination (stir-fried with wine) of traditional and modern indications for the use of themedicinal materials .
Humulus scandens Arthritis has been a recognized medical condition Rehmannia glutinosa (dried) since ancient times, and the Chinese had developednumerous formulas for its treatment. Chinese herbalformulas were not specifically designed for either of thetwo major types of arthritis defined today. The basis for The cytokine network in rheumatoid arthritis
Chinese doctors differentiating arthritis into subgroupswas not the microscopic details of the pathology. Instead, Cytokines regulate a broad range of inflammatory arthritis was divided into traditional medicine categories: processes that are implicated in the pathogenesis of hot and cold types, upper and lower body involvement, rheumatoid arthritis. In rheumatoid joints, it is well known deficiency or excess syndrome, pain characteristics (such that an imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory as variability and severity), and whether the site of the cytokine activities favours the induction of autoimmunity, arthritis was fixed or "moving." Both rheumatoid arthritis chronic inflammation and thereby joint damage. However, and osteoarthritis fall under the heading of bi syndrome, a it remains less clear how cytokines are organized within a disorder of qi and blood circulation that leads to symptoms hierarchical regulatory network, and therefore which of pain, numbness, swelling, and stiffness .
cytokines may be the best targets for clinical intervention Rheumatoid arthritis fits most closely those syndromes a priority. Analysis of cytokine mRNA and protein in characterized by the Chinese as wind-damp invasion rheumatoid arthritis tissue revealed that many affecting the joints. Osteoarthritis more closely fits the proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IL-6, syndrome of liver/kidney deficiency syndrome causing GM-CSF, and chemokines such as IL-8 are abundant in all weakness and stiffness in the legs with painful joints. In patients regardless of therapy . This is compensated to China, syndromes similar to rheumatoid arthritis were an some degree by the increased production of anti- area of special concern, generating considerable literature inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF beta and on the subject, since the condition could arise suddenly cytokine inhibitors such as IL-1ra and soluble TNF-R. In and could rapidly become severely debilitating .
rheumatoid joint cell cultures that spontaneously produce Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, tended to be lumped IL-1, TNF alpha was the major dominant regulator of IL-1.
together with other disorders of aging, in which stiffness Kamal Perera and Yunman Li. Anti rheumatic herbal compound…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 86-90 and pain, especially of the legs, was considered just one known to be responsible for the increase of serum g- part of the gradual deterioration of body functions that globulin and the emergence of rheumatoid factors .
occurs with old age. As such, it is usually not the subject High levels of IL-6 have been observed in both sera and of much discussion separate from antiaging therapies.
synovial fluids from the affected joints of patients with The closest traditional Chinese medicine term to RA . Our studies showed that YJB significantly rheumatoid arthritis is fengshi bing which literally means reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α [5- wind-damp disease [12-13]. The wind and damp factors 8].These data indicate that YJB may have the potential can complex with either cold or heat factors to yield to regulate the immunomodulatory cytokines. Further arthralgia. Almost all of the traditional approaches apply our studies clearly confirmed that anti-arthritic property to the complex involving cold factors rather than heat.
of YJB substantiated lower TNF-α, IL-1 production Gout, which has some characteristics in common with capacity of macrophages in in vitro .
arthritis, usually fits the cold-dominated category or the The contribution made by proinflammatory cold-damp category of bi syndromes .
cytokines in RA, such as tumour necrosis factor TNF-α Chinese researchers have attempted to elucidate and IL-1 has been validated in preclinical animal models how the herbs used in traditional arthritis formulas and in humans . It is also well documented in human alleviate the symptoms-from the modern viewpoint-by RA and in animal models that IL-1 and TNF-α carrying out numerous studies of the blood constituents synergistically mediate synovitis and destruction of of patients . According to studies that have been cartilage and bone . TNF-α is an important regular carried out recently the mechanism of action that may be factor in inflammation and immunity response, which can dominant in the situations with good therapeutic results stimulate the synoviocyte and cartilage cells to is a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, synthesize the PGE2 and collagenase causing synovium such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), TNF etc . The effect is and cartilage destruction as well as those of IL-1, IL-6, then to alter the levels of T-cells and the production of and IL-8 . Therefore it is one of the most important activated antibodies and other components. In addition, factors in the cytokine network. In RA patients, IL-1β is or as a result, the properties of the blood and its overexpressed in inflamed synovial tissue, in particular circulation also change, with lowered sedimentation rate in the lining layer and in sublining cells  and it is and improved circulation to the extremities. The herbs elevated in draining lymph from affected joints .
may also act on the prostaglandin synthesis and Furthermore cartilage from arthritis patients' exhibits degradation pathways, yielding a lower level of pro- upregulation of IL-1β mRNA as compared with normal inflammatory prostaglandins .
cartilage [24, 25]. In addition, increased production ofIL-1β in fibroblast like synoviocytes of susceptible YJB as selective cytokine targeted anti rheumatic drug
individuals may lead to a higher risk of developing severe The past studies evaluated anti-arthritic potential joint damage even in the absence of systemic of YJB in vivo and invitro rat models, which is very close inflammation. In general, TNF-α causes early joint swells to its human counterpart. In these studies, we used in RA, while IL-1β combining with the immune complex adjuvant arthritis (AA) induced and collagen induced leads to the cartilage erosion .
experimental rat models for our experiments. One of themost imperative features of these models is chronic Considering these investigations it can be synovitis, including inflammatory cell infiltration, panes concluded that TNF-α and IL-1β have a pivotal role in formation, and destruction of cartilage and bone erosion.
the pathogenesis of RA. Furthermore based on these According to our research findings YJB significantly views, it can be pointed out that blocking of both TNF- ameliorate symptoms and prevented severe arthritis α and IL-1β is necessary in the treatment of RA.
development in rats [5, 6, 7, 8, 14].
The study revealed that TNF-α mRNA and IL-1β To elucidate the effect of YJB on immunomodulatory mRNA expression in synovial cells of model group was cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, an ELISA assay significantly higher than that of normal rats. These are was performed. TNF-α and IL-1β are considered key correlated with above research findings in RA.
mediators in the joint inflammation and in the destruction Furthermore pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour of cartilage and bone in patients with RA .TNF-α is a necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, are expressed in the pivotal mediator in inflammatory arthritis including RA arthritic joints in both AA rats and human rheumatoid . TNF-α is an autocrine stimulator as well as a potent arthritis, and blockade of these molecules results in paracrine inducer of other inflammatory cytokines such amelioration of disease . Our results confirmed that as IL-1β and IL-6. The blockade and inhibition of TNF-α YJB could significantly decrease the TNF-α mRNA and reduces the production of other inflammatory cytokines IL-1β mRNA expression in synovial cells. This may be in RA patients . IL-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine the one of the underlying mechanism that how YJB with a wide range of biological activities in immune ameliorate inflammation in RA. Therefore it is a promising regulation, inflammation and oncogenesis . IL-6 is drug for the treatment of cytokine expression in vivo.
Kamal Perera and Yunman Li. Anti rheumatic herbal compound…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 86-90 Perera PK, Peng C, Xue L, Li Y, Han C. Ex vivo and invivo effect of Chinese herbal pill Yi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) Taken together, our past results suggested that YJB on experimental arthritis. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 134:
can be effectively applied to inflammatory and immune diseases at the level of proinflammatory cytokines and Perera PK, Peng C, Li Y, Fang W, Han C. Immuno- mediator regulation (see proposed mechanism of YJB's modulatory activity of a Chinese herbal drug Yi Shen Juan activation in Figure 1).
Bi (YJB) in adjuvant arthritis. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;
Perera PK, Peng C, Xue L, Li Y, Fang W, Han C. Effects ofYi Shen Juan Bi (YJB) pill on experimental rheumatoid Figure 1: The mechanisms of YJB activation proposed
arthritis. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 2010; 8:
here in scheme summarizes that the active components
of YJB down regulate TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, NO, PGE2, NF-
Peng C, Perera PK, Li Y, Teng Q, Han C. Experimental κB and COX-2 expression, which results in enhance anti
study on secondary affection of rat's collagen arthritis treated inflammatory and immunomodulatory action. YJB
with Yi Shen Juan Bi pill. Chinese Journal of Traditional potently induces the apoptosis of synovium, via ultimate
Medical Science and Technology 2010; 17(5): 389-90.
executioner caspase 3. YJB also down-regulates
cytochrome-c related Bcl-2 expressing and up-regulates
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Kamal Perera and Yunman Li. Anti rheumatic herbal compound…SLJIM 2011; 01(02): 86-90 Evidence based Ayurveda for revitalization of mental health
Nisha Ojha1, Abhimanyu Kumar1
and emotional milestones and at the same time satisfyingsocial relationships and effective coping skills. Mentally Mental health is an integral part of health. Mentally healthy people are able to function well in home and healthy children enjoy a positive quality of life; function society and meet the ordinary demands of daily life. They well at home, in school, and in their communities; and are enjoy a positive quality of life and are free of disabling free of disabling symptoms of psychopathology . For symptoms of psychopathology. On the other hand, any children, only a few studies have reported a prevalence type of mental disorder is associated with a totally rate ranging from 8.17-35.6% in India [7-11].
disturbed life. According to the World Health Organization,10% of the world's population has some form of mental The most commonly occurring mental disorders are disability and 1% suffers from severe incapacitating anxiety disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, mental disorders. In India community-based surveys dementia and that of children as mentioned in DSM-IV, conducted during the past two decades showed that include anxiety disorders, attention deficit and disruptive the total prevalence of psychiatric disorder was around behaviour disorders, autism and other pervasive disorders, 5.8%. For children, only a few studies have reported a eating disorders, learning and communication disorders, prevalence rate ranging from 8.17-35.6% in India.
mood disorders, tic disorders etc. These disorders are Although the current used drugs are the first choice characterized by abnormal behaviour, thoughts, emotions medication, however, these agents produce various and relationship with others.
unacceptable side effects like, loss of appetite, stomachaches/ cramps, headache, dizziness, irritability, drow- The current medications used in the treatment of siness, staring, tics etc., which should be a matter of mental disorders including children incorporate concern in both adults and children. In this area, Ayurvedic antipsychotic, antidepressants, anti anxiety drugs, herbs having Medhya property may prove safe and stimulants and mood stabilizing groups. Although these effective. Review of various experimental and clinical drugs are the first choice medication, however, these studies offer clue to use different Medhya drugs, agents produce various unacceptable side effects like, judiciously for the management of psychiatric andbehavioural disorders.
loss of appetite, stomach aches/cramps, headache,dizziness, irritability, drowsiness, staring, tics etc., whichshould be a matter of concern in both adults and children.
In this area, Ayurvedic herbs having Medhya property Mental health may be defined as a state of emotional may prove safe and effective. The drugs promoting and psychological well being in which an individual is Medha (intellect) are termed as Medhya drugs.
able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, Review of various experimental and clinical studies function in society and meet the ordinary demands of offer clue to use different Medhya drugs, judiciously for everyday life . According to World Health Organization the management of psychiatric and behavioural disorders.
mental health is defined as "a being of well- being in which The review is taken from articles cited on Pubmed and in the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope MAPA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Abstracts) by using with the normal stresses of life, can work productively the key words learning and memory, cognition, Bacopa, and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or Centella etc.
her community" . The World Health Organization statesthat 10% of the world's population has some form of mental disability and 1% suffers from severe incapacitating mental In a study, daily administration of Ashwagandha root disorders . In India community-based surveys extract (50,100 and 200 mg/kg orally) for 6 days conducted during the past two decades showed that the significantly improved memory consolidation in mice total prevalence of psychiatric disorder was around 5.8% receiving chronic electroconvulsive shock (ECS) . Another study reports the prevalence rate for mental treatment. Ashwagandha administered on day 7, also disorders in India as 65.4 per 1000 population .
attenuated the disruption of memory consolidation, Mental health in children is defined by the produced by chronic treatment with ECS. On the elevated achievement of expected developmental cognitive, social plus maze Ashwagandha reversed the scopolamine (0.3 1Department of Bala Roga, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, 302002 India. Correspondence: Prof. Abhimanyu Kumar, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgReceived 18 August and revised version accepted 15 November 2011. Nisha Ojha and Abhimanyu Kumar. Evidence based Ayurveda… SLJIM; 01:(02) 91-97 mg/kg) induced delay in transfer latency on day 1. On the constituents responsible for the facilitating effect of basis of these findings it is suggested that Ashwagandha Bacopa on learning schedules were identified as a mixture exhibits a nootropic like effect in naive and amnesic mice of bacosides A and B. The bacosides also enhanced vital . A study indicate that treatment during postnatal protein activity and produced an increase in protein developmental stage with Centella asiatica extract can synthesis in the hippocampus, a part of the brain that is influence the neuronal morphology and promote the higher important for long-term memory .
brain functions of juvenile and young adult mice .
In an open 4 week trial of Bacopa in 35 patients with anxiety neurosis 12g/day of dried Bacopa herb was given Regeneration of nerves/ Induction of Axon-or Dendritic
in the form of syrup. Significant improvement in anxiety (P<0.05), concentration (P<0.05) and immediate memory Sub fractions of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract span (P<0.01) were seen as a result of the treatment. Work were tested (100 microg mL – 1) for neurite elongation in related mental fatigue, measured as total work output and the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). Greatest errors committed per unit time, also improved significantly activity was found with a non-polar fraction (GKF 4).
with Bacopa treatment (P<0.001). Improvements were also Relatively polar fractions (GKF 10 and GKF 13) also seen in symptoms such as insomnia, headache, palpitation showed activity, albeit less than GKF 4. The findings and irritability . To investigate the effect of Bacopa in indicate that components in Centella ethanolic extract school children aged 6-8 years, 40 children were given may be useful for accelerating repair of damaged neurons Bacopa syrup equivalent to 1 g dried herb daily for 3 months, in a single-blind design. Immediate memory, In a study, it was found that six of the 18 compounds perception and reaction/ performance times improved with isolated from the methanol extract enhanced neurite Bacopa treatment .
outgrowth in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were given different Withanolide A – treated cells, the length of NF-H-positive doses of fresh leaf juice of C. asiatica (CeA) orally for processes was significantly increased compared with different period of time. These rats were then subjected to vehicle treated cells, whereas, the length of MAP2- spatial learning (T-Maze) and passive avoidance tests positive processes was increased by Withanosides IV along with the age matched normal saline control rats.
and VI. These results suggest that axons are predo- The result showed improvement in spatial learning minantly extended by Withanolide A, and dendrites by performance and enhanced memory retention in neonatal Withanosides IV and VI .
rats treated with higher doses .
Treatment with Withnolide A (WL–A) isolated from In a study on the effects of Brahmi (B. monnieri) on Ashwagandha, induced significant regeneration of both human memory, seventy six adults aged between 40 and axons and dendrites, in addition to the reconstruction of 65 years took part in a double blind randomized, placebo pre and post synapses in the neurons. WL–A (10 micro control study in which various memory functions were mol Kg (-1) day (-1), for 13 days, p.o.) recovered A beta tested and levels of anxiety measured. The results showed (25-35) induced memory deficit in mice. At that time, the a significant effect of the B. monnieri on a test for the decline of axons, dendrites and synapses in the cerebral retention of new information. Follow up tests showed that cortex and hippocampus was almost recovered. WL–A is the rate of learning was unaffected suggesting that B. therefore an important candidate for the therapeutic monneiri decreases the rate of forgetting of newly acquired treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as it is able to information . Bacopa has also demonstrated a reconstruct neuronal networks .
significant memory promoting effect in animal models ofAlzheimer's disease .
Effect on cognitive function
In an experimental study, fresh C. asiatica plant In a study, Bacopa monnieri significantly improved extract was given orally to rat pups (n=5), from P7-P49 (6 speed of visual information processing measured by the weeks, 2 ml/kg/day). These and age matched normal IT task learning rate and memory consolidation compared control (n=5) rats were subjected to learning tests in T- to placebo, with maximal effects evident after 12 weeks maze and passive avoidance test. Following this, rats were sacrificed and amygdaloid nucleus was processed for Golgi In an experimental study, an extract of B. monnieri staining. Results showed a significant increase in the was given to albino rats to measure its effect on three percent correct response (control: 86.44 + 2.33 percent Vs newly acquired behavioural responses: brightness Expt. 93.44 + 3.90 percent) in plant extract treated rats.
discriminating, condition avoidance and continuous Passive avoidance retention test revealed a significantly avoidance. The facilitating effect of the Bacopa was clearly memory retention, dendritic intersection was significantly discernible in all three learning responses, augmenting increased at all concentric circles, except at 100 micron.
both the rat's cognitive function and mental retention Dendritic branching points also significantly increased in capacity. The rats learned faster, retained more of what the inner three zones. These results indicate a correlation they had learned, and remembered it longer. The chemical between improved learning capacity and increased Nisha Ojha and Abhimanyu Kumar. Evidence based Ayurveda… SLJIM; 01:(02) 91-97 dendritic arborization in amygdaloid nucleus. This may In a study, one half of a group of 40 healthy children be the neural basis for enhanced learning in Centella (ages 6-8) were given Bacopa in a syrup base three times asiatica treated rats .
a day ( a total of 1.05 g/day) over the course of four weeks, A study undertaken to asses the potential of while the other half were given a placebo. Those children Nordostachys jatamansi as a memory enhancer, elevated taking Bacopa were superior in matters of speed and plus maze and the passive avoidance paradigm were accuracy in solving maze problems. Overall, these employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters.
improvements "vitalized" the children's efficacy and their Three doses (50, 100, and 200 mg./kg. p.o.) of an ethanolic propensity to choose exploratory behaviour and to opt extract of N. jatamansi were administered for 8 successive for novel experiences in preference to familiar ones .
days to both young and aged mice.
Effect in ADHD
The 200 mg/kg dose of N. jatamansi ethanolic extract In a study 36 children in the 8-10 year age group were significantly improved learning and memory in young mice selected for a double blind, randomized trial. 19 were given and also reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 50 mg of Bacopa twice daily, 17 others received placebo.
mg/kg, i.p.) and scopolamine (0.4mg/kg.i.p.). Furthermore, After 12 weeks of treatment, the children were subjected it also reversed aging induced amnesia due to natural aging to a battery of specialized tests. The data revealed a of mice. Hence, N. jatamansi might prove to be a useful significant improvement in the areas of sentence repetition, memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia logical memory and pair associative learning (matching seen in elderly persons .
things that go together, e.g. "test" and "grade") in all 19 A study undertaken with the objective of studying ADHD children who took Bacopa .
the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) on learning and A study to test the efficacy of Bacopa on children memory in normal rats and on cyclosporine induced for six weeks, 50 normal school children split into two memory deficits, both alcoholic and aqueous extract of groups were given either Bacopa or placebo. At the T. cordifolia enhanced the cognition in normal rats as conclusion, they were evaluated for attention, were seen in behavioural tests – Hebb William maze and concentration, and memory. Bacopa was shown to improve the passive avoidance task .
mean reaction time (auditory and visual) significantly .
To investigate the effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra, on learning and memory, the elevated plus- maze and passive Effect on behaviour
avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning In an experimental study, rats were individually trained and memory parameters. Three doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/ in a simple T-maze until they reached a predetermined level kg p/o) of aqueous extract of G. glabra were administered of performance. They were then divided into three groups for 7 successive days in separate groups of mice. The and given either nothing, diazepam (Valium), or Bacopa.
dose of 150 mg/kg of the aqueous extract of liquorice At the end of 10 days, they were evaluated by repeating significantly improved learning and memory of mice.
the T-maze trial. Those animals given Bacopa, showed Furthermore, this dose reversed the amnesia induced by remarkable learning and memory enhancement compared diazepam 1mg/kg i.p.), scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg i.p) and with the control and valium groups. Furthermore, the ethanol (1mg/kg i.p) .
neurochemical content of their brain tissue showed an The effect of Withania somnifera extract prepared increase in the level of serotonin. Serotonin has been by two different methods were assessed on behavioral identified with improved spatial memory as well as parameters using open field exploratory behavior, behavior anxiolytic benefits .
despair and passive avoidance tests and were comparedin young and old stressed Wistar rats. W. somnifera extracts prepared with 50% methanol and solvent In a study, B. monneiri extract given in the dose of 20 containing water, ghee and honey were administered orally and 40 mg/kg, orally once daily for 5 days was found to as fine suspension, during the shock period. The results have significant antidepressant activity in forced swim revealed that stress produced depression anxiety and and learned helplessness models of depression and was retention deficit in young and old rats. Administration of comparable to that of imipramine .
W. somnifera methanolic extract 250 mg/ kg during shockperiod in young and old rats attenuated the stress-induced A 15 day treatment with N. jatamansi resulted in a depression and enhanced memory. W. somnifera traditional significant increase in the levels of NE, DA, 5-HT, 5-HIAA extract 250mg/kg produced memory enhancement in both and GABA. These data indicate that the alcoholic extract control and stressed young and old rats .
of the roots of N. jatamansi causes an overall increase inthe levels of central monoamines and inhibitory amino Isolated constituents of W. somnifera (Sitoindosides VII-X and Withaferine – A) increased cortical muscarinicacetylcholine receptor capacity partly explaining the In an experimental study a bioassay-guided isolation cognition enhancing and memory improving effects of the ethanol extract from the fruits of Piper longum traditionally attributed to Ashwagandha .
yielded, a known piperidine alkaloid, piperine, which Nisha Ojha and Abhimanyu Kumar. Evidence based Ayurveda… SLJIM; 01:(02) 91-97 showed an inhibitory effect against monoamine oxidase The protective effect of N. jatamansi (NJ) on (MAO). The results suggest that piperine possesses neurobehavioural activities was studied in middle cerebral potent antidepressant-like properties that are mediated in artery (MCA) occlusion model of acute cerebral ischaemia part through the inhibition of MAO activity and therefore in rats. All the alternations induced by ischemia were represent a promising pharmaco therapeutic candidate as significantly attenuated by 15 days pretreatment of NJ an antidepressant agent .
(250 mg/kg p.o.) and correlated well with histopathologyby decreasing the neuronal cell death following MCA Anxiolytic/ antistress activity
occlusion and reperfusion .
The bioactive glycowithanolides (WSG), isolated from W. somnifera roots WSG (20 and 50 mg/kg) was CNS Depressant/ sedative effect
administered in rats orally once daily for 5 days and the The methanol extract of the whole plant of results were compared by those elicited by the Shankhapushpi, Convolvulus microphyllus sieb ex spreng benzodiazepine lorazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), for the (convolvulaceae), was found to produce alternations in antidepressant investigations. WSG induced an anxiolytic the general behaviour pattern, reduction in spontaneous effect, comparable to that produced by lorazepam, in the motor activity, hypothermia, and potentiation of elevated plus-maze test, social interaction and feeding phenobarbitone-sleeping time, reduction in exploratory latency in an unfamiliar environment. WSG also exhibited behavioural pattern and suppression of aggressive an antidepressant effect, comparable with that induced behaviour. The extract also showed an inhibitory effect by imipramine, in the forced swim induced ‘behavioral on conditioned avoidance response and antagonism to despair', and ‘learned helplessness', tests .
amphetamine toxicity. The findings explicitly suggested In a study, mice received varying doses [10-300mg/ that the whole plant extract of C. microphyllus possesses kg i.p.] of hydroalcoholic extract of roots and rhizomes of a potential CNS depressant activity .
G. glabra and anxiolytic activity was assessed using Effect of chronic administration of ethanolic extract different paradigms like elevated plus maze, foot shock- of Acorus calamus (AC) was studied on spontaneous induced aggression and amphetamine induced stereotypy.
electrical activity and monoamine levels of brain. AC In all the animal models of anxiety, lower doses of seemed to exert its depressive action by changing electrical hydroalcoholic were more effective in alleviating anxiety.
activity and by differentially altering brain monoamine The extract and standard anxiolytic agents increased levels in different brain regions .
duration of occupancy of mice in open arm, increased A sedative action and potentiation of barbiturate latency to foot shock-induced aggression and reduced effect (increased sleeping time, reduced body temperature) number of fighting bouts and delayed the onset of was observed in small animals (mice, rats, rabbits and cats) amphetamine induced grooming, biting, sniffing and following intraperitoneal adminstration of the aquous and repetitive head movements .
ethanolic extracts of both European and Asian varities of The antistress effect of bacosides of Brahmi (B. A. calamus .
monneiri) was studied in adult male Sprague Dawley ratsby administering oral doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg for 7 CNS stimulating action
consecutive days. The data indicated that Bacopa has The effects of a 50% ethanol extract of the root of potential to modulate the activities of HSP 70, P450 and Plumbago zeylanica were investigated on locomotor SOD (super oxide dismutase) thereby possibly allowing behavior and central dopaminergic activity in rats. The the brain to be prepared to act under adverse conditions results showed that the extract of the root of P. zeylanica such as stress .
specifically enhanced the spontaneous ambulatory activity A number of herbal drugs mostly in the form of their without inducing stereotypic behaviour. The neuro- extracts (holistic approach) or in some, as active principles chemical estimations revealed elevated levels of DA and isolated from them, were evaluated for their antistress its metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in striatum activity by a number of tests. W. somnifera, Ocimum compared with the control rats. These behavioural and sanctum, T. cordifolia, C. asiatica, G. glabra were reported biochemical results indicated stimulatory properties of the with encouraging results .
extract of the root of P. zeylanica, which may be mediatedby dopaminergic mechanisms in the rat brain .
The effect of an aqueous extract of C. asiatica (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 21days) was evaluated in i.c.v.
STZ induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress Review of the various clinical and experimental in rats. The findings indicated that an aqueous extract of studies of different Ayurvedic Medhya drugs reveals that C. asiatica is effective in preventing the cognitive these drugs possess nootropic, cognition enhancing, anti- deficits, as well as the oxidative stress, caused by i.c.v.
stress, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, CNS STZ in rats .
depressant, sedative and neuroprotective effect.
Nisha Ojha and Abhimanyu Kumar. Evidence based Ayurveda… SLJIM; 01:(02) 91-97 Ashwagandha and Centella possess nootropic pattern, reduction in spontaneous motor activity, activity. Bacopa and Ashwagandha have the potential hypothermia, and potentiation of phenobarbitone- for corrective effect in cognitive deficit, while Centella sleeping time, reduction in exploratory behavioural pattern can influence the neuronal morphology and can thereby and suppression of aggressive behaviour. A. calamus promote higher brain functions.
seems to exert its depressive action by changing electricalactivity and by differentially altering brain monoamine The drugs C. asiatica and W. Somnifera levels in different brain regions. P. zeylanica possesses (Ashwagandha) are useful for repair of damaged neurons CNS stimulant activity.
and in neurodegenerative disorders as these drugs havethe capacity to reconstruct the neuronal networks.
Regarding the effect on cognition, the drugs Bacopa, Centella, N. jatamansi, T. cordifolia, G. glabra and W. The studies indicate that Ayurvedic medhya drugs somnifera may be useful. Bacopa has potential for act in different way on the brain and different drug have revitalization of intellectual functions and may improve specific action. Thus these drugs have potential to the higher order cognitive functions such as learning and improve the overall mental system. Studies also reveal memory. It has also showed effect on positive behavior that Brahmi (B. monnieri) is the best intellect promoting modification by increasing the level of serotonin. Centella drug which can prove safe and effective in promoting can induce memory retention an improved learning capacity mental health in children. The review provides a clear view by increasing dendritic arborization in amygdaloid about the specific properties of different medhya drugs thus ther judicious use will be very much helpful for themanagement of mental and behavioural disorders of adults N. jatamansi is useful as memory restorative agent and children.
as it facilitates cholinergic transmission in the brain. BothT. cordifolia and G. glabra are helpful in improving the learning capacity and memory restoration. W. somnifera,by increasing cortical muscarinic acetylcholine receptor The American Heritage Medical Dictionary, Houghton capacity, can enhance memory.
Mifflin Company, 2004.
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Nisha Ojha and Abhimanyu Kumar. Evidence based Ayurveda… SLJIM; 01:(02) 91-97 Guidelines for authors
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18 al 20 de febrero de 2009 3er Foro Latinoamericano sobre Higiene íntima Femenina Actualización en patología vulvar y tracto urinario Del 18 al 20 de febrero de 2009 se realizó en la Ciudad de Varadero, Cuba, el 3er Foro Latinoamericano sobre Higiene Íntima Femenina. En esta ocasión, el evento estuvo dirigido a la actualización en patología vulvar y tracto urinario. Diversos especialistas de países latinoamericanos comentaron sus experiencias con el objetivo de actualizar al médico ginecólogo en la etiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de las distintas afecciones vulvares y vaginales. Se contó con la presencia del Dr. Jaime Piquero Casals (Venezuela), quien habló sobre los aspectos clínicos de las vulvitis frecuentes y de la problemática de la infección vulvar por HPV. Las distrofias vulvares, especialmente el liquen escleroso y el liquen simple crónico, fueron comentadas por la Dra. Lina María Figueira (Venezuela). El Dr. Wel ington Aguirre (Ecuador) se refirió a los trastornos genitourinarios en la menopausia y su abordaje farmacológico. El Dr. Alejandro Paradas (República Dominicana) disertó acerca de la protección y la prevención de las infecciones vaginales. Finalmente, el Dr. Santiago Herrán (Colombia) expuso los resultados del primer estudio epidemiológico latinoamericano sobre hábitos de higiene íntima femenina y su relación con la vaginosis bacteriana en mujeres latinoamericanas, inquietud que tuvo su origen en el foro predecesor realizado en 2008 en Panamá.Surge como principal conclusión de este encuentro que la adopción de hábitos de higiene íntima femenina adecuados es una medida esencial en la prevención de afecciones genitourinarias tanto de origen infeccioso como no infeccioso.
Yasmin Ahmad: Auteuring a New Malaysian Cinematic Landscape Lee Yuen Beng School of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA Since P. Ramlee, no other filmmaker but Yasmin Ahmad has been capable of creating a significant impact in Malaysian cinema. She achieved this through her films that have persistently challenged not only the conventions of Malaysian cinema, but also daringly