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The down rare plant register of scarce & threatened vascular plants

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

County Armagh
Scarce, Rare & Extinct
Vascular Plant Register
John Faulkner
Records editor: John Faulkner Author of species accounts: John Faulkner General editor: Julia Nunn This register is one of a series, planned eventually to cover the whole of the British Isles, as an initiative of the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland (BSBI). The purpose of the series is to document records of species that are rare or scarce, and highlight those that are a potential source of concern. In Northern Ireland, Rare Plant Registers are being produced for each county as a co-operative venture between BSBI and the Centre for Environmental Data and Recording (CEDaR) of National Museums Northern Ireland. Most of the records which comprise the core of this register have been extracted from the databases held by the Centre for Environmental Data and Recording at the National Museums Northern Ireland, and by the records editor in his capacity as BSBI vice-county recorder for Armagh These databases contain the overwhelming majority of County Armagh records for vascular plants. There are, however, a few potential sources of old records which require further research, and some existing herbarium specimens which require expert identification. For these and other reasons, the Register should be seen as an initial version which will be updated in due course. Cover design by Fiona McCrory Cover photographs: Navan Fort Robert Thompson Anacamptis pyramidalis Robert Thompson Anthyllis vulneraria Alan Hill Botrychium lunaria Graham Day Lathraea squamaria Robert Thompson Vicia sylvatica Graham Day NMNI Publication no. 33 National Museums & Galleries of Northern Ireland 2015 Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh


CONTENTS

Preface
Conservation categories Map of Vice-county H37, Armagh Format for the species accounts Key to abbreviations used in the text and the records Acknowledgements Species accounts for scarce, rare and extinct vascular plants Provisional list of taxa from County Armagh Publications relevant to the flora of County Armagh Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh


The last 25 years have seen a flurry of publications detailing the status and distribution of the vascular plant
flora of Northern Ireland. In 1992, the counties of Down, Antrim and Londonderry were covered in Stewart & Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland, third edition, edited by Paul Hackney. Recently, we have had magnificent Floras for Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh (The Flora of County Tyrone, 2010, by Ian McNeill and The Flora of County Fermanagh, 2012, by Ralph S. Forbes and Robert H. Northridge). These have, of course, covered the whole vascular plant flora but there is special interest in the less frequently found plant species as it is often these that reflect changes in the landscape and habitat degradation brought about by activities such as farming and forestry. Such species have been the focus of the Scarce, rare & extinct vascular plant registers published by National Museums Northern Ireland and to date three counties have been covered, County Down (2004, Graham Day and Paul Hackney), County Antrim (2006, Stan Beesley) and County Fermanagh (2014, Robert Northridge, Ralph Forbes and Hannah Northridge). All these publications have resulted from the synergistic cooperation of the vice-county recorders of the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland (BSBI), the local biological records centre (CEDaR, Centre for Environmental Data and Recording), National Museums Northern Ireland and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency. Strangely, one county missing from the above is County Armagh. County Armagh, the 'Orchard County', is the smallest county in Northern Ireland, being less than half the size of the largest, County Tyrone. Nevertheless, it contains breath-taking scenery and a wide diversity of habitats including the southern shore of Lough Neagh with its extensive peatlands, drumlins, the hil s of the Ring of Gullion, river floodplains, and so forth. The Armagh landscape is home to a wide variety of vascular plant species, and this current publication details the status and distribution of some of the less common ones, those that are scarce and rare as wel as those that are considered now extinct. Armagh, like all counties in Ireland, has suffered habitat degradation in the last century, and this has impacted particularly on species that are of limited distribution. It is vitally important that these species are conserved, as they are often indicative of vulnerable habitats. Of the 70 species listed in the Wildlife Order (N.I.) 1985, Schedule 8, part 1, 26% may be found in Armagh. Thus its flora is of conservation importance in regional terms. This publication, prepared by John Faulkner the BSBI vice-county vascular plant recorder for Armagh and Chairperson of the BSBI Committee for Ireland, represents the first substantive and detailed account of the flora of the county flora; John is also working on a full Flora and this wil appear in the near future. When not assisting with plant recording in adjacent vice-counties, John has been working extensively on the flora of Armagh; not just new field work but also trawling through old records in order to make definitive statements about the status of these scarce, rare and extinct species. The result is a publication that will help conservationists and planners in protecting species and habitats, and also encourage botanists to visit this wonderful, if rather neglected part of Northern Ireland. Brian S. Rushton Emeritus Professor of Botany Ulster University Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh


This Register is primarily a statement of fact in the form of many individual records of wild plants, with some
light interpretation by the records editor to assist in understanding their significance. In no way is this interpretation intended to represent the policy of the contributing or sponsoring bodies, nor to advocate any particular policy or action. The purpose of the Register is to assist conservation and planning organisations, government departments, local authorities, botanical researchers and anyone else who is interested by bringing together information on the scarce and rare plants of Armagh in a digestible form. The records themselves were made by many different botanists. Most of these botanists were amateurs, or professionals acting in an unpaid capacity; some were professionals undertaking surveys, monitoring or environmental impact assessments on behalf of government departments, charities or developers. Wherever possible, the name of the recorder is stated, as this helps to establish the validity of the record. During the process of compiling the Register, it became clear that a few of the records in the databases were either dubious or clearly in error. As they may have been replicated elsewhere, to ignore such records would make it seem as though they had been overlooked. To obviate this possibility, they are mentioned in the accounts that accompany each species, but not included in the tabulated records. All qualifying taxa of vascular plant that have been recorded as growing wild within the vice-county of Armagh (vice-county H37: see Figure 1) are listed in the main section of the Register. This applies even to those believed to have been recorded in error. In general, taxon equates to species, as this is the usual level of recording, but a few other taxa such as subspecies and interspecific hybrids have been included where these are widely recognised in Ireland. The term Armagh is used here as shorthand for the name of the vice-county; Armagh City is used for the eponymous urban settlement. To qualify for inclusion in the Register, any taxon must: • have been recorded growing in the wild in Armagh at least once, and • be recognised as a Native or archaeophyte in Ireland, and either • have been recorded in 10 or fewer monads in Armagh in the period 1987 to 2014, or • have been recorded in Armagh at any time and listed in at least one official conservation category. For the purposes of the second criterion, the status of plant taxa in Ireland follows Jebb (2014). Any taxon for which there is some doubt about its native or archaeophyte status is nevertheless included, as is any taxon that is native elsewhere in Ireland but not in Armagh. Archaeophytes are introduced plant taxa that have are believed to have been established in the wild in Ireland for at least 500 years. They contrast with neophytes, introduced taxa that have been established for less than 500 years. Neophytes are not covered in this Register. The third criterion requires more explanation. If all records throughout time contributed to the threshold of 10 monads, then some species which were once widespread but are now scarce would be left out of the Register. Restricting the qualifying period helps to ensure that species in decline – and there are evidently many of these – are not excluded. The start date of 1987 has been used as this was the first year of the BSBI one-in-nine Monitoring Scheme, and also marks the start of a period of intensive surveying by the NIEA. Previous registers for other vice-counties in Northern Ireland have used a similar criterion, but with a start date of 1950. The term monad is shorthand for a 1-kilometre Ordnance Survey grid square. Taxa recorded in 4-10 monads are designated scarce, those in 0-3 as rare. Any that have not been recorded at al for 50 years are designated extinct unless there is good reason to believe they may have been overlooked. The fourth criterion is important in principle because it brings in any taxa that have special protection. In practice, however, there are very few taxa that satisfy this criterion without also satisfying the third. The various conservation categories that apply are listed in the following section. A very small number of additional species that would not otherwise qualify have been included because they have exceptional historic interest, or because they are confined to tightly circumscribed geographical areas within the county. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

How reliable a guide to the scarcity of the taxa do these criteria produce? Some plants grow in clearly defined and accessible habitats, are not difficult to find, and are readily identified by competent botanists. For these, the Register is likely to be an an accurate guide. Some others, such as annual species of cultivated and disturbed ground, are more erratic in their occurrence and may be difficult to find if only present in small numbers. For these the number of records is likely to reflect the amount of recording effort as well as their frequency of occurrence. By Irish standards, the flora of Armagh is fairly wel recorded, but by British Standards it would probably class as average. The poorest reflection of abundance in the Register will be in those groups where identification requires specialised knowledge and experience, and is not attempted routinely by most botanists. The prime examples are species in the genera Rubus and Taraxacum, where even common or abundant species appear in the Register simply because Armagh has been relatively little explored by experts in these groups.
CONSERVATION CATEGORIES

There are various ways in which plant species are protected through legislative or policy mechanisms, and
these may apply at international, national, or devolved level. The most relevant ones as far as wild plants in Northern Ireland are concerned are:
EC Habitats Directive (1992). Several plant species or other taxa occurring in Northern Ireland are listed in
the annexes to this Directive. Such listing obliges Member States to ensure strict protection of these species. In practice in Northern Ireland, this is partly achieved by including the species within the relevant schedule of the Wildlife Order (see below).
Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order (1985) (as amended by the Wildlife and Natural Environment Act,
2011). In Northern Ireland, all wild plants are given some measure of protection against wanton destruction
under this Order. In particular, it is prohibited to uproot any wild plants intentional y, except on your own land or with permission. Seventy species (Table 1 below) are also given special protection by listing in Schedule 8, part 1 and, unless you have a licence, you may not intentionally pick, uproot or destroy any wild plants listed in the schedule, or collect their flowers and seeds, or sell these plants or their seeds if taken from the wild.
Northern Ireland Priority Species. In March 2004, a list of Northern Ireland Priority Species and Species of
Conservation Concern was published by Northern Ireland Environment Agency on its web site at www.ni-
environment.gov.uk/biodiversity/sap_uk.htm. The criteria for inclusion on this list are detailed on this web
site. This list was revised in March 2010, and the two categories were merged into a single list of Northern Ireland Priority Species (Table 2 below).
The Flora Protection Order, 1999. This is Republic of Ireland legislation, which replaced the Flora Protection
Order, 1987, and is roughly equivalent to the Wildlife Order in Northern Ireland. Its legal force is confined to southern side of the border, but the selection of species listed for special protection is possibly more appropriate than the Northern Ireland equivalent to Ireland as a biogeographic unit.
The Irish Red Data Book – Vascular Plants (Curtis & McGough 1988). This classifies the Irish Flora
according to different levels of threat (see Species Accounts below), using principles similar to those set out for Red Lists by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. It covers Ireland as a whole and has no direct legislative force in either jurisdiction. However, Red Lists can be an effective driver of policy, especially when they are more up-to-date than this one. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh


Figure 1.
Vice-county H37 Armagh (modified from Praeger 1901).
The vice-county boundary coincides with the county boundary for almost al of is length. The exception is in the centre of Newry. Here, the vice-county boundary fol ows the course of the Newry River through the town, which is the original boundary between the administrative counties of Armagh and Down. The boundary of the administrative county, however, was modified in the late 19th century so that the whole of the centre of the town, even where it lies west of the river, is within Co. Down. Along the length of the Newry Canal northwards from Newry to Knock Bridge south of Portadown, the separation between the two counties is extremely difficult to fol ow on the ground. This is because the construction of the canal modified the courses of the minor waterways that formed the boundary, with the result that the boundary wanders erratical y to and fro across the canal. The main Dublin-Belfast railway line also runs parallel to the canal, but lies to its west for all but one short section, and is almost entirely in Co. Armagh. The area of land involved in these anomalies is trivial, but it is of disproportionate botanical significance as certain plants are closely associated with either the canal or the railway. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Table 1. Plants listed in the Wildlife Order (N.I.) 1985, Schedule 8, part 1, as amended by the Wildlife and Natural Environment Act (N.I.) 2011. Adoxa moschatellina Ajuga pyramidalis Anacamptis morio Andromeda polifolia Artemisia maritima Calamagrostis epigejos Calamagrostis stricta Carex bigelowii Carex magellanica Carex pauciflora Centaurium littorale Cirsium heterophyllum Crambe maritima Cryptogramma crispa Cuscuta epithymum Diphasiastrum alpinum Dryas octopetala Eleocharis parvula traunsteinerioides Epipactis palustris Epipactis phyllanthes Gentianella amarella Geranium pratense Geranium sylvaticum Hammarbya paludosa Hierochloe odorata Hottonia palustris Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum hirsutum Hypochaeris glabra Hypopitys monotropa Juniperus communis Limonium binervosum Limosella aquatica Lycopodiella inundata Lycopodium clavatum Melampyrum sylvaticum Mentha pulegium Mertensia maritima Neotinea maculata Ornithopus perpusillus Orobanche hederae Orthilia secunda Polystichum lonchitis Pseudorchis albida Ranunculus fluitans Rhynchospora fusca Rubus chamaemorus Sanguisorba officinalis Saussurea alpina Saxifraga aizoides Saxifraga hirculus Saxifraga oppositifolia Scrophularia umbrosa Silene acaulis Teesdalia nudicaulis Thalictrum alpinum Trichomanes speciosum Trollius europaeus Viola persicifolia Those listed in red are, or have been, present in county Armagh. Table 2. Northern Ireland Priority Species 2010 Adoxa moschatellina Ajuga pyramidalis Andromeda polifolia Calamagrostis epigejos Calamagrostis stricta Carex pauciflora Centaurium littorale Cetunculus minima Cirsium heterophyllum Cochlearia officinalis ssp. Coeloglossum viride Crambe maritima Cryptogramma crispa Eleocharis parvula Epipactis phyllanthes Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Euphrasia salisburgensis Frangula alnus Fumaria purpurea Galium uliginosum Gentianella campestris Geranium pratense Geranium sylvaticum Gnaphalium sylvaticum Hierochloe odorata Hottonia palustris Hypochaeris glabra Hypopitys monotropa Juniperus communis Ligusticum scoticum Luzula pallescens Lycopodiella inundata Melampyrum sylvaticum Mentha pulegium Mertensia maritima Neotinea maculata Oenanthe fistulosa Orthilia secunda Platanthera bifolia Polystichum lonchitis Pseudorchis albida Ranunculus fluitans Rubus chamaemorus Ruppia cirrhosa Sagina subulata Salix myrsinifolia Salsola kali ssp. kali Sanguisorba officinalis Saxifraga hirculus Scleranthus annuus Sium latifolium Sorbus hibernica Sorbus rupicola Stellaria palustris Teesdalia nudicaulis Trichomanes speciosum Trollius europaeus Vicia lathyroides Viola persicifolia Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

FORMAT FOR THE SPECIES ACCOUNTS
Species are listed in alphabetical order, according to the following format. Species author English name Europe: Ireland: N.I.: Armagh: Native/Archaeophyte/Casual, frequency (number of post-1986 1km records) Species account (text) The Latin and English names of the plants are those in the New Flora of the British Isles, third edition (Stace, The second, third and fourth lines only appear if an entry is required opposite the heading. For Europe, the relevant entry would be EC Habitats Directive; for Ireland, either FPO for species listed in the Flora Protection
Order, and/or RDB plus a threat category for those included in the Irish Red Data Book; for N.I.; either WOAA
for species scheduled in Part 1 of the Wildlife Order 1985 as amended by the Wildlife and Natural Environment Act 2011, and/or Priority Species for those classed as such.
Six different threat categories are used in the Irish Red Data Book (Curtis & McGough 1988, pp. 16-17, 20-32 for criteria) and these are represented as fol ows: RDB Extinct
RDB Endangered
RDB Vulnerable
RDB Not Threatened
RDB Indeterminate

The Armagh status for each species is summarised in the header line by two terms.
• The first describes its status as native, archaeophyte, planted or casual. The first two are normally the same as the perceived Irish status. A few taxa are thought to be natives or archaeophytes elsewhere in Ireland but deliberately planted or casual in Armagh, and in these cases the Irish status is given against the Ireland heading. • The second term describes its current frequency in Armagh and is fol owed (in brackets) by the number of monads (1-kilometre squares) in which it has been recorded in 1987-2014 inclusive Frequent recorded in 11 or more monads (used exceptional y)
recorded in 4-10 monads in 1987-2014 recorded in 0-3 monads in 1987-2014 not recorded since 1964, and unlikely to have been overlooked For each species there follows a brief commentary on such matters as its growth habit, ecological preferences, frequency in Ireland, distribution within Armagh, and causes of change. The topics covered vary from species to species according to which are judged most relevant. In these commentaries, there are references to the Flora of County Armagh by Praeger (1893), and in particular to a list of species which he found in more or less abundance in very part of the county, which I have dubbed his list of common plants. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

The records tabulated after these commentaries cover all stations at which the taxon has been recorded. The place names used by recorders and digitisers have not always been consistent, so the same population may occasionally appear to exist in two or more places. Grid references for each record are given as six figures where possible. A few exist in the underlying database at eight or even ten figures, but the apparent accuracy is sometimes spurious and is not important for the purposes of this register. Likewise, the record dates are represented here as a year, even though the day and month are normal y available in the respective databases. Where a record pre-dates (or might pre-date) 1987, the grid reference, year and name of the recorder are Recorders and determiners are identified by name wherever possible. The records are grouped by site name within hectads (10km square), and the hectads are ordered by ascending grid number.
KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT AND THE RECORDS
Area of Special Scientific Interest Belfast Naturalists' Field Club Botanical Society of the Britain and Ireland County Armagh Wildlife Society (formerly Armagh Field Naturalists' Society) Department of Agriculture, Northern Ireland Flora Protection Order, 1999 Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Environment Agency (formerly Environment & Heritage Service) National Nature Reserve National Museums Northern Ireland Wildlife Order (1985) Schedule 8 Part 1 (as amended by the Wildlife and Natural Environment Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

CONTACT DETAILS
Full details of all records are held by the BSBI vice-county recorder. In a few instances cases, precise details of localities may have to remain confidential in order to respect the wishes of landowners or to maintain the integrity of reserves or fragile habitats. Any information on new or updated records or further enquiries should be directed to the vice-county Dr John Faulkner Drumherriff Lodge, 37 Old Orchard Road, Loughgal , Armagh BT61 8JD
Email: jsf@globalnet.co.uk
A copy of the Armagh records is also held by CEDaR (Centre for Environmental Data and Recording), the Local
Records Centre for Northern Ireland, to whom requests for further information may also be addressed.
Enquiries should be directed to:
CEDaR, 153 Bangor Road, Cultra, Holywood, Co. Down BT18 0EU
Email: cedar.info@nmni.com
Website: www.nmni.com/cedar


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Without the unstinting encouragement and invaluable technical support of Julia Nunn, this Register would be
no more than an aspiration, and it is to her that I am primarily indebted for helping to make it a reality. I am also indebted to all recorders who have made their records available for publication in this Register. Particular thanks are due to John Harron for critically reviewing the species accounts; Richard Weyl for advice on scheduled and priority species; David Allen for invaluable assistance with Rubus records; Dave Riley with Salix hybrids; Ian McNeill for his company on many days spent in the field in County Armagh as well his important contribution to botanical records in the county; and Brian Rushton for providing the preface. The late Norah Dawson was the BSBI vice-county recorder for Armagh until 1991, and I wish to acknowledge that her dedicated work provided a valuable foundation for this Register. I would also like to acknowledge the advice and technical support of many other individuals in the Northern Ireland Environment Agency, CEDaR (Centre for Environmental Data and Recording at the National Museums Northern Ireland), and the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

SPECIES ACCOUNTS FOR SCARCE, RARE & EXTINCT VASCULAR PLANTS
The species are arranged below in alphabetical order, but the taxonomy and nomenclature fol ow Stace (2010). Taxonomic levels higher than genus are ignored. There is an account for every possibly native or archaeophyte species (and a few subspecies and hybrids) that has been recorded in Armagh, including those for which the records are unconfirmed or in error. Adoxa moschatellina Linnaeus Moschatel Ireland: Neophyte? RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Presence unconfirmed The first species in the Register is also one of the most anomalous. Although it has several legislative and policy designations, there is disagreement about its status and the balance appears to be in favour of it being a relatively recent introduction. It is confined to demesne woodlands in Ireland. The authenticated Irish populations are a long-established one on Cave Hill, Co. Antrim, and a more recent one in Dublin. Two Armagh records were made in 2004, on the Summerisland and Gosford estates, but neither has been confirmed. Agrimonia procera Wallr. Fragrant Agrimony Armagh: Native, rare (2) Primarily a plant of limestone grassland, like its commoner congener A. eupatoria. In Armagh, it is confined to the extreme west of the county. Records from Navan Fort are probably in error. I & A McNeill det. P Hackney Mullan Lough - one plant in rough grass I McNeill & J S Faulkner Agrostemma githago Linnaeus Corncockle Ireland: Archaeophyte, RDB Extinct Armagh: Casual, rare (1) Reputed once to have been a common arable weed in Ireland, and included in the Praeger list of common species in Armagh, but its seed has poor longevity. Its current distribution is confounded by the sowing of wildflower seed mixtures, one of which was probably the origin of the only certain record in Armagh. An unlocalised record for Lough Neagh by M.C. Knowles in 1896 might also have been from this county. Bond's Bridge, River Blackwater I Rippey det. L Greeves Agrostis gigantea Roth Black Bent Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) A potential y troublesome stoloniferous arable weed on light soils. Generally scarce in Ireland and only once recorded in Armagh, but possibly has been overlooked elsewhere. Artasooly, 2.5km SSE of Benburb I McNeill & J S Faulkner Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Agrostis stolonifera x vinealis
Armagh: Absent?
There is a single field record of this very rare hybrid from Annacramph Meadows ASSI (1988), but it is probably an error. The limestone grassland habitat at Annacramph is atypical for both parents. Alisma lanceolatum With. Narrow-leaved Water-plantain Armagh: Native, scarce (9) Scattered along the south shore of Lough Neagh. Possibly either under- or over-recorded because of confusion with narrow-leaved plants of A. plantago-aquatica. Apparently rare elsewhere in Ireland, but Lough Neagh appears to be Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Mill Bridge to Maghery Canal Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Columbkille Point, Lough Neagh - lake shore NE of Bannfoot, Lough Neagh - shoreline Reedy Flat to Bann Foot Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derrycrow, Derryinver Bay west of Ardmore Point Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh - on the open Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd J S Faulkner & I McNeill Oxford Island NationalNature Reserve Discovery Centre, Oxford Island Ardmore Point - frequent Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Anacamptis pyramidalis Rich. Pyramidal Orchid Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A plant of well-drained impoverished calcareous soils, frequent in central Ireland and on coastal duneland. In Armagh, it has become associated with the railway system and with limestone quarries where there is exposed rock or stone and skeletal soil. The Rocks Quarry site has been largely built over, and the plant is no longer present there. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Pavillion grounds at Armagh W F Johnston det. R Ll Praeger Lisadian (Thompson's) Quarry - found in small numbers on high bank above smal rocky pool (1993); H836466 c. 40-50 plants (2007) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Navan Quarry – c. 20 plants (2002; 105 plants (2006) H84M Rocks Quarry, Ballyheridan-1 plant (1994) Drumman More Lough Drumman Beg – water-filled disused kiln Ballybrannan, 3km NE of Armagh Richhill Station Craigavon Lakes – south side of railway, c. 8 plants Anagallis tenella (Linnaeus) Linnaeus Bog Pimpernel Armagh: Native, scarce (8) A small prostrate plant characteristic of flushes, commoner in the west of Ireland. In Armagh, it is found on hil y ground in the south-east, and also around the Lough Neagh shoreline, but it is probably declining on the latter. A record from Lough Gilly (1968) requires confirmation. This species was included on the Praeger list of common plants. Milltown Point, Derryaugh - colony growing over limited area of old bank on the promontory, spread over mossy stones and wet gravels; a flush Habitat Survey Team, NIEA community where water seeps out of raised pastures Forkill South of Slieve Gullion Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Clermont Mountain at Clotygora - NW slopes J S Faulkner & I McNeill Cam Lough (Camlough) – in steep field sloping from J02 road to lake shore (2003) Camlough Mountain Above Killevy Castle, Slieve Gullion Forest Andromeda polifolia Linnaeus Bog-rosemary Ireland: RDB Not Threatened N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Native, rare (3) A characteristic species of undrained lowland raised bogs in the Irish midlands. Despite the variety of names used for its recorded locations in Armagh, it is actually confined to sites within what is now known as Peatlands Park. Praeger concluded that it must be very rare, because he did not see it in his three-week survey in 1892. The exact location of the Tartaraghan record by Rev. G. Robinson is unknown but this might possibly be a reference to the same Peatlands Park populations, there being no raised bog at Tartaraghan itself. Mullenakill Nature Reserve, Peatlands Country Park - H86V widespread Annagarriff National Nature Reserve - widespread Church Hil bog, Peatlands Park Peatlands Country Park - several colonies of varying size, one containing many hundreds of plants, are known from the Peatlands Park area (1994) Annagarriff Lake - on this date the lake was already partly drained and devoted to peat cutting Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Annagarriff area, Peatlands Country Park J S Faulkner & BSBI Antennaria dioica (Linnaeus) Gaertn. Mountain Everlasting Armagh: Native, rare (0) A plant of thin well-drained soils, its distribution shows a strong bias towards the north-western half Ireland, and Armagh is just outside this zone. While formerly occurring on limestone around Armagh and on acid heaths on the slopes of Camlough Mountain, it has not been seen in the county since 1985. Some of its habitats may have become enriched or scrubbed over. Nonetheless there remain some potential y suitable habitats, and there is a reasonable chance that it will be rediscovered in small quantities. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Loughhadian – limestone outcrops Mullynure (Mullinure), Armagh Un-named (Ballygasey) Quarry Stony Hil , near Retreat East side of Camlough Camlough Mountain H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Anthemis cotula Linnaeus Stinking Chamomile Ireland: Archaeophyte Armagh: Casual, rare (0) Once widespread and frequent in cultivated ground in Ireland, but now rarely encountered. Its two recorded occurrences in Armagh were seemingly casual. Lisummon Road, Drummond Anthyllis vulneraria Linnaeus Kidney Vetch Armagh: Native, rare (2) Common on coastal and limestone grasslands and rocky outcrops elsewhere in Ireland. In Armagh, confined to a small area to the west of the city itself, apart from one isolated record at Goraghwood. It may now have died out at its main stations of Navan Fort and Rocks Quarry. Navan Fort – limestone outcrops (1989); grassland, not recently mown, 1 single plant and 3 more in J S Faulkner, BSBI & CAWS cluster further to north (1992); one flower (2002) Loughadian – limestone outcrops Railway, just west of Armagh Rocks Quarry, Ballyheridan Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Apium graveolens Linnaeus Wild Celery Armagh: Native, extinct (0) An annual or monocarpic perennial, mostly found in brackish habitats, but becoming scarce in the north of Ireland. Armagh is close to the northern limit of the species, and it has not been recorded here for over a century. There is a record (1913) on Lough Neagh at Ellis's Gut, which is in Co. Down but very close to the boundary with Armagh. Newry Canal – by the canal below Newry Newry area – by the river at Newry
Apium x moorei (Syme) Druce (A. nodiflorum x A. inundatum)
Armagh: Native, rare (0)
A hybrid endemic to the British Isles, and said to be at its commonest in Ireland. Scattered throughout, but recorded much less often than formerly. In Armagh, Praeger recorded it at 5 sites on or near Lough Neagh, under the name A. inundatum var. moorei, but it has not been noted since. South of Portadown Closet River inlet, Lough Neagh West of River Bann mouth Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Arabis hirsuta (Linnaeus) Scop. Hairy Rock-cress Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (1) The species grows as an Irish native in open rocky situations, calcareous grassland and on dunes, mainly in the west. Its one record in Armagh, however, was undoubtedly of a casual occurrence, close to a car park. Clare Glen north – 3 plants in herbicide treated J S Faulkner & I McNeill ground between kerb and hedge Arctium lappa Linnaeus Greater Burdock Ireland: Native? Armagh: Casual (0) Armagh is far to the NW of the usual range of this species, which is common in south and east England but rare even in SE Ireland. Indeed, there is some doubt whether it is present in Ireland at all. Many botanists find this a difficult genus, so there is considerable doubt about the two records listed below. 2 miles east of Loughgall - roadside Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd - sparingly on the J Harron det. British Museum wooded bank behind the lake shore, growing five and a half foot high on the margins of sloe scrub Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Arenaria leptoclados (Rchb.) Guss Slender Sandwort Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A winter annual of open disturbed ground, walls, quarries etc., sometimes treated as a subspecies of A. serpyllifolia. This is another species for which Armagh is close to the north-west limit of its main area of distribution. While it appears to have died out, its habits are such that re-appearance may be possible through local re-introduction. Salter's Grange (Elliott's) Quarry 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger west of El is's Gut 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Arenaria serpyllifolia Linnaeus Thyme-leaved Sandwort Armagh: Native, scarce (9) While its habitats are similar to A. leptoclados, it is clearly the commoner of the two, and probably more so than the records indicate as it is easily overlooked. Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh The Rock Road, Farmacaffly - quarry Legarhill, near Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Salter's Grange Church Ballybrannan (bridge) – dismantled railway Derryveen, Derryhubbert South J S Faulkner & I McNeill About Newry - frequent J S Faulkner & I McNeill J S Faulkner & I McNeill Mullaghglass Station Cusher River at Tandragee 2 miles south of Portadown – on railway Balancing Lakes, Craigavon J S Faulkner & BNFC Tullydagan – on mortar of stone buildings Armeria maritima (Mill.) Willd. Thrift Armagh: Native, rare (3) Confined to the short stretch of coast between Victoria Lock and County Bridge on the estuary of the Newry River. Estuary of Newry River Rough Island, Newry River Newry River Estuary at Fathom Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey & Scherb. Horse-radish Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (3) Though regarded as an archaeophyte in Ireland, it is usually a relic of cultivation. It is a persistent perennial, but does not set viable seed. It is therefore surprising that at only one of its locations has it been recorded more than once! Tul ybrick Lough - deserted house nearby (1983) Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Drumil y, 0.5km south of Loughgal Drumart, 2km SW of Loughgal J S Faulkner & I McNeill Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Asperula cynanchica Linnaeus Squinancywort Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (1) A native perennial of dry calcareous soils in the west of Ireland. Its occurrence on an industrial estate in Newry must therefore be as 'casual' as it comes! Carnbane Industrial Estate J S Faulkner, I McNeill & G V Day Asplenium viride Huds. Green Spleenwort Ireland: Native Armagh: absent There is one record, at Gosford Forest Park (2004), but this is almost certainly an error. Aster tripolium Linnaeus Sea Aster Armagh: Native, rare (2) Common al round the Irish coast, but strictly confined to brackish habitats and so only found in Armagh on the Newry River estuary. River Newry at Newry Rough Island, Newry River Newry – by stream, abundant and luxuriant Newry River estuary at Fathom Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Atriplex glabriuscula Edmonston Babington's Orache Ireland: Native Armagh: Absent There is one record from the Newry estuary (1978). As the species is said to be characteristic of more exposed shores, and the originator did not record the very similar A. prostrata, which has been noted by other recorders in the same location, some doubt must attach to this record. Atriplex portulacoides Linnaeus Sea Purslane Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A low shrub of saltmarshes and other maritime habitats. It extended its range northwards in Northern Ireland in the second half of the twentieth century, but has been known on the Co. Down side of the Newry estuary since 1882. Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Newry River Estuary at Fathom Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. Spear-leaved Orache Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A less strictly maritime species than the previous two. The records for Armagh include one inland lake shore (Ardmore) and one salted roadside (Kilmore), together with the maritime Newry Estuary. Kilmore, 5km SE of Benburb I McNeill det. J R Akeroyd Bay west of Ardmore Point Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Avena strigosa Schreb. Bristle Oat Ireland: Origin uncertain Armagh: Casual, rare (0) Bristle Oat is of interest because at one time it was an important cereal in Ireland, being valued for its ability to grow in adverse conditions. The only records in Armagh date from a survey by the Department of Agriculture in 1975. The seed does not persist in the soil. It should not be confused with the common weed of cereal crops known as Wild Oat, Avena fatua: Bristle Oat has 2 bristles from the tip of the lemma, as well as an awn inserted on the back of the lemma, whereas Wild Oat has only the latter. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Tassagh, 3.5km NE of Keady Outlack, Lisnadill Cloghinny, Jerrettspass Lisadian, 3km NW of Bessbrook Mavemacullen (Ballymore), 4km NE of Markethill DARD det. N Dawson Ballyworkan, 2km SE of Portadown Avenula pubescens (Huds.) Dumort. Downy Oat-grass Armagh: Native, scarce (6) Reputedly tolerant of a wide range of soil types, but in Armagh it is more or less confined to the limestone close to, or west of, the City. It is intolerant of fertilisers, and is almost certainly declining in Armagh because of the tendency towards nutrient enrichment and greater competition in pastures and on roadsides. Lisdown, 4.5km NW of Armagh Lisadian (Thompson's) Quarry J S Faulkner, BSBI & CAWS Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve (UWT) – in approach lane to nature reserve (2007) Ulster Wildlife Trust J S Faulkner & I McNeill Rocks Quarry, Ballyheridan N Dawson det. J S Faulkner Mullynure (Mullinure), Armagh Old railway at Mullynure N Dawson det. J S Faulkner Salters Grange, 3.5km north of Armagh Butter Water at Lisnadill Baldellia ranunculoides (Linnaeus) Parl. Lesser Water-plantain Armagh: Native, scarce (8) A rather delicate emergent aquatic of moderately to highly calcareous pools and lakes. Frequently recorded on the Lough Neagh shore, but probably declining. Scattered elsewhere. Listed by Praeger as one of the common plants in the County. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Kiltubbrid Loughs N.I. Lake Survey J S Faulkner, CAWS & I McNeill N.I. Lake Survey Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Derrytrasna, Lough Neagh - shoreline Maghery, Lough Neagh NE of Bannfoot, Lough Neagh - shoreline Reedy Flat, Derryinver Derrycrow, Derryinver Lough Shark – SW shore, in firm-floored shallows Brackagh Bog (pools) Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Lough Gullion bog Bay west of Ardmore Point Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd J S Faulkner & I McNeill Ardmore Rectory to Jetty Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Kinnegoe Point to Oxford Island Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Shan Port to Kinnegoe Point Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville Lesser Water-parsnip Armagh: Native, rare (3) A submerged or emergent aquatic found occasional y on the Lough Neagh shore. There are also records from Lissheagh (Tynan) and Carnmeen (Newry), but these require confirmation to exclude the possibility of confusion with Apium nodiflorum. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Mill Bridge to Maghery Canal Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh Derrytrasna Bog, Derryadd Queen's University Belfast Bird's Island, Lough Neagh Shan Port to Kinnegoe Point Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Castor Bay – in corner of flooded pit
Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima (Linnaeus) Arcang. Sea Beet
Armagh: Native, rare (3)
A strandline plant, confined in Armagh to the short stretch of coast. By brackish streams in Newry Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Newry River Estuary at Fathom Betonica officinalis Linnaeus Betony Ireland: Native, FPO, RDB Vulnerable Armagh: Casual? Extinct (0) Recorded only on a rath at Crowhill, east of Ardress, in the 1870s, and not refound by Praeger in 1892. As it was noted twice, there is little reason to doubt the identification. Armagh is outside its normal native range, however, so it was likely to have been an introduction. This species was scheduled in the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order, 1985, but was deleted from the schedule in 2011. Crowhill, Magarty – in considerable abundance (1871); H9355 very sparingly (1877); not refound by Praeger Clare – field nearby
Betula x aurata Borkh. (B. pendula x B. pubescens)
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
The status of this hybrid is unclear. It is almost certainly under-recorded, sometimes planted, and sometimes the progeny of planted B. pendula. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Blackstonia perfoliata Huds. Yellow-wort Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (0) The species is relatively common on the limestone of the midlands and calcareous sands of the west coast, but Armagh is outside the known distribution. The one record, of an unknown 20th century date from Tynan Abbey, must therefore be regarded as doubtful, and a casual introduction at best. Bolboschoenus maritimus (Asch.) Palla Sea Club-rush Armagh: Native, rare (2) There is one substantial stand of the species at Rough Island, which may account for four of the records. It may survive elsewhere on the estuary in small quantities. Estuary of Newry River - abundant Rough Island, Newry River Newry River Estuary at Fathom Botrychium lunaria (Linnaeus) Sw. Moonwort Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A plant of thin well-drained soils, Botrychium can be elusive and easily overlooked. The fact that it has not been seen for over a century, however, suggests strongly that it is now extinct in the County. Even if it would otherwise have survived, the Navan Fort plant would have been extirpated when the top of the monument was excavated in the 1960s, and resown with Lolium perenne. Navan Fort – on top Ardmore, Lough Neagh H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Bromopsis erecta (Huds.) Fourr. Upright Brome Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (0) Although it is regarded as native further south in Ireland, its one isolated record at an anthropogenic site in Armagh was almost certainly of a casual occurrence. Drumman Beg – water-filled disused kiln Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Bromus commutatus Schrad. Meadow Brome Ireland: Native Armagh: Native or casual? Extinct (0) Like Botrychium lunaria, this is regarded as an Irish native, but that status in Armagh is questionable. The Tartaraghan record was believed at the time to be an introduction with grass seed. Mullynure (Mullinure), Armagh Bromus secalinus Linnaeus Rye Brome Ireland: Archaeophyte Armagh: Casual, rare (1) Considered an archaeophyte weed of cultivation in Ireland, but perhaps always rare. Its single recorded occurrence in Armagh was very recent, and obviously casual. Tamnaghmore – one plant at entrance to wheat field J006465 Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler Narrow Small-reed Ireland: RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A rare grass of lake margins, known in Ireland only from Lough Neagh. The location described by Praeger appears to place the plant in either Co. Antrim or Co. Down as the canal forms the boundary between them. However, he asserts that it is the first record in Armagh. The three counties meet off-shore at Ellis's Gut, and as Praeger was the leading authority on vice-county boundaries, his assertion has to be accepted. The Waddel and Carrothers record is almost certainly of the same population, though 'Ellis's Gut' would normal y refer to Co. Down. The plant has not been recorded since, and is almost certainly extinct here (but not further along the shore in Co. Antrim). Abundant in a low meadow by Lough Neagh near entrance of Lagan Canal Ellis's Gut, Kilmore C H Waddell & N Carrothers Callitriche palustris Linnaeus Narrow-fruited Water-starwort Armagh: Absent There are several records of C. palustris from places distributed across Armagh, despite the fact that the species is almost unknown in Ireland. None of these has been verified, and the species must for the time be regarded as absent. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Callitriche platycarpa Kütz. Various-leaved Water-starwort Armagh: Native, scarce (6) This species is difficult to distinguish from C. stagnalis, especially when no flowers or fruits are present. As it is said to be favoured by eutrophication, which tends to suppress flowering, and there are increasing numbers of lowland Callitriche populations without flowers, it is very likely that the species is much commoner than the list of records Caledon Desmesne Darkley Reservoir N.I. Lake Survey 1993-1994 J Harron N.I. Lake Survey Brackagh Bog – SE side Bay west of Ardmore Point Campanula rotundifolia Linnaeus Harebell Armagh: Native, rare (3) A common species in the north-western half of Ireland. Its rarity in Armagh reflects the paucity of infertile dry grasslands. Only the Slieve Gullion records are likely to be truly native. Levallymore, NW of Slieve Gullion Dynes Bridge, Upper Bann Lurgan - presumed to be garden escape, one plant Cardamine amara Linnaeus Large Bitter-cress Ireland: RDB Rare Armagh: Native, frequent (13) A very localised species in Ireland, almost confined to the Bann and Lagan catchments. In Armagh, concentrated in the Tynan/Caledon area, and scattered downstream along the River Blackwater and on the Lough Neagh shore. There are also unconfirmed records from woodlands elsewhere in the north of the county. Cor Hill, Caledon Estate Tynan Abbey Estate - shady stream side, few plants beside lake exit stream (1994) West of Tynan Abbey - woodland Lemnagore (Legnagore) Wood, south of Caledon - frequent only beside river in middle of wood (1990) Cor River at Tynan Caledon Bridge, River Blackwater at Caledon Carrickaness, Benburb Maydown, Benburb Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

The Argory SW – 4 plants on bank of main river The Argory NW – 30-40 plants on bank of main river H865580 Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh - shoreline Coney Island Cottage, Lough Neagh Coney Island, off Derrywarragh Island River Blackwater Moygannon above Portadown Bay west of Ardmore Point Closet River to Ardmore Rectory Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Carduus crispus Linnaeus Welted Thistle Ireland: Native Armagh: Native or casual, rare (1) In Ireland, mainly found in the eastern midlands. Possibly native at Navan Fort, but not seen there for many years. Elsewhere a very rare casual. Carduus tenuiflorus Curtis Slender Thistle Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (0) Native further south in Ireland, but the single recorded occurrence in Armagh was almost certainly a casual Carex acuta Linnaeus Slender Tufted-sedge Armagh: Native, extinct (0) The species appears to be over-recorded in Ireland general y, as it can be mistaken for any of three others. Even the Praeger-authenticated record from Raughlan cannot be regarded as 100% watertight without further evidence, there being no specimen in UM. There are also records from Edenderry Lough and Newry Canal at Jerretspass, but these are both errors. Raughlan Peninsula Point (voucher seen by Praeger) H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carex caryophyllea Latourr. Spring-sedge Armagh: Native, scarce (9) At one time a widespread sedge of well-drained short grassland. There are relatively few recent records, so the species appears to be declining, in line with its habitat. Gentle Owens Lake (SE) - on rock outcrop Aughnagurgan, 4km SE of Keady Clay Lake, Keady - east side Rocks Quarry, Ballyheridan Annacramph Meadow ASSI Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Mullaghbane Hill Creggan River - headwater Mullaghmore Lough, Loughgilly Slievenabolea Hill Camlough Mountain Ballintemple, Slieve Gullion – ruined tower J S Faulkner & I McNeill Cam Lough (C) - hillside Killevy Castle, Slieve Gullion Forest Moyallon, Upper Bann Valley Derryadd, Lough Neagh Flag Staff, Fathom Upper BNFC & N Dawson
Carex divulsa ssp. divulsa Stokes Grey Sedge
Armagh: Native, scarce (5)
Fairly common in South and East Ireland. In Armagh, very localised on road verges and in woodland, especially in the vicinity of Loughgall. These Armagh sites are close to the northern extremity of its range. The Palace Grounds, Armagh - one plant in woodland H878441 edge entrance to Council depot Hockley Lodge, Drumnasoo Loughgall – several plants on disused track/woodland H9151 clearing (2011, 2013) Loughgall Country Park 1 plant beside road east of lake, 4 plants on outside bend of Manor drive (2012); H916520 one plant beside internal road (2014) Loughgall Manor Drumherriff – on shady lane-side hedge bank Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carex elongata Linnaeus Elongated Sedge Ireland: RDB Not Threatened N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, rare (1) More or less confined, within Ireland, to the Erne catchment and the surrounds of Lough Neagh. There are only two reliable records in Armagh, which may be at the same site. A record from Mul enakil (1973) requires further evidence. The species has not been recorded at all now for 25 years. Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Closet River to Ardmore Rectory Habitat Survey Team, NIEA
Carex x fulva Gooden. sens. lat. (C. hostiana x C. lepidocarpa & C. hostiana x C. demissa)
Armagh: Native, scarce (7)
It is not feasible to separate the hybrids between C. hostiana on the one hand and the two closely related species (or subspecies) C. demissa and C. lepidocarpa on the other. Together, however, they represent the most frequent, and one of the most distinctive, of Carex hybrids, forming conspicuous yellowish patches of sterile sedge in wet heath and flushes. In practice, one can be confident that most of the records in Armagh would be with C. demissa, as it is so much commoner than C. lepidocarpa in the districts from which the hybrid has been noted. Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Longfield, on Slieve Gullion Killeavy Castle – frequent with both parents J S Faulkner & CAWS St Bline's Well J S Faulkner & I McNeill
Carex x involuta Stokes (C. rostrata x C. vesicaria)
Armagh: Native, rare (0)
While there is just a single isolated record of this hybrid, it may have been overlooked elsewhere, as both parent species are relatively common. Lemnagore Wood – in one place on sand bank, kept H758440 in cultivation for years Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. Slender Sedge Armagh: Native – if present There is one record of this moderately uncommon species, in 1985. As it was from one of the best recorded sites in the county (Brackagh Moss) and has not been seen again, the record must be classed as in need of confirmation. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carex limosa Linnaeus Bog-sedge Armagh: Native, scarce (6) A sedge of very wet, undisturbed peaty pools and lake margins. In Armagh, confined to the south. There is a record from Mullyloughran, 3km E of Armagh City, but this is almost certainly an error. Crossbane Lough - 3 plants (1994) G Watson & I Enlander Drumlougher Lough, 2.5km NW of Crossmaglen - 6 Harvesseys Rock Fen - 8 plants (1994) Loughaveeley – common around soft fringe of lough H954141 Slieve Gullion area Habitat Survey Team, NIEA
Carex muricata ssp. pairae (F.W. Schultz) Čelak Prickly Sedge
Armagh: Native, rare (0)
The two records of this sedge of road verges and rough grassland on acid soils are well separated in time, but they comprise part of a smal cluster of records in the Newry area, extending into Cos Down and Louth. Otherwise, the plant is only present in a strip across the southernmost counties of Ireland. Newry, Dublin Road Craigmore Road, Bessbrook – opposite Good Shepherd Convent, 2 plants Carex oederi Retz. Small-fruited Yellow Sedge Armagh: Native, rare (1) The typical habitat for this sedge is open vegetation on stony lake shores and near the coast. It was probably more frequent around Lough Neagh in the periods immediately after the lowerings of the water level. A second A G More record for an 'islet in Lough Neagh' may have been in Armagh. Most of the recorded stations in Armagh now seem unsuitable. Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Milltown Point, Derryaugh, Lough Neagh Bay west of Ardmore Point Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carex otrubae Podp. False Fox-sedge Armagh: Native, rare (3) Commonest as a coastal plant in Ireland, but occasional inland. Scattered thinly in Armagh, and possibly becoming scarcer except on Newry estuary. The two records by Praeger of 'C. vulpina' at Loughnashade and Newry Canal in 1892 were almost certainly of this species. Culkeeran, 4km SW of Benburb Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh Roscory, Causanagh Derrycor, 7km NE of Moy Derrykeevan (Derrykeeran), SE of Junction 12 - M1 Derryadd Rectory Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd Kinnegoe, Lough Neagh Castor Bay – 1-2 plants in damp grassland close to Rough Island, Newry River Fathom (Newry) Forest Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Carex pseudocyperus Linnaeus Cyperus Sedge Armagh: Native, rare (5) Scattered through Ireland in mesotrophic, wet, sometimes shady situations, where it may colonise bare ditch margins after dredging. It has apparently disappeared from Tartaraghan, but is still found in small quantities in the Derrykeeran/Foymore area, and in somewhat greater amounts on the east side of Lough Gul ion. A record from Edenderry Lough (1994) requires confirmation. Tartaraghan – streamlet below Glebe House, 6 fine plants (1892), not present in 2014 Clontylew, 6km NW of Portadown - sparingly. Site destroyed in 1983 (N Dawson) North of Loughgall - found on isolated rampart in cut-out bog. Site not refound in 1974 or later, perhaps dug out. Derrykeevan (Derrykeeran), SE of Junction 12, M1-1 Foy More – 3 plants on edge of drain Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lough Gullion – swampy reedy lake shore. Largest 1955-1958 E Hoey colony in Northern Ireland (1997); in drain, several plants (2011); 11+ plants on shaded north side of N.I. Lake Survey Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J S Faulkner & P Hackney Carex riparia Curtis Greater Pond-sedge Armagh: Native, frequent (11) Scattered in southern and eastern Ireland. In Armagh, probably confined to the Newry Canal, where it is common from Poyntzpass southwards, and to the margins of Lough Neagh, where it is occasional. There are records from several sites elsewhere in the county which are probably errors, perhaps misidentifications of C. acutiformis. Gosford Castle Forest Park Carnbane, Newry Canal – scattered along towpath disused (Newry) Canal at Jerrettspass Kilrea – beside Canal Drumbanagher – beside canal Goragh, Newry Canal Steenson's Bridge, Newry River Kinnegoe Harbour (Bay), Lough Neagh Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Ellis's Gut, Kilmore Rough Island, Newry River - strong stand (1996); c. 25m circular patch & small patch at north end of Carex spicata Huds. Spiked Sedge Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (3) Although the species is believed to be native in Ireland, its three occurrences in Armagh were of single plants in more or less disturbed habitats, so can be regarded as casual. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Navan Quarry west – 1 large tuft Tullyard – one very large tussock in entrance to fallow H877473 cereal field Loughgall - grass cut for hay in Faulkner's garden; accidently introduced? Carex strigosa Huds. Thin-spiked Wood-sedge Armagh: Native, rare (3) A sedge of woodland with heavy wet calcareous soils, thinly scattered in Ireland but relatively common in Co. Fermanagh. The three surviving sites in Armagh are al over limestone. The recently-discovered strong population at Loughgall is, uncharacteristically, within a spruce plantation. Ballynameta Bridge – common and locally abundant H787417 in small steep woodland J S Faulkner & I McNeill Lissheagh or Mount Irwin, 2km SE of Tynan Carrickaness, Maydown J S Faulkner & I McNeill Loughgall Country Park – NE wood, c. 100 plants Clontylew, 6km NW of Portadown - site now destroyed, 1983 (N Dawson) Derryadd Rectory H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Carum carvi Linnaeus Caraway Ireland: Archaeophyte Armagh: Casual, extinct (0) Recorded once many years ago, and then obviously of recent origin. South of Bessbrook – common along railway for several miles Catabrosa aquatica (Linnaeus) P. Beauv. Whorl-grass Armagh: Native, scarce (7) A grass of grazed muddy sheughs and wet cattle-poached grassland. It is said to be on decline generally, a situation that appears to be reflected in the Armagh records. Equal y, it is easily overlooked and could be more frequent than the records indicate. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lisglynn, 4km NW of Keady Straghans Lough area J S Faulkner & CAWS J S Faulkner & I McNeill Tullycallidy, 2.5km SE of Killylea Carganamuck – muddy depression in wood J S Faulkner & I McNeill Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh By canal near Newry Lough Gil y (Dane's Lough) Enagh Lough, 3km NW of Bessbrook J S Faulkner & I McNeill Newry Canal at Goragh Wood Tandragee lower desmesne Ditch near Clare Castle By the railway between Lurgan & Portadwon Centaurea cyanus Linnaeus Cornflower Ireland: RDB Extinct? Found 1987 Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (2) Once a common arable weed, but now familiar as a garden flower or as a component of wildflower mixtures sown in semi-urban situations. It was included in the Praeger list of species found in every part of the county. The Amaghbreague plants comprise the only recent record in an arable crop, and may have been imported with cereal or grass seed. Armaghbreague – 2 plants in crop of oats & barley under-sown with Lolium perenne Birches – probably from wildflower seed mix Centunculus minimus Linnaeus Chaffweed N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A tiny plant of sandy ground, intolerant of competition. The total absence of records for nearly 70 years means it is almost certainly extinct in Armagh. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Bird's Island, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Cerastium diffusum Pers. Sea Mouse-ear Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (2) A small winter annual, typical of well-drained coastal sites in Ireland. In common with most inland records, those for Armagh are introductions. Derrylard, Lough Neagh On railway at Wellington Cutting Craigavon Lake south – on roundabout Chaenorhinum minus (Linnaeus) Lange Small Toadflax Armagh: Archaeophyte or neophyte, rare (3) This annual is the railway weed par excel ence! Although not invariably obvious from the details given below, every one of the records in the county is closely associated in one way or another with the railway system. The 1985 Portadown record was on dumped material from the former railway station. Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh Salters Grange, 3.5km north of Armagh Dismantled railway at Ballybrannan Stonebridge – several plants in disturbed former Derryveen, Derryhubbert South Tandragee - a few Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal - on stony ground at north end of station; 1-2 dozen inconspicuous plants seen Craigavon North Lake – 5 plants on concrete (2006) J S Faulkner & BSBI Chaerophyllum temulum Linnaeus Rough Chervil Armagh: Native or introduced, extinct (0) Whether the species is native or introduced in Ireland is unclear. It is very striking that it was noted five times during the short survey by Praeger of the county, but has not been recorded since. It appears also to have declined elsewhere in Ireland, though enigmatically its habitat of rank grassland remains common, as does the species itself throughout most of lowland Britain. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Mil town, Derryaugh 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Chamaemelum nobile (Linnaeus) All. Chamomile Ireland: Native Armagh: Introduced, extinct (0) A native perennial of short grassland in the south-west of Ireland, but sometimes cultivated outside its native range as a herb or lawn plant. Introduced in Armagh, and no longer present as a wild plant. Listed as Vulnerable in the Great Britain RDB. Maghery, Lough Neagh W F Johnson & R Ll Praeger
Chenopodium bonus-henricus Linnaeus Good-King-Henry
Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0)
Once grown as a leaf vegetable and frequently naturalised on rich soils, usually near dwellings. Not recorded in Armagh for at least 50 years. An apparent record for Lough Ross in 1964 is questionable. East end of Lough Ross - roadside Chenopodium rubrum Linnaeus Red Goosefoot Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, scarce (9) A rare annual plant in Ireland in its natural habitat of rich moist substrates, usually near the coast. Now increasingly found as an vigorous coloniser of organic wastes and occasionally on disturbed road verges. Several of the Armagh records were found on dumps of spent mushroom compost. J S Faulkner & I McNeill Aughinlig, 2km SE of Charlemont Annaghmore - several plants on dumped mushroom H920576 I McNeill & J S Faulkner Ballynery – on dumped mushroom compost Drumnakelly – sewage plant, on spent mushroom Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Cichorium intybus Linnaeus Chicory Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) In earlier times, it may have been occasionally grown as a fodder crop, but now survives only as a rare escape from cultivation. Blundell's Garage – 2 plants at roadside Kilmoriarty, Portadown - gone in 1987 Circaea alpina Linnaeus Alpine Enchanter's-nightshade Armagh: Absent A 19th century record of this species from Ardmore on Lough Neagh by H W Lett is almost certainly an error for C. x intermedia and has been included under that heading.
Circaea x intermedia Ehrh. (C. alpina x C. lutetiana) Upland Enchanter's-nightshade
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
A persistent perennial and almost sterile hybrid of which one parent, C. alpina, is not present in Ireland, but may have been in the past. C. x intermedia is confined, within Ireland, to the north and north-west, growing in damp shady woodland. Armagh is at the south-eastern edge of its Irish range. Clonmain, 2.5km SE of Moy South of Ardmore Point, Lough Neagh - shore H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Shan Port to Kinnegoe Point Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Cirsium dissectum (Linnaeus) Hill Meadow Thistle Armagh: Native, rare (1) A common plant of fen meadows in the midlands and west of Ireland, but scarce in the south and east. In Armagh, formerly more widespread, but now very rare, only recorded in one locality since 1987. A major factor in the losses is likely to be relaxation of grazing pressure on agriculturally marginal land. Lisdoo Lake, 3.5km NE of Markethill Derryloste Bog, The Montiaghs 1986-1987 I Rippey Carganamuck, 3.5km N of Armagh - 2 extensive patches in rough grass on south side of wood Carganamuck, 3.5km N of Armagh Carganamuck - in Molinia meadow - 50+ J S Faulkner & I McNeill Annacloghmullin, 2km S of Belleek Newtownhamilton Hawthorn Hill, Annahaia - beside lower car park Killevy Church, Ballintemple Camlough Mountain – sparingly on NW slope Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Oxford Island National Nature Reserve - not found J Wilde & S Beesley A Lappin & A Marley Cladium mariscus (Linnaeus) Pohl Great Fen-sedge Armagh: Native, scarce (6) An ecologically important sedge of calcareous lakes in the Irish midlands and of more acid water in the west. Its stands can remain stable for long periods, and the coarse leaves are slow to decompose, leading to a build-up of fen peat. It is one of the characteristic plants of lime-rich lakes in Armagh, though apparently absent from Kiltubbrid. A record from Selshion is probably an error. Tul ybrick Lough - almost continuous around east N.I. Lake Survey Fenbase Surveyor I McNeill & I Rippey J S Faulkner & CAWS Habitat Survey Team, NIEA G Watson, A Waterman & M Wright J S Faulkner & I McNeill Tynan Abbey Lake N.I. Lake Survey Drumman Beg Lough N.I. Lake Survey Drumman More Lough Lough Gall – al around lake (1860); now mostly on westa & south sides (1892); west side of lake, several H9051 plants (1999); frequent on west shore (2013) Cochlearia anglica Linnaeus English Scurvygrass Armagh: Native, rare (3) Normally a strictly coastal species, so its rarity in Armagh is unsurprising. The record from Tannaghmore Gardens is, however, notable as, unlike some other members of the genus, C. anglica is not known for its propensity to invade salted road verges and other inland habitats. See also C. x hollandica below. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Tannaghmore West, Craigavon – weed in public Newry River Estuary at Fathom
Cochlearia x hollandica Henrard (C. anglica x C. officinalis)
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
There is just one record of this hybrid, growing together with C. anglica (see above). As it is fertile and backcrosses to both to parents, and hybrids are said to be commoner in Ireland than C. anglica itself, there must be a degree of uncertainty attached to all field records of this group unless confirmed by chromosome counting. Newry Canal at Fathom Forest Cochlearia officinalis Linnaeus Common Scurvygrass Armagh: Native, scarce (4) Confined to the Newry estuary. Most records are likely to be of C. officinalis ssp. officinalis, but the 1990 record at Fathom was identified as C. officinalis ssp. scotica. As there are doubts about the taxonomic status and geographical distribution of this subspecies, it is included here under the main species. J S Faulkner & P Hackney Rough Island, Newry River sensu lato Rough Island north Newry River Estuary at Fathom Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Coeloglossum viride (Linnaeus) Hartm. Frog Orchid N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, rare (2) This species was not noted by Praeger and has probably always been scarce in Armagh. Of the four recorded sites, two are vague as to date or location and definitely from long ago, and the other two only supported a very small population. As it has not been seen since 1991, there is a possibility that the species is extinct in the county. However, C. viride is a small inconspicuous plant and may yet turn up at this or another site. Drumcarn ASSI – only 1 plant (1991) I Rippey & CAWS Carrigatuke Mountain – in flush north of the summit, H9032 one plant in flower Lisdoo Lake, 3.5km NE of Markethill Camlough Mountain Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Cornus sanguinea Linnaeus Dogwood Ireland: Native Armagh: Planted, scarce (4) Cornus sanguinea is believed to be native further south and west in Ireland, but in Armagh is invariably planted. There are several records in the CEDaR database from Demesne woodlands purporting to be of this species, but these arise from misidentifications of the imported American species, C. sericea. River Blackwater, E of Moy – south bank Drumherriff Lodge – plant obtained from N. McKee's H915528 Irish native nursery Annagarriff Wood Daisy Hill - one patch Newry Canal (Carnbane) - beside towpath Cryptogramma crispa (Linnaeus) R.Br. ex Hook Parsley Fern Ireland: FPO N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A rare and largely northern fern on Irish mountains. Recorded only once on Slieve Gullion, and now almost certainly gone as the area has been searched many times. Near summit of Slieve Gullion – 2 tiny specimens Cystopteris fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernh. Brittle Bladder-fern Armagh: Native, rare (3) In Ireland, a fern of damp shady situations, mainly in upland areas. The first four records listed below are from the same bridge, as are the second four. Al of the Armagh records are from man-made structures. A record from Victoria Lock in 1996 requires confirmation. Armagh City - old bridge nearby Bridge at Tassagh Balleer, 4km NE of Keady Tassagh, 3.5km NE of Keady - flourishing on shady Scotch Street, Timakeel Ballyfodrin, 1.5km NW of Portadown - railway bridge, H9755 some on each arch (1990) Bleary – bridge over stream Dactylorhiza incarnata L. (Soo) Early Marsh Orchid There are more than 25 records in the CEDaR database , but many of these are errors or duplicates, or from sites that no longer support marsh orchids. Praeger listed the species as one of those found in more or less abundance in al parts of the county, but he did not distinguish it from D. purpurella/majalis. Listed below are the few which have been credibly attributed to one of the subspecies. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. coccinea (Pugsley) Soó
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
Endemic to Ireland and Britain, and found chiefly on dune slacks but also inland in calcareous fens and flushes. The Kiltubbrid Loughs (now an ASSI) have been monitored over the past 30-40 years, so it is odd that such a prominent, although very rare plant, lay undetected for so long. The explanation may be that most previous visits have been too late in the season for identification purposes – the record below was made on 19th June. The identification has not been confirmed by an orchid expert. Kiltubbrid Loughs north – at least 44 spikes present in H7639 J S Faulkner & I McNeill fen on east side of lough
Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. pulchella (Druce) Soó
Armagh: Native, rare (3)
This subspecies may also be endemic to Ireland and Britain. It is found in more acid situations than ssp. coccinea. The likelihood is that it was once more widespread in Armagh, but has been lost through drainage, fertilising and herbicides. The Terryhoogan site has been used for refuse disposal. south of Teague's Bridge, River Blackwater Terryhoogan Moss - growing among vegetation around bog pools Dactylorhiza purpurella (T. & T.A. Stephenson) Soó Northern Marsh-orchid Armagh: Native, scarce (6) Taxonomic instability and confusion with D. incarnata makes it difficult to assess this taxon reliably. There are several records from Selshion Bog, but I believe the plant present there to be D. incarnata ssp pulchella. Otherwise, all records within the database are reproduced below unless anonymous. It is very noticeable that the majority of these records are old ones, and there is little doubt that the species is becoming scarcer. Drumnahavil Bog Crossbane Lough – 3 plants at two sites J S Faulkner & I McNeill Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh Gosford Castle Forest Park as majalis 1965-1967 N Dawson Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Maghery, Lough Neagh Derrylard, Lough Neagh 1970-1986 I & D McNeill & R Irvine Ballyhannon, Portadown Upper Bann, Portadown Brackagh Bog (pools) Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve -2 plants Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derryadd, Lough Neagh P Hackney & BSBI Kinnegoe Harbour (Bay), Lough Neagh Oxford Island National Nature Reserve
Dactylorhiza x transiens (Druce) Soó (D. fuchsi x D. maculata)
Armagh: Native, rare (3)
A single record, but it is likely that this hybrid has occurred occasionally without being noticed. Carrickabolie SE – 2 very vigorous plants J S Faulkner & I McNeill Drosera anglica Huds. Great Sundew Armagh: Native, rare (2) A widespread insectivorous plant of bogs throughout much of Ireland, but it has declined fast and is listed as Near Threatened in the Great Britain RDB. Formerly present on most bogs in the north of the county, but now rare and not recorded anywhere since 1994. Argory woodland, east of Argory; Copney village Bog at Annaghmore Derryvane, 3km NW of Portadown Bog near Maghery W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Derryhubbert area Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Church Hill, Peatlands Park Annagarriff Lake Derryloste Bog - common 1985-1987 I Rippey Maghery to Ardmore Point – often abundant on bogs H96 along Lough Neagh shore Bog south of Portadown Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derrytrasna Bog, Derryadd 1965-1967 Queen's University Belfast Oxford Island National Nature Reserve S Beesley & J Wilde Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Drosera intermedia Hayne Oblong-leaved Sundew Armagh: Native, rare (3) Generally less common in Ireland than D. anglica, but in similar habitats. Most of the Armagh records are within what is now known as Peatlands Park, with a few from other bogs in the north of the county. Derryhubbert area Annagarriff Lake Peatlands Country Park J S Faulkner & BSBI Brackagh Bog (pools) T Harrison det. J S Pate Bogs south of Annagarriff Lake – almost entirely replacing D. anglica Derrytrasna Bog, Derryadd Dryopteris aemula (Aiton) Kuntze Hay-scented Buckler-fern Armagh: Native, scarce (6) A fern of well-drained sites with high humidity. In Ireland, relatively common where the Atlantic influence is strong. Scattered in Armagh, in moist shady habitats. Tynan Abbey Estate Fellows (Crearum) Hall, east of Tynan Dorsey Earthworks – 2-3 plants at lower end east of By the Cully Water below Silverbridge Ballynaleck (Ballinaleck), 2.5km SW of Poyntz Pass - very rare on steep dry bank of stream J Farren, K Anderson & G Watson Ferry Hil above Narrow Water - plentiful Fathom (Newry) Forest Echium vulgare Linnaeus Viper's Bugloss Armagh: Native, rare (1) In Ireland, mainly a plant of dry soils near the east coast. The sole record of this very rare species in Armagh was of casual plants beside a road. Cashel Lough upper – 2 plants Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Elatine hexandra (Lapierre) DC. Six-stamened Waterwort Armagh: Native, rare (1) An inconspicuous annual that grows in mud above or below the waterline at the edge of lakes and pools, very rare in Co. Armagh. Most Irish records are from Donegal or Cork / Kerry. Mullaghmore Lake – eastern margin Cam Lough (Camlough) N.I. Lake Survey Derryadd Bay – SE edge Kinnegoe Harbour R Ll Praeger & W J Sayers Mouth of Closet River Elatine hydropiper Linnaeus Eight-stamened Waterwort Ireland: RDB Rare Armagh: Native, scarce (8) Similar to the last, but with a very unusual pattern of distribution in the British Isles. In Ireland it is confined to East Ulster, and in Britain it occurs primarily in Anglesey and the central lowlands of Scotland. To some extent, this distribution may an artefact of recording patterns. It is notable that all of the post-1986 Armagh records were made during the NI Lake Survey, and the species has not now been seen since 1991. E. hydropiper was scheduled in the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985, but de-scheduled in 2011. N.I. Lake Survey Darkley Reservoir N.I. Lake Survey Columbkille Point, Lough Neagh Bannfoot, Lough Neagh, shoreline to NE Reedy Flat, Derryinver N.I. Lake Survey Derrycrow East, Derrytrasna Derrycrow, Derryinver Newry – in the canal N.I. Lake Survey N.I. Lake Survey N.I. Lake Survey Ardmore Point – bay to west Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Derryadd, Lough Neagh BSBI & P Hackney Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Kinnegoe Bay, Lough Neagh The Rock, Lough Neagh N.I. Lake Survey Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Bird's Island, Lough Neagh E N Carrothers & J McK.Moon N.I. Lake Survey Kinnegoe, Lough Neagh Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Eleocharis acicularis (Linnaeus) Roem. & Schult. Needle Spike-rush Armagh: Native, rare (1) A perennial of lake, pool and river margins, scattered through Ireland, now very rare in Co. Armagh. At one time it must have been frequent around Lough Neagh, but has now apparently disappeared. However, the plant has a reputation for reappearing when conditions are favourable, e.g. at times of low water, so it may still be present in small quantities. Banks of Lough Neagh NE of Bannfoot, Lough Neagh - shoreline Derrycrow, Derryinver Reedy Flat, Derryinver N.I. Lake Survey Derrytrasna, Lough Neagh H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Banks of Closet River Bay west of Ardmore Point Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Kinnegoe Point to Oxford Island Bird's Island, Lough Neagh Ellis's Gut, Kilmore Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O. Schwarz Few-flowered Spike-rush Armagh: Native, rare (4) A low perennial of open sites with base-rich ground water. In Ireland, increasing in frequency from south to north. The Armagh records have no obvious pattern to them, except that the four most recent have al been in the vicinity of Slieve Gullion. Loughadian – marsh on north side of former lake Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Slieve Gullion – south side Slieve Gullion – south tail above Drumintee Slieve Gullion – north slope Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Closet River to Ardmore Rectory Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Elymus caninus (Linnaeus) Linnaeus Bearded Couch Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A tufted perennial grass of a range of shady and often damp habitats. In Ireland, it seems to be commoner in the north-east than elsewhere, but this could be in part a reflection of greater recording effort. Most of the Armagh records are associated with rivers, but it may well be under-recorded. I McNeill & J S Faulkner River Callan at Armagh Gorge above Maydown Bridge River Blackwater above Blackwatertown Bridge By Mullaghmore Lake Ballybay River area P Hackney, J Wilde & J W D Semple Cusher River at Tandragee Cusher River below Tandragee Acton – 1 clump beside burn Dynes Bridge, Upper Bann Elytrigia juncea (Linnaeus) Nevski Sand Couch Armagh: Absent This is strictly a species of unconsolidated sandy maritime habitats. A record of E. juncea from Folly Glen in 1989 is almost certainly a recording error for E. caninus, which had been noted earlier at the same site (see above). Empetrum nigrum Linnaeus Crowberry Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A dwarf shrub, typical y found on upland heath throughout Ireland. On Slieve Gullion, it is frequent across the higher parts of the mountain. The Derryadd Lough record is from an atypical lowland bog site. Newtownhamilton Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Fathom Forest, Newry Forestry Service Clermont – hill slopes above Clontygora Hills to south of Slieve Gullion towards Forkhill Slieve Gullion area – scattered across top of mountain J02 A Waterman & P Corbett Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J S Faulkner & I McNeill J S Faulkner & BSBI Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Epilobium x limosum Schur (E. parviflorum x E. montanum)
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
This is regarded as one of the commoner Epilobium hybrids. While there is only one record for it in Armagh, it is very likely that it occurs more frequently but has been overlooked. Drumcarn Fen (ASSI), Drumnahavil Bog G Watson & I Enlander Epipactis palustris (Linnaeus) Crantz Marsh Helleborine Ireland: RDB Not Threatened N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Native, rare (1) An orchid of dune slacks and calcareous fens and wet pastures. The sole Armagh population is on a steep wet clay slope over limestone in a former railway cutting. The plant must have colonised the site long before the closure of the railway, but the population continues in good health. Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve (UWT) - told H8642 to R Ll Praeger who disbelieved her (1941); 650 in flower and many others not flowering (1987) Ulster Wildlife Trust Equisetum hyemale Linnaeus Rough Horsetail Armagh: Native, rare (3) A plant of shady riverine woodland that is nowhere common but perhaps more frequent in Ulster than elsewhere in Ireland or Britain. Al of the recent Armagh records, though in three different hectads, are from a fairly small area in the catchment of the Butter Water. Drumduff, 1.5km below Maydown Bridge Butter Water at Lisnadill - c. 3 patches on east bank SW of Ennislare House Carn Water, Carn Glen - on both sides of the glen for H910384 50-100m above confluence, in quantity
Equisetum x litorale Kühlew. ex Rupr. (E. arvense x E. fluviatile) Shore Horsetail
Armagh: Native, scarce (5)
General y regarded as the most frequent Equisetum hybrid, and most frequently seen on lake shores though not confined to this habitat. The Armagh records appear to follow this pattern. A record from Lisnafeedy is an error. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Crossbane Bog – on disturbed peaty surface beside Clay Lake north – on exposed shore at dam J S Faulkner det. P Acock J S Faulkner & I McNeill Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Erigeron acris Linnaeus Blue Fleabane Ireland: Native, RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Introduced, rare (1) This is a small annual to biennial plant of open thin soils, usually calcareous. In Armagh it appears to behave as casual. The Ballyknick population was on spoil at a limestone quarry. Tynan Abbey Estate - not seen since, planted. The Palace Grounds, Armagh -planted? Ballyknick (Ballynick), 1.5km SW of Loughgall - several H894507 hundred plants Erodium cicutarium (Linnaeus) L'Hér. Common Stork's-bill Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (1) As a native, this species is almost exclusively coastal in Ireland. The single Armagh record is obviously casual. Drumherriff Lodge, Loughgall – single plant in recently sown grass, probably introduced with grass seed Erysimum cheiri (Linnaeus) Crantz Wallflower Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (2) Commonly grown in gardens as a bedding plant, and occasionally naturalised on walls as a short-lived perennial. Possibly under-recorded in Armagh. Poyntzpass – naturalised on stone walls J S Faulkner & I McNeill Eupatorium cannabinum Linnaeus Hemp-agrimony Armagh: Native, rare (2) A perennial of damp basic soils, which is rather more common elsewhere in Ireland than in Armagh. The Loughgall population has been known for a long time, but remains confined to two areas. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Derrycaw - woodland Loughgall manor grounds – by the lake W F Johnson & R Ll Praeger Loughgall Manor Euphorbia exigua Linnaeus Dwarf Spurge Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (0) Formerly a widespread weed of arable land in Ireland, but now much declined. In his survey of the Co. Armagh flora in 1893, Praeger included it in his list of common species which he found in more or less abundance in every part of the county, but it has only been recorded once since then. The species is listed in the British RDB as Near Co. Armagh – in more or less abundance Euphorbia hyberna Linnaeus Irish Spurge Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual or planted, rare (0) In Ireland, almost confined to the south-west, where it is considered native. The single Armagh record can be assumed to be an introduction. Clare Castle – riverbank in old plantation Euphrasia confusa Pugsley Confused Eyebright Armagh: Unknown Mainly coastal in Ireland. There is a single record from Darkley Reservoir near Keady in 1998, but this requires confirmation. Euphrasia micrantha Rchb. Slender Eyebright Armagh: Native, scarce (6) One of the more frequent Euphrasia species in Ireland, found mostly on acid heath and grassland. In Armagh, confined to the south of the county. There is an old record from Drumlougher Lough (1964) that requires confirmation. Jonesborough hectad 1993-1994 J Harron Foughill Etra – in heath vegetation Cam Lough north – in short base-poor turf Cam Lough C – edge of roadside quarry Enagh Lough – steep banks to south Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Euphrasia nemorosa (Pers.) Wallr. Common Eyebright Armagh: Native, rare (1) Another of the more frequent species in Ireland, but said to favour less acid situations than E. micrantha. The Armagh records have no obvious pattern to them and some doubt must be attached to whether they present a true picture of its distribution. M P H Kertland det. P Hackney & M 1987-1999 I McNeill Hamiltonsbawn (Hamilton's Bawn)
Euphrasia officinalis ssp. anglica (Pugsley) Silverside English Eyebright
Armagh: Unknown
Records from Clay Lake (2005) and from Lurgan Lough Upper (2006) require confirmation. If correct, they would be from close to the northern edge of its distribution.
Euphrasia officinalis ssp. pratensis Schubl. & G. Martens Rostkov's Eyebright
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
A grassland species, once scattered throughout much of Ireland but apparently declining. There is just one record in Armagh, though it may well have been overlooked elsewhere. Listed as Vulnerable in the British RDB. M P H Kertland det. P Hackney Euphrasia scottica Wettst. Scottish Eyebright Armagh: Native, if present Characteristic of wet flushes and moorland. A single record of this species from Slieve Gullion (2014I) requires confirmation. Festuca altissima All. Wood Fescue Armagh: Native, scarce (8) A long-lived perennial grass typical y found on shady ledges in steep wooded glens on neutral to basic soils. Its habitat can be inaccessible. The records from Benburb, Maydown and Carrickaness all probably relate to one small population on a cliff overlooking the Armagh bank of the River Blackwater. As well as the records given below, there are several from rather unlikely sites in Demesne woodlands that cannot be accepted without confirmatory evidence. Benburb Gorge at Carrickaness Habitat Survey Team, NIEA 1987-1991 I, D & A McNeill, J S Faulkner & N Carrickaness, Benburb Maydown, Benburb Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carrickaness – c. 12 plants at base of cliff J S Faulkner & I McNeill Glendesha, west of Crosslieve Hil Goragh Wood - steep wooded slope, scattered thinly, J0631 mostly as undersized and isolated plants along the rim where the slope gives way to a vertical face (1993); 19 clumps (2005) Cusher River in Tandragee Lower Demesne – on steep J04 Cusher River above Tandragee 1972-1973 J Harron Cusher River below Tandragee 1972-1973 J Harron Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal M P H Kertland & J.McK. Moon Festuca filiformis Pourr. Fine-leaved Sheep's-fescue Armagh: Native, scarce (7) Its distribution in Ireland is unclear as most botanists do not have the confidence to distinguish it from F. ovina. All the Armagh records are from the south of the county in the name of the same recorder. Mullaghbane Mountain Cam Lough north – on rocky ground Cam Lough C – roadside quarry Fathom Mountain Enagh Lough – steep backs to the south Filago minima (Sm.) Pers. Smal Cudweed Ireland: FPO, RDB Rare Armagh: Native, rare (0) A small annual of open sandy or other generally acidic situations, such as lake shores, tracks, and sand or gravel quarries. It is still frequent in the Sperrins to the north-west, but may have disappeared from Armagh. The Goragh Wood plants were recorded by Norah Dawson as F. minima, but appear in the CEDaR database as F. vulgaris. It is unclear whether this is an error or a deliberate re-determination. Charlestown or Bannfoot, Lough Neagh Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Filago vulgaris Lam. Common Cudweed Armagh: Native, rare or extinct (0) In similar situations to the last, but more broad in its pH tolerance, and much declined in Ireland. Apparently now extinct in Armagh (but see F. minima above). The species is listed as Near Threatened in the British RDB. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fennel Ireland: Archaeophyte or neophyte? Armagh: Casual, rare (0) Long cultivated as an herb, but perhaps never fully established as a naturalised species in Armagh. Mullynure (Mullinure), Armagh Killycapple quarry - dump Frangula alnus Mill. Alder Buckthorn Ireland: RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A small tree, often on fen peat, almost confined in Ireland to the midlands and Lough Neagh basin. All of the Armagh records listed below are from within what is now known as Peatlands Park, where it is undoubtedly indigenous, but there have been deliberate attempts to assist its spread. There are unconfirmed records from Tynan, Knappagh House and Carganamuck. Peatlands Country Park - c. 5 smal bushes seen on gravel path (1987); according to K. Stanfield there are H9060 about 200 there; several shrubs (2005) J S Faulkner & BSBI Mullenakill Nature Reserve, Peatlands Country Park – H8961 one bush near path (1994) Derryavana, Derrytresk – one bush on bogland at the H8962 Annagarriff National Nature Reserve, Peatlands Country Park-12-15 smal bushes (1999) Annagarriff Lake - the lake was already partly drained H9061 and devoted to peat cutting in 1938 Derrylee, Peatlands Country Park Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park - destroyed H9160 in a fire about 1975 Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Fumaria capreolata Linnaeus White Rampling-fumitory Armagh: Native, scarce (5) Largely coastal in Ireland, but there is a sprinkling of records across inland Armagh. Roadsides near Portadown, Armagh, Tartaraghan, Loughgilly and Newry Marlacoo Lake - recently disturbed ground, including H990450 imported soil (probably) Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve S A Wolfe-Murphy, A McMullan, P Corbett, S J Leach & P J T Brain Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Fumaria densiflora DC. Dense-flowered Fumitory Armagh: Archaeophyte, or neophyte? Extinct (0) Always very rare in Ireland and now possibly extinct throughout. Salter's Grange – gravel pit near the railway Galeopsis speciosa Mill. Large-flowered Hemp-nettle Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare or extinct (0) Most of the Irish records of this annual arable weed are from the northern extremity of the island. It has declined very sharply with changes in agricultural practice, to the extent that in Britain it is listed in the RDB as Vulnerable. Praeger did not see the plant in his survey of Armagh, but mentions an earlier record from Tandragee with the comment that many older records … are unreliable. Bann Far Waterfoot, Derrylard 1968-1970 J Harron Galium boreale Linnaeus Northern Bedstraw Armagh: Native, extinct (0) Formerly frequent around the Lough Neagh shore, but now largely confined in Ireland to the western limestone and northern basalt. Not recorded in Armagh since the 19th century. Banks of Lough Neagh Ardmore, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Bird's Island, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Galium uliginosum Linnaeus Fen Bedstraw N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, rare (1) A herb of base-rich strongly calcareous fens, with an Irish distribution concentrated in the midlands. The only confirmed Armagh site at Kiltubbrid fits this mould. There are unconfirmed records from Derryadd Lough and Ballynalack Fen, which would not be typical habitats. The species is certainly in decline, though the extent of the decline is partially obscured by confusion with G. palustre. Kiltubbrid Loughs Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Gentianella amarella (Linnaeus) Börner Autumn Gentian N.I.: WOAA Armagh: absent There are two records of this species from Peatlands Park in 1991, but both are incorrect. Gentianella campestris (Linnaeus) Börner Field Gentian N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, rare (1) An annual to biennial of open pastures, road verges and heaths. In Ireland, most records have been close to the north or west coasts. It has declined considerably in both Ireland and Britain and is listed as Vulnerable in the Great Britain RDB. It was therefore against the usual trend that the species was first recorded in Armagh as recently as 2000. Levallymore, NW of Slieve Gullion Geranium pratense Linnaeus Meadow Crane's-bill Ireland: Native N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Casual, rare (1) Believed to be native near the North Antrim coast, but introduced elsewhere in Ireland. It can be difficult to determine whether particular occurrences of this attractive perennial are native or introduced, but the Armagh records certainly fal into into the latter category. Quarry south of Tynan - perhaps a garden escape, but H769422 appeared to be the native plant, and not a garden hybrid (1991); several plants in quarry and on road verge (2012) Old Road from Armagh to Killylea (garden escape) Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Geranium sylvaticum Linnaeus Wood Crane's-bill Ireland: Native, RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Casual, rare (0) Native in the Antrim Glens. In Ireland generally, this species is not as often naturalised as the previous one. As well as the three sites listed below, there are records for Gosford and Slieve Gul ion Forest Parks that require confirmation. Slieve Gullion – roadside to the west
Geum x intermedium Ehrh. (G. rivale x G. urbanum)
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
Frequently occurs wherever the parent species co-exist, and not always easy to record as it is fertile and commonly backcrosses. Its rarity in Armagh reflects the scarcity of G. rivale. As well as the records given below, there are unconfirmed records from Armagh City and Annasamry in 2004. Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh South of Carganamuck quarry Copses in the park at Loughgall Manor Geum rivale Linnaeus Water Avens Armagh: Native, scarce (9) This species is somewhat commoner further west or north in Ulster. In my experience it has become scarce in Armagh and occurs mainly on the limestone, although some of the records listed below are from sites over the Ordovician greywacke and shales. Records from Gosford Forest, Carnagh Forest, and Drumnaleg require confirmation. Kiltubbrid Loughs Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Tynan Abbey Estate Lissheagh - woodland Lodge, 0.5km north of Mount Irwin (House) Fellows (Crearum) Hall, east of Tynan Mullinure Meadows Castle Dillon Estate Ennislare House – woodland to SW Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carganamuck, 3.5km N of Armagh – two patches A Waterman & R J H Hamill Loughgall Quarry 2 J Fitzgerald & M P H Kertland Magees Glen, Armaghbrague Loughgall Manor Lough Gall - small but vigorous patch c. 1m across beside path at SE corner of lake, single plant in east Cusher River at Tandragee Glaux maritima Linnaeus Sea-milkwort Armagh: Native, rare (1) Confined to the short stretch of coast in Armagh, and only noted once recently, although said to be abundant by Praeger in 1892. Estuary of Newry River - abundant Rough Island, Newry River Glebionis segetum (Linnaeus) Fourr. Corn Marigold Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (9) Formerly regarded as a serious weed of spring-sown cereals, and common in every part of the county as recently as the 1960s. Because of its conspicuous flowers, its rapid demise has been more obvious than that of other weedy species. Today, it is more often seen as a component of sown wildflower mixtures than as a wild plant. Tynan area – 2 sites Marrassit or College Hall, north of Tynan Cullaville area – 2 sites Carnagh area – 3 sites Carrickduff, 6km south of Keady Keady area – 4 sites Maddan near Keady Armagh City area – 4 sites Bryer's Corner – abundant in poor barley crop J S Faulkner & I McNeill Charlemont area – 2 sites south of Benburb Crossmaglen area – 4 sites Mullaghbane Lough Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Newtownhamilton area – 4 sites Cladymilltown area – 4 sites Killycapple, 2.5km SE of Armagh - spring barley field H907403 (very thin crop) Hamiltownbawn area – 3 sites Drumnamether – 3 small plants Loughgall area – 3 sites Drumil y, 0.5km south of Loughgal Foy More – may have been introduced with bird seed H9758 Maghery & Charlestown area – 2 sites Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Derrylard, Lough Neagh Forkhill area – 3 sites Newry area – 4 sites Jerrettspass area – 4 sites Cusher River at Tandragee Tandragee area – 3 sites J S Faulkner & I McNeill Craigavon area – 4 sites Roadside at Carn Brackagh Bog - dump Balancing Lakes, Craigavon Oxford Island area – 2 sites Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Kinnegoe, Lough Neagh Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb. Reed Sweet-grass Armagh: Native, rare (2) A tall emergent grass of standing or slow moving water, widespread in Ireland but commoner further south. There is evidence that it spreading, probably with the assistance of human activities. R G Mathers & J Preston Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Glyceria x pedicellata F. Towns (G. fluitans x G. notata) Hybrid Sweet-grass
Armagh: Native, scarce (8)
This grass is one of the most frequent hybrids in the Irish flora, but it is under-recorded. Both parent species are widespread and the hybrid though sterile is vigorous and persistent. The Armagh records show that it is widespread in the county, although they almost certainly underestimate its frequency. J S Faulkner & I McNeill Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh - east side of wood, wet corner of grass field Ballygroobany – abundant in drain at edge of fen Milltown – extensive patches below former shoreline H9363 Charlestown or Bannfoot, Lough Neagh Gnaphalium sylvaticum Linnaeus Heath Cudweed Ireland: FPO, RDB Rare N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, extinct (0) The range of this formerly widespread species has collapsed throughout much of Ireland, though there have been some recent records in the greater Sperrins area. It is very striking that Praeger could describe it as frequent in the hil s south of Newry and yet it has never since been recorded. A similar decline has taken place in Great Britain where it is listed as Endangered in the RDB. Hills south to Newry - frequent 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Derryadd, Lough Neagh 1892-1893 H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Groenlandia densa (Linnaeus) Fourr. Opposite-leaved Pondweed Ireland: FPO, RDB Vulnerable Armagh: Native There is one record from Castledil on Lake in 1969, but confirmatory evidence is required. Gymnadenia conopsea (Linnaeus) R.Br. sens. lat. Chalk Fragrant-orchid Armagh: Native, scarce (9) Until recently, recorders in Armagh have not distinguished between G. conopsea s.s., G densiflora and G. borealis. All the populations recorded since 2007 fal within the range of G. densiflora and I consider it likely that most of the earlier records below belong to that species also, especial y those from the limestone area north and west of Armagh City. The most likely exceptions would be the records from the south of the county, i.e. Mullaghbane Mountain, Newtownhamilton and Friary Glen, where the available habitat suggests G. borealis as more likely species. G. densiflora appears to behave as an opportunist that can colonise bare lime-rich sites such as quarries and newly exposed road and railway banks, later being squeezed out if the site becomes too rank or intensively mown. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Kiltubbrid Loughs Fenbase Surveyor Old railway west of Tynan Lisadian (Thompson's) Quarry (as G. densiflora, 2007) H8446 J S Faulkner & I McNeill Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve (UWT) (as G. H860430 densiflora, 2007, 2009) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Loughnashade - on terraces above; several hundred Rocks Quarry, Ballyheridan Mullynure, Armagh Carganamuck, 3.5km N of Armagh - 2 plants Annacramp Quarry – 2 plants on spoil (as G. Loughgall Quarry 2 J Fitzgerald & M P H Kertland Mullaghbane Mountain Newtownhamilton Lisdoo Lake, 3.5km NE of Markethill Drumnasoo, 1.5km SW of Portadown NW facing grassy slope near Dobbin Garden Centre on Portadown - Armagh road Dobbin Bridge, Ballybay River - 400+ plants Drumintee, Slieve Gullion - roadside bank
x Gymnanacamptis anacamptis (Gymnadenia conopsea x Anacamptis pyramidalis) Asch.& Graebn.
Armagh: Native, if present
A record of this hybrid at Navan Fort in 1999 is probably an error. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Hammarbya paludosa (Linnaeus) Kuntze Bog Orchid Ireland: FPO, RDB Rare N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Native, rare (1) A very inconspicuous little orchid of boggy sites where there is lateral water movement. It is widespread but apparently rather scarce in Ireland, and may have disappeared from many lowland sites such as the Montiaghs where it was seen by Hyndman. The Clermont site has been searched several times since 2001 without success. There are other suitable locations in the south of the county and it remains possible that it occurs at some of these. Montiagh Bogs between Lurgan and Lough Neagh Clermont Mountain NW slopes - slow upland flush at J0817 about 300m, four plants seen in one site only (1993); J089177 J S Faulkner & I McNeill 5 spikes (2001) Hedera hibernica (G. Kirchn.) Bean Atlantic Ivy Armagh: Native, scarce (5) The apparent scarcity of this species is probably due to most recorders lacking the confidence to distinguish it from Goraghwood Quarry Goragh Wood north Gambles Bridge, Newry Canal Hieracium L. Hawkweeds There are not many species of this large apomictic genus in the county, and al are rare. Apart from H. grandidens, which is introduced and therefore not included here, their identities have not for the most part been expertly confirmed. It seems more appropriate, therefore, to list the records all in a single table rather than under a series of doubtful species headings. The Cashel Lough population was first found by M P H Kertland, but details of her record are missing. Bridge at Milltown Mill, as Hieracium sp. Annaghmare Cairn, The Black Castle, Aranas Cairn, as H905177 Cashel Lough Lower – as H. umbellatum ssp. I McNeill & J S Faulkner det. P Hackney & D McCosh Cashel Lough Lower - on rock reef in reed swamp, strong patch, as Hieracium sect. Foliosa County Bridge – 1 plant on gravel near entrance to drive up to house, north of the bridge as Hieracium Slieve Gullion, as Hieracium sp. Slieve Gullion – north end, a tiny group, as sect. Cerinthoides, H. anglicum? Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Huperzia selago (Linnaeus) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. Fir Clubmoss Armagh: Native, scarce (6) Typically a plant of acid upland heath, but occasionally found on lowland heath or bog. It occurs in small quantities on the higher parts of Slieve Gullion, and in Peatlands Park, but may have disappeared from other sites. Carrigatuke, Armaghbrague Derryhubbert area Peatlands Country Park Church Hill, Peatlands Park Annagarriff Area, Peatlands Country Park M P H Kertland & J W Fitzgerald Slieve Gullion – knoll on west side, 3 plants Slieve Gullion – 2 plants immediately north of North J S Faulkner & BSBI Camlough Mountain Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Linnaeus Frogbit Armagh: Native, rare (4) Occasional in ditches, pools and sheltered lake margins across the centre of Ireland. Al of the Armagh records are from an area either side of the River Bann between Portadown and Lough Neagh, where it has been known since the 19th century. There is no doubt, however, that it has become more difficult to find here, and there are no post-2000 records. It is listed as Vulnerable in the British RDB. Derryvane, 3km NW of Portadown East side of River Bann at Derryvore Lough Gullion bog Bog drains by roadside half mile south of Derryadd Derryadd Lough Carrothers et al. 1947 Derrytrasna Bog, Derryadd Queen's University Belfast Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Ardmore Rectory to Jetty Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Oxford Island National Nature Reserve S Beesley & J Wilde Junction 10 (Oxford Island), M1 Motorway Castor Bay, Clanrolla Hymenophyllum tunbrigense (L.) Sm. Tunbridge Filmy Fern Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A fern requiring high humidity, which is characteristic of sheltered shady sites in western upland areas, and is scarce in the east of Ireland. Its one recorded site straddles the border with Co. Louth. This was at one time a well-known site for the plant. In 1988 & 1989, J Harron found 2 tiny patches at the site, but only on the Co. Louth side of the border. Glen on Ferry Hil W J C Tomlinson Hymenophyllum wilsoni Hook Wilson's Filmy Fern Armagh: Native, rare (1) Similar situations to the previous species, but somewhat more frequent. Only one small patch has been known in Armagh. Slieve Gullion – small vertical patch under 1 boulder & horizontal patches on 5 stones under another J S Faulkner & I McNeill boulder Hyoscyamus niger Linnaeus Henbane N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0) Sometimes regarded as native in coastal locations in Ireland, but rare and declining. Its one record in Armagh was certainly casual. Recorder given as Thompson (Flora
Hypericum x desetangsii Lamotte (H. perforatum x H. maculatum) Des Etangs' St John's-wort
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
An occasional hybrid, sometimes found in the absence of the parent species. Possibly overlooked in other locations. Drumherriff Lodge – as volunteer, in herb bed where H915528 both parents present Oxford Island Discovery Centre Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Hypericum elodes Linnaeus Marsh St John's-wort Armagh: Native, scarce (5) A plant of wet acid pools and seepages, much more frequent in the west and absent from central Ireland. Al the Armagh sites are in the upland south-east of the county. Cashel Loughs – patch on north edge of lough (2007) H9619 Slievenacappel, 4.5km NW of Slieve Gullion - water filled hollow on small ledge on steep hillside, small colony of about 3 metres long North base of Slieve Gullion by Ballard Ballintemple, Slieve Gullion I McNeill & J S Faulkner Cam Lough (Camlough) Fathom Mountain Hypericum hirsutum Linnaeus Hairy St John's-wort Ireland: FPO, RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Native? Rare (3) The species is confined to a few sites in the east of Ireland, notably in the Dublin area and formerly close to Belfast - a distribution which calls into question its supposedly native status. The Carrickaness population appears to have died out in recent years, unless it survives as a seed bank. Carrickaness, Benburb – 57 plants (1988): Faulkner, Canary east – 3 plants growing as casuals in front of garden hedge in herbicided area Drumherriff Lodge – introduced and spreading Inula helenium Linnaeus Elecampane Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) A persistent perennial, once grown for medicinal purposes, and occasionally naturalised. Apparently declining generally, and seldom encountered in Armagh. Quarry at Ballygasey, Loughgall Lislea - roadside Iris foetidissima Linnaeus Stinking Iris Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (4) Occurs in Ireland as an occasional escape from cultivation, but can be very persistent in shade. Native in Southern Britain. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Tynan Abbey Estate Maddan near Keady The Grange - woodland Derryadd Orange Hall - garden escape Derrycarran, Cloncore I & A McNeill & J S Faulkner Isatis tinctoria Linnaeus Woad Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) Cultivated as a dye plant in Ireland since written records began, but it fell out of use long ago. It is, at best, a short-lived perennial, so persists only by setting seed. The record below appears to be one of only two known casual occurrences in Ireland since the early 19th century. Brackagh Bog – roadside Weyl et al. 1989 1987-1988 R J Bleakley & D K Stanley Isoetes lacustris Linnaeus Quillwort Armagh: Native, rare (1) A submerged aquatic of oligotrophic lakes, chiefly in upland areas of the west. It is easily overlooked, but nevertheless it is remarkable that Praeger found it three times in his short survey, while the intensive and wel -resourced N.I. Lake Survey of a century later only located it once. Decline because of eutrophication is implicated. In relation to records by Praeger, the expression west end of Lough Ross is puzzling because the shore implied by this statement is in Co. Monaghan: as he attributed the record to Armagh, one must assume that Praeger intended the western extremity of the Armagh section. Cashel Lough is ambiguous in that there are Upper and Lower loughs, in close proximity but one in each of two hectads: the assumption made in the grid reference given below is that the plant was in the larger Upper Lough. Location Lough Ross – west end 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Cashel Lough (Upper?) 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Mullaghmore Lough – east shore 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Cam Lough (Camlough) N.I. Lake Survey Isolepis cernua (Vhl) Roem. & Schult. Slender Club-rush Armagh: Native, rare (1) An inconspicuous plant of damp to wet ground al round the Irish coast. Its rarity in Armagh is due to the meagre length of the coastline. Saltmarsh by sea wall below Newry 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Newry River Estuary at Fathom Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Juncus foliosus Desf. Leafy Rush Armagh: Native, rare (2) Not well known as a distinct species from J. bufonius until recently. It probably occurs throughout Ireland on muddy margins of freshwater lakes and pools, wet meadows etc. Almost certainly under-recorded. Cam Lough C – colony on bare damp slope Fathom Park – in tractor wheel ruts along spring line J096226 at top of field Juncus gerardii Loisel Saltmarsh Rush Armagh: Native, rare (1) Abundant in saltmarsh and other saline habitats round the Irish coast. There is little suitable habitat in Armagh. Estuary of Newry River - abundant Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Juncus maritimus Lamarck Sea Rush Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A frequent species on saltmarsh and sheltered stony shores round the Irish coast, but not recorded in Armagh since the 19th century. Brackish places below Newry Juncus ranarius Songeon & E.P. Perrier Frog Rush Armagh: Native, rare (1) As with J. foliosus, this species has not until recently been recognised and recorded by local botanists as distinct from J. bufonius. It occurs in damp brackish habitats close, usually, to the sea, so it is unlikely to occur widely in Fathom Upper east – colonising roadside verge Juncus subnodulosus Schrank Blunt-flowered Rush Armagh: Native, rare (3) A plant of base-rich fens, ditches and lake margins, throughout much of Ireland except the northern and southern extremes. The Selshion site is not typical. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Tul ybrick Lough Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Mullan Lough – scattered in fen on north side of I McNeill & J S Faulkner Selshion Bog or quarry Habitat Survey Team, NIEA
Juncus x surrejanus Druce ex Stace & Lambinon (J. articulatus x J. acutiflorus)
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
This almost sterile hybrid is said to occur frequently where the two parent species are present, and is sometimes commoner than either of them. It may be routinely mistaken for one or other parent, and is possibly much more frequent in Armagh than the records below indicate, notably along the shores of Lough Neagh. Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh – on wet lake Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Lamium amplexicaule Linnaeus Hen-bit Dead-nettle Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) A scarce annual of cultivated land and disturbed ground, rare in Ireland and mostly in the east. It appears to have declined in Armagh since the time of Praeger, and is now no more than a rare casual. Ruin at west base of Slieve Gullion Cor Tynan – on re-seeded roadside verge Grange, near Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Near Loughgall - several plants in cultivated ground Railway, 2 miles south of Portadown Lamium confertum Fr. Northern Dead-nettle Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0) Similar to the last species, but with a more northern distribution, notably more common in Scotland. Not recorded in Armagh since the 1890s. Grange, near Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Maghery, Lough Neagh Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lathyrus palustris Linnaeus Marsh Pea Ireland: RDB Not Threatened Armagh: Native, rare (1) A perennial of base-rich fens with a very localised distribution in Ireland. In contrast to the Erne catchment, where it is widespread, it appears that its range has contracted around Lough Neagh, with possibly only one site now remaining in Armagh. A record from Oxford Island (1987) requires confirmation. The species was scheduled in the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985, but deleted from the Schedule in 2011. In Great Britain, it is listed as Near Threatened in the RDB. Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Closet River - extinct by 1986 H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Clanrolla, Lough Neagh Morrow's Point, Clanrolla 1969-1978 J Harron
Leontodon hispidus Linnaeus Rough Hawkbit
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
A perennial of dry neutral to base-rich grassland that is frequent across the Irish Midlands but almost unknown north of a line from Dundalk to Sligo. The site of the only Armagh record is a few kilometres north of this line. A Waterman & Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Limonium humile Mill. Lax-flowered Sea-lavender Armagh: Native, rare (2) A common species of saltmarsh around most of the Irish coast. In Armagh, restricted to the tidal areas of the Newry River estuary. Estuary of Newry River - common Newry River area Newry River Estuary at Fathom Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Linum bienne Mill. Pale Flax Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, rare (1) Although native in SE Ireland, this species is a casual introduction in Armagh. A record from Annaloist Bridge (1973) is thought to have been an error for L. usitatissimum. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Geary's Bridge, River Callan Derrymacfall Bridge, M1 Derrykeeran, NW of Portadown 1973-1983 N Dawson Lithospermum arvense Linnaeus Field Gromwell Armagh: Archaeophyte or neophyte? Extinct (0) Always an extremely rare plant of cultivated land in Ireland, and only recorded once in Armagh. Listed as Endangered in the British RDB. Lithospermum officinale Linnaeus Common Gromwel Armagh: Native, rare (0) A perennial of hedge banks and roadsides, scattered throughout much of Ireland but general y scarce. Although there are no recent records in Armagh, there is such an enormous length of this habitat, it may well survive unnoticed. Near Loughgall – sparingly in hedge banks Roadside between Loughgall and Richhill Grange near Armagh W F Johnson det R Ll Praeger Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh - 2 clumps on limestone outcrops at Loughadian, increased after clearance of some scrub Ruins of Kil eavey Church H W Lett det R Ll Praeger Lobelia dortmanna Linnaeus Water Lobelia Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A very characteristic plant of oligotrophic acid lakes in the west of Ireland. The habitat around the margins of Lough Neagh has been so radically altered by eutrophication that it is difficult to credit that Lobelia was once frequent there. It now seems certain that it has disappeared, not only from Lough Neagh, but from the county as a whole. Lough Ross – east end 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Derrylileagh Lough H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Derryadd Bay East Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Bird's Island, Lough Neagh Ellis's Gut to Morrow's Point Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lycopodiella inundata (Linnaeus) Holub Marsh Clubmoss Ireland: FPO, RDB Rare N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Native A very rare and largely western plant in Ireland, occurring on bare wet peaty or sandy substrates. The Armagh records are al from a very limited area on the peaty bed of a drained lake, within what is now Peatlands Park and Annagarriff NNR. The species is also listed as Endangered in Britain. Annagarriff Lake - occurs on two uncut bog surfaces H900613 1971-1987 Habitat Survey Team, NIEA on bed of former Annagarriff Lake (drained in 1901) Derryhubbert Area Annagarriff Area, Peatlands Country Park M Morgan & P Hackney Peatlands Country Park – 6 plants (2005) J S Faulkner & BSBI Lycopodium clavatum Linnaeus Stag's-horn Clubmoss Europe: EC Habitats Directive as Lycopodium N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Native A prostrate clubmoss, typical y found on montane heathland. Scarce in Ireland but much more frequent on the mountains of Scotland. Formerly also found on lowland heaths, but now rare in such places, and long gone from its one locality in Armagh. Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Lythrum portula (Linnaeus) D. Webb Water-purslane Armagh: Native, rare (2) An inconspicuous plant of wet muddy places, such as seasonally flooded ground. It appears to have declined in Armagh, but is probably often overlooked. Marsh at base of Carrigatuke J S Faulkner & I McNeill Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh Derrycrow, Derryinver Cam Lough - shore Killevy Church, Ballintemple Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

J S Faulkner & I McNeill Oxford Island National Nature Reserve
Malva arborea (Linnaeus) Webb & Berthel. Tree Mal ow
Ireland: Native
Armagh: Introduced, if present
An inaccessible plant resembling this species was recorded alongside the M1 motorway at Junction 13 in 2006 & 2007. The species is native on the coast, but (if correct) this plant would obviously have been a casual, perhaps of garden origin. Malva neglecta Wallr. Dwarf Mallow Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (0) A scarce annual of shallow dry soils in Ireland. Only two casual records in Armagh. Carganamuck – near cottage Mullaghmore, 3km NW of Loughgall Malva sylvestris Linnaeus Common Mal ow Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (7) A perennial of free-draining sites, moderately frequent in the south and east of Ireland. Mostly on road sides and waste places in Armagh. Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh A Waterman & R J H Hamill Charlemont - garden relic Maghery, Lough Neagh Mil town, Derryaugh Mill Bridge to Maghery Canal Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Portadown south – waste ground opposite Redmanville Filling Station Ardmore, Lough Neagh Ardmore Rectory to Jetty Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Matricaria chamomilla Linnaeus Scented Mayweed Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (4) A scarce annual, found as a casual or weed of cultivation. It appears to have increased in England before 2000, and a recent flurry of records suggests that it may also be increasing in Ireland. Some of the records in Armagh are almost certain to have been introduced to the site only a few years earlier. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Roadside at Woodview Post Office near Richhill Drumherriff Lodge – several seedlings in vegetable Dobbin Church – single plant in newly sown grass behind church hal Refuse tip, Ballyfodrin - site destroyed in 1985 Foughill Otra - on bulldozed site Railway at Newry Eleven Lane Ends – 10+ plants in under-sown oats and barley crop Mecanopsis cambrica (Linnaeus) Vig. Welsh Poppy Ireland: Native Armagh: Introduced, scarce (5) The species is native in shaded rocky places in Ireland, but all of the Armagh records are almost certainly escapes from cultivation. As an escape, it is possibly under-recorded. East of Tynan Abbey - woodland Carnagh Forest Nature Reserve Darkley, near Keady Drumherriff Lodge – self seeding on walls and in cultivated ground Slieve Gullion Forest Park Hawthorn Hill, Annahaia Derrymore House Parklands J A Lister, M Flatt & P Jackson Melampyrum pratense Linnaeus Common Cow-wheat Armagh: Native, scarce (7) A partially parasitic herb of woods and heaths on acid soils, more frequent in NW Ireland. Many of the Armagh records are from Peatlands Park and surrounding area, but there is a scattering from elsewhere. Bog south of Annagarriff Lake Bog between Lough Gullion and Lough Neagh Rocky Hill, 1 mile south of Fathom Mountain Mullynure, Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Peatlands Country Park Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Mullinakill Nature Reserve, Peatlands Country Park-1 H8861 P Corbett, R J H Hamill & J Farren J S Faulkner & I McNeill Derryesker House Annagarriff Area, Peatlands Country Park Derryveen, Derryhubbert South Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park – 2 plants (1994); 2 plants (1996) A Waterman & M Wright Derrylileagh Lough NE base of Crosslieve Hill Slieve Gullion – north end Clare Bridge, Cusher River Wood 1 mile SE of Tandragee By Cusher River, near Clare Castle Tandragee south J S Faulkner & I McNeill Mentha pulegium Linnaeus Pennyroyal Ireland: Native, FPO, RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Planted There is a record of about 50 plants from close to the Discovery Centre at Oxford Island (2002), but they were almost certainly planted. Milium effusum Linnaeus Wood Millet Armagh: Native, rare (1) A grass of damp woodland, scattered throughout Ireland but more frequent in the north. There has been only one Armagh record since the 19th century. It is not known to be in general decline, however, and there is a site in Co. Down very close to the boundary with Armagh at Gamble's Bridge (Newry Canal). Killuney, Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Ivy Lodge, near Newry H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Rim of narrow glen at Fathom – 2 tiny clusters Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Myosotis x suzae Domin (M. scorpioides x M. laxa)
Armagh: Native or absent
A record from Clay Lake (2005) requires confirmation. Neottia cordata (Linnaeus) Rich. Lesser Twayblade Armagh: Native, scarce (4) An easily overlooked little orchid, usually seen as a pair of small leaves on a layer of moss under mature heather. More or less confined to mountainous areas in Ireland, and chiefly in the north. It is has been recorded on al the most significant hills of South Armagh, and once – long ago –on a lowland bog in the north of the county. H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Clady More, 5km SW of Markethill Carrigatuke, Armaghbrague Clermont - summit North side of Slieve Gullion - at 1500 feet Camlough Mountain – at 1300 feet Slieve Gullion area – dozens in flower in short Cal una J02 turf on and west of summit cairn (2014) Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J S Faulkner & BSBI Ballynalack area Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Camlough Mountain NE – 8 plants (2010) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Neottia nidus-avis (Linnaeus) Rich. Bird's-nest Orchid Ireland: RDB Not Threatened Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A saprophyte, usual y found in humus-rich sites under broadleaved trees, and thinly distributed throughout much of Ireland. The area of Gosford demesne where it was found by Praeger has been under conifers for many years. There has also been one unconfirmed report of the species in Clare Glen (2004). This species was scheduled in the Wildlife (Northern Ireland) Order 1985, but removed from the Schedule in 2011. In the British RDB, the species is listed as Near Threatened. Gosford Desmesne – one plant in copse at south end H9639 Oenanthe fistulosa Linnaeus Tubular Water-dropwort N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A perennial herb of various lowland wet habitats, thinly distributed throughout much of Ireland. Many of the Armagh records are associated with the Ulster or Newry canals and the margins of Lough Neagh, but it has declined drastically and may have gone entirely from the Newry Canal. In Great Britain, it is listed as Vulnerable in the RDB. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Abundant in Newry Canal between Portadown and Tandragee Tul ybrick Lough Ulster Canal at Milltown Roscory (Marks) Bog, Causanagh – c. 12 flowering shoots in very wet species-rich grazed area on east By Lough Neagh at Maghery & Milltown Maghery, Lough Neagh Newry Canal at Poyntz Pass Disused (Newry) Canal at Jerrettspass Newry Canal near Tandragee Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Shan Port to Kinnegoe Point Habitat Survey Team, NIEA By Lough Neagh at Lagan Canal Ophioglossum vulgatum Linnaeus Adder's-tongue Armagh: Native, rare (2) An inconspicuous rhizomatous fern of short grassland and open woodland, occurring throughout Ireland. While it is easily overlooked, the lack of recent records in Armagh, apart from those at two well-known sites, is strongly suggestive of decline. The Palace Grounds, Armagh Annacramph Meadow ASSI, north of Armagh City - several dozen plants (Apr 1995) Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Mullinure & Drummanmore, Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Drumman More Lough Loughgall – near the lake Loughgall Manor Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve – c. 100 Habitat Survey Team, NIEA leaves seen (2006); several dozen plants clustered in Bird Island, Lough Neagh
Ophrys apifera Huds. Bee Orchid
Ireland: RDB Not Threatened
N.I.: WOAA
Armagh: Native, scarce (5)
A very distinctive but enigmatic plant of open sites on calcareous well-drained soils, distributed throughout Ireland. It was not recorded in Armagh by Praeger, and indeed not noted at all in the county until 1966. Its habitats in Armagh are strongly linked to railways or quarries, where bedrock or ballast is exposed. It is therefore an opportunistic coloniser of disturbed sites, and likely to be ephemeral. It probably survives at only two of the recorded sites, but there is always a possibility that it will appear at new ones. Lisadian (Thompson's) Quarry - large numbers (1987; H8346 1988; 1991); found in large numbers on high bank above smal rocky pool (1993); c. 80 plants in flower (1994); c. 100 plants seen (1998); 10 plants (1999); 5 plants (2007) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Navan Fort-1 plant seen Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve (UWT)-1 plant H859428 quarry off The Rock Road, Farmacaffly Ballybrannan, 3km NE of Armagh - site now destroyed H8949 Richhill Station Balancing Lakes, Craigavon - c. 45 plants seen, largest J05 group a little north of railway line south of the North J05 Lake (1999); c. 200 plants (2006); 2 plants (2012) J S Faulkner & BNFC Balancing Lakes, Craigavon - c. 45 plants seen, largest J05 group a little north of railway line south of the North J05 Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Oreopteris limbosperma (All.) Holub Lemon-scented Fern Armagh: Native, rare or extinct (0) An occasional fern in Ireland, chiefly occurring in upland areas. Of the two sites, Ferry Hill would be the more typical. The site may not have been searched recently, so it remains possible that it still occurs there. Tandragee upper desmesne – one fine plant 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Woods on Ferry Hil above Narrow Water Origanum vulgare Linnaeus Wild Marjoram Ireland: Native Armagh: Introduced, scarce (4) Native perennial on dry calcareous ground across the centre of Ireland. It may have once grown as a native in Armagh, but now occurs only as an escape from cultivation. lanes at Derryhaw Cyb Hib II Loughgall Quarry M P H Kertland & J W Fitzgerald Annagarriff Wood Gosford Forest Park – one plant on wal (2014) North of Loughgall – high grassy bank, abundant Aghmakane Fen West - originally planted Derrycory, 5km north of Portadown - garden escape J008577 Portadown Foundry – 2 plants Papaver argemone Linnaeus Prickly Poppy Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0) A very rare casual in Ireland, but formerly more widespread as a weed of arable crops. Listed as Vulnerable in the RDB for Great Britain. 2.5 miles NE of Armagh Station 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Killaghy Corner – gravel pit 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Papaver dubium Linnaeus Long-headed Poppy Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (8) An annual with very long-lived seeds that was once a common feature of arable fields, but is now more often seen as a casual weed. Until recently, all Armagh records for P. dubium were recorded as an aggregate with P. lecoqii, which was then regarded as a subspecies of dubium. The table below lists only those that have been named as P. dubium sensu stricto. It almost certainly understates the abundance of the species, although it is less common than Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

J S Faulkner & I McNeill J S Faulkner & I McNeill Bessbrook River at Craigmore Viaduct Mullaghglass Station Papaver lecoqii Lamotte Yellow-juiced Poppy Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) An annual that requires care to distinguish it from P. dubium of which it has sometimes been regarded as a subspecies, and which occupies similar habitats. So far there is only one record for Armagh, suggesting that it is the less common of the two. Drumherriff Lodge – occasional in vegetable plots Papaver rhoeas Linnaeus Common Poppy Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (2) A classic annual cornfield weed, highly susceptible to selective herbicides. Praeger comments that, apart from two casual occurrences listed below, he found it only on the limestone around Armagh City, where it was abundant. Given the reputation of its seed for longevity, it is surprising that it has not been found more often in this area since that time. Armagh - abundant Abundant between Armagh, Richhill & Loughgall South of Portadown Armagh – cornfields nearby W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Salter's Grange (Elliott's) Quarry Loughgall Manor Foy More – may have been introduced with bird seed H9758 Railway at Wellington Cutting, south of Bessbrook Newry area, by roadside near Carrivemaclone - few Derryadd, Lough Neagh Parapholis strigosa (Dumort.) C.E. Hubb. Hard Grass Armagh: Native, rare or extinct (0) A grass of saltmarshes and other muddy places by the sea, frequent round the Irish coast. Though not recorded in Armagh for many years, it is inconspicuous and may be still present or may re-colonise. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Canal locks below Newry 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Shore at County Bridge - abundant Parietaria judaica Linnaeus Pellitory-of-the-wall Armagh: Native, rare (3) A plant now found almost exclusively on old walls. It is more frequent further south in Ireland and in coastal districts, but it is nevertheless somewhat perplexing that it appears to be disappearing from urban sites in Armagh apart from Newry. Castle Dillon Estate Hamiltonsbawn – on stone wall (since destroyed) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Newry – on walls, abundant Newry - waste ground and walls beside river on west J087255 J S Faulkner & P Hackney side of Warrenpoint Road Newry Central – on walls Parnassia palustris Linnaeus Grass of Parnassus Armagh: Native, rare (3) A herb of base-rich flushes, calcareous fens and dune slacks, frequent in the centre of Ireland and in coastal districts. The Armagh sites are mostly over limestone apart from that at Selshion Bog, but all are vulnerable. Vicinity of Lough Neagh (county of Arrmagh) Tul ybrick Lough - apparently 1980 record the first report for the county since 1930 Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Banks of the Tynan River Loughnashade - 1 plant seen, possibly only site in Co H8545 W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Armagh extant? (1997); 14 plants (1998); c.40 (1999); H842455 c. 70 flowers (2002); 235 flowers (2006) 1998-1999 E Loughran Mullinure Meadows W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Persicaria minor (Huds.) Opiz Small Water-pepper Armagh: Native, scarce (6) An annual of cattle-poached pasture close to lake shores and other damp places. Patchily distributed in Ireland. One of the Irish concentrations is around Lough Neagh, from where many of the recent Armagh records derive. The plant may be somewhat less scarce than appears from the records, as it is not conspicuous until you have an eye for it. In Great Britain, the RDB lists it as Vulnerable. There is a 1975 record from Culkeeran (Collins Bridge) which requires confirmation. Fane River below Ballynacarry Bridge Fane River below Lough Ross Clay Lake near Keady - shore Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Columbkille Point, Lough Neagh NE of Bannfoot, Lough Neagh - shoreline Derrycrow, Derryinver Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal Lough Gullion – in cattle trampled marshy ground (1997); 30 plants in poached, grazed soft wet grassland (2012); 1 plant on poached, grazed ground J0061 J S Faulkner & P Hackney near shore (2014) Bay west of Ardmore Point Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd By the canal between Scarva and Tandragee Ardmore Point – 3 plants in poached wet ground Raughlan Point, Lough Neagh - shore Kinnegoe Harbour (Bay), Lough Neagh Bird's Island, Lough Neagh Castor Bay, Clanrolla – c. 10 plants on sand Persicaria mitis (Schrank) Assenov Tasteless Water-pepper Armagh: Native, rare (3) An annual of similar habits to P. minus and P. hydropiper and easily mistaken for the latter in the field. Almost confined to Ulster within Ireland, and there largely around Lough Neagh and Lough Erne. All of the Armagh records are from close to the Lough Neagh shore, and most were made during John Harron's survey of the flora of the lough. It has been suggested that the species might not be an Irish native but a recent introduction. Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh Columbkille Point, Lough Neagh Derryinver NW – several plants in poached ground NE of Bannfoot, Lough Neagh - shoreline Derrycrow, Derryinver Bay west of Ardmore Point Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Kinnegoe Harbour (Bay), Lough Neagh Bird's Island, Lough Neagh Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Petroselinum crispum (Miller) Fuss Garden Parsley Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) Cultivated as a biennial garden herb for centuries and occasionally naturalised in Ireland. The Carrickaness plants were growing on the face of a disused limestone quarry. Carrickaness, Benburb Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) Watt Beech Fern Armagh: Native, extinct (0) Rather scarce in Ireland, in woodlands and among shady rocks in mountain areas. There is only one record in Armagh and the plant has never been refound. The exact site is not obvious on the ground, but may have been obscured by a conifer plantation. Near Kil evy Church 1885-1886 H W Lett Phleum bertolonii DC. Smaller Cat's-tail Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A perennial grass of meadows and roadsides, of scattered distribution in Ireland, often growing with the commoner P. pratensis. It probably occurs more frequently than is suggested by the few records listed below. J S Faulkner & I McNeill Lisnafeedy – road verge Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Pilularia globulifera Linnaeus Pillwort Ireland: FPO Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A small fern of lake margins and similar habitats where there is little competition; now confined in Ireland to the west. It is uncertain whether Campbell's record is from Armagh or Tyrone. 2 miles from mouth of River Blackwater – abundant in H96 Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Pimpinella major (Linnaeus) Huds. Greater Burnet-saxifrage Ireland: Native Armagh: Casual, extinct (0) Native and moderately widespread in the south and west of Ireland, but Armagh is far to the north of its natural limit. Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh - escape Pimpinella saxifraga Linnaeus Burnet-saxifrage Armagh: Native, scarce (6) A perennial of well-drained grassland and roadsides, relatively common further south in Ireland. The Armagh records are clustered on the limestone west of Armagh City and in the far south. Lisadian (Thompson's) Quarry – 25-20 plants (2007) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Navan Fort – 8 plants (2013) 1987-1999 I McNeill Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve Quarry off The Rock Road, Farmacaffly Carrickaness, Benburb Creggan River at Coolderry Tullydonnell (O'Callaghan), 2.5km SE of Silverbridge Carrickastickan, Forkill Glendooey, ESE of Forkhil Pinguicula lusitanica Linnaeus Pale Butterwort Armagh: Native, occasional (15) A small rosette-forming insectivorous plant, typically found on bare peat in flushes. In Ireland, it is mainly found in upland areas, and in Armagh it is confined to the Ring of Gullion in the SE corner of the county. Despite occurring in 15 monads, the species is included in the Register because it is closely restricted to a small area of the county. Aughanduff Upper Mountain Annacloghmullin, 2km south of Bel eek Crosslieve Hill Clermont Mountain – NW slopes J S Faulkner & I McNeill Slieve Gullion – west side Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Slieve Gullion, above Longfield Slieve Gullion – abundant in flushes above St Bline's Slieve Gullion south, above Drumintee Annahaia flushes – very sparing Killevy Castle, Slieve Gullion Forest J S Faulkner & CAWS Slieve Gullion – east slope above Clonlum Slieve Gullion north – above Kil evy Churches Cam Lough (Camlough) Camlough Mountain Fathom Mountain
Plantago major ssp. intermedia (Gilib.) Lange
Armagh: Native, scarce (9)
This subspecies is said to grow in damper and more saline sites than those preferred by the almost ubquitous ssp. major. It not been recognised by recorders until recently, so its pattern of distribution in Ireland is not yet known, and it is likely to be more widespread in Armagh than the records listed below suggest. Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh Fathom Park – hillside pasture, in tractor wheel rut Enagh Lough – wet ground Newry Canal at Poyntz Pass Tandragee south – near bridge over River Cusher Acton Lower Bridge – roadside verge Lough Gullion - where pasture meets the wet shoreline, frequent and plentiful Fathom Upper SE Plantago maritima Linnaeus Sea Plantain Armagh: Native, rare (1) This is a very common plant around the Irish coast. Its rarity in Armagh is due solely to the shortage of coastal habitat. Estuary of the Newry River Rough Island, Newry River Newry River Estuary at Fathom Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Platanthera bifolia (Linnaeus) Rich Lesser Butterfly-orchid
N.I.: Priority Species
Armagh: Native, scarce (10)
Frequent in many parts of Ireland on damp pastures, heaths and bogs, but with a north-westerly bias in its geographical range. In Armagh, there is a concentration of records associated with the lakes and bogs SW of Keady, and spasmodic records from bogs and grassland across the north of the county. It is classed as Vulnerable in the British RDB. Drumnahavil (Crossbane) Bog – 3 plants by south side H8128 of road (2009); 10 plants in fen at east end of lough J S Faulkner & CAWS J S Faulkner & I McNeill Drumnahavil Lough, Carnagh Estate Carrickabolie SE – 2 plants J S Faulkner & I McNeill Straghans Lough 2 plants (1999) Brackly – east shore of small lough, 13 plants Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh Selshion Bog/Moss – 200+ plants (1995); 15 plants (2009); 1 plant (2013) Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derryhubbert, Peatlands Park – 33 plants (1995) Annagarriff Lake, Peatlands Park Derrylard, Lough Neagh Terryhoogan Moss - common over much of the bog J061458 Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Lough Gullion bog – 10 plants Derryadd, Lough Neagh Oxford Island National Nature Reserve S Beesley & J Wilde
Platanthera x hybrida Brügger (P. chlorantha x P. bifolia)
Armagh: Absent
This hybrid may possibly occur where the parent species grow together but it is at best very rare and hard to detect. A record from Fathom Park is certainly an error. It is not known anywhere in Ireland. Polypodium cambricum Linnaeus Southern Polypody Armagh: Native, rare (1) A fern of limestone rocks, cliffs, quarries, and walls. It is local in Ireland, but more common in the west and south. All three records in Armagh are from the same site. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Salmon Leap at Benburb – limestone cliff Blackwater Gorge, Benburb, Armagh side Maydown, Benburb J S Faulkner & I McNeill
Polypodium x font-queri Rothm. (P. vulgare x P. cambricum)
Armagh: Native, if present
There are unconfirmed records of this hybrid from Acton Glebe (1983) and Newry Canal (1989).
Polypodium x shivasiae Rothm. (P. interjectum x P. cambricum)
Armagh: Native, if present
There are unconfirmed records of this hybrid from Carrickaness (1987-1991) and Newry Canal (1988).
Populus nigra ssp. betulifolia (Pursch) Dippel Black Poplar
Ireland: Possibly native
Armagh: Planted, rare (3)
There is debate as to whether this subspecies is genuinely native in Ireland. Even if it is, it is likely that most trees have been planted and are introduced to the area where they are growing. The fastigiate Lombardy poplars are cultivars of the same species, but their records are not listed here. Bal ymoyer, 4.5km NE of Newtownhamilton 0.5km north of Richhil - woodland
Potamogeton x angustifolius J Presl (P. lucens x P. gramineus) Long-leaved Pondweed
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
In Ireland, mainly in the north and west, in lakes and rivers. The Armagh records are mostly from the SE corner of Lough Neagh. New Bridge, Callan River J S Faulkner det. R S Weyl Castle Dillon Lake Bay west of Ardmore Point - collected from a harbour J0063 P Hackney det. J E Dandy P Hackney & CAWS Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Near Kinnegoe Point, Lough Neagh Potamogeton coloratus Hornem. Fen Pondweed Armagh: Native, scarce (5) A pondweed of calcareous lake and pools, frequent throughout the centre of Ireland. Al of the Armagh records are from the limestone area of the north-west of the county. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Kiltubbrid Loughs - 4 plants (1994) N.I. Lake Survey Lower Kiltubbrid Lough A - ditch at south end of lake H768395 I McNeill & J S Faulkner Annacramph, north of Armagh City 1987-1999 I McNeill & J S Faulkner Carrickaness, Benburb J S Faulkner det. R S Weyl Potamogeton friesii Rupr. Flat-stalked Pondweed Armagh: Native, rare (0) A pondweed of stil or slow-flowing waters, occurring sparsely in the limestone areas of central and western Ireland. The only Armagh site, however, is from secondary fen over basalt. It is classed as Near Threatened in Great Britain. Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve I McNeill det. M.J.P. Scannell Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Potamogeton gramineus Linnaeus Various-leaved Pondweed Armagh: Native, scarce (5) A pondweed of various types of water body and quality, frequent throughout much of Ireland except the south-west. The Armagh records are from the northern and southern extremities of the county. St Peter's Lough, west of Lough Patrick Lough Ross, 2km west of Crossmaglen – tending towards P. x nitens (1892) N.I. Lake Survey Derrytrasna West, Lough Neagh Cam Lough north N.I. Lake Survey Shillingtons Bridge, Portadown Water Management Unit, NIEA In Lough Neagh, off Ardmore H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Bay west of Ardmore Point Derryadd, Lough Neagh P Hackney & BSBI Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Potamogeton x nericius (P. gramineus x P. alpinus)
Armagh: Native, if present
There is a Praeger record from Maghery, published in his Flora of County Armagh (1893) as P. alpinus x heterophyl us? He evidently referred it to Arthur Bennett, eliciting the comment a very interesting specimen. The only accepted record of this hybrid in the British Isles is from the River Don in Scotland.
Potamogeton x nitens Weber (P. gramineus x P. perfoliatus) Bright-leaved Pondweed
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
General y the most frequent of the hybrid pondweeds, occurring over most of Ireland in mesotrophic base-rich waters. The only Armagh records, however, are from the shores of Lough Neagh. N.I. Lake Survey Bay west of Ardmore Point P Hackney det. J E Dandy Potamogeton praelongus Wulfen Long-stalked Pondweed Armagh: Native, scarce (6) A pondweed of deep mesotrophic water, occasional in the northern half of Ireland. The Armagh records are well scattered. In Great Britain, it is listed in the RDB as Near Threatened. Lower Kiltubbrid Lough A N.I. Lake Survey By Blackwater River, north of Caledon Lough Patrick, 3.5km NW of Crossmaglen River Blackwater at The Argory Maghery, Lough Neagh - washed up (1982) Glasdrumman Lough - a few stems only seen (1997) N.I. Lake Survey Newry Central – in canal opposite Canal Court Hotel J0826 Newry Canal at Goragh Wood Craigavon South Lake Jetty to Reedy Flat Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derrytagh North, Lough Neagh J S Faulkner & I McNeill Potamogeton trichoides Cham. & Schltdl. Hairlike Pondweed Armagh: Unknown This species was recorded at the Discovery Centre, Oxford Island, in 2006, but the record requires authentication. The species is not known to occur in Ireland. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Potamogeton x undulatus (P. praelongus x P. crispus)
Armagh: Native, rare (2) A hybrid pondweed that, within Ireland, is confined to the Lough Neagh and River Lagan catchments. Extremely localised and possibly extinct in Britain. Hoy's Meadow, Portadown J S Faulkner det. J S Faulkner & P N.I. Lake Survey
Potentilla erecta ssp. strictissima (Zimmeter) A.J. Richards
Armagh: Native, if present (0)
The subspecies of Potentilla erecta have not been systematically recorded in Armagh. Most records are likely to
be ssp. erecta, but ssp. strictissima may wel occur, especial y in the south of the county. However, a record for Victoria Lock (1996) is an error, and more information is needed about one for 'Brackagh, Derrytrasnagh'
Potentilla x mixta sensu lato Nolte ex Rchb. (P. anglica x P. reptans) Hybrid Cinquefoil
Armagh: Native, scarce (5)
This hybrid is probably commoner than appears from the relatively few records. However, it is almost totally
sterile, and the majority of 'candidate' plants I have examined set good seed and would therefore appear to be P. anglica. It is conceivable that some of the records listed below are P. x italica (P. erecta x reptans), which is morphologically similar. Gosford Forest Park - on stump in Gosford Arboretum H9640 Fathom Park – field banks Goragh, 4km north of Newry J S Faulkner, P Hackney & G V Day Acton – field margin Kinnego Harbour
Potentilla x suberecta Zimmeter (P. erecta x P. anglica)
Armagh: Native, scarce (10)
Like the previous hybrid, this has probably often been overlooked. It is partially fertile, and on the limited
evidence available, it would appear to be the more frequent of the two in Armagh. Location Gosford Forest Park Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Goragh, 4km north of Newry J S Faulkner, P Hackney & G V Day Kilrea – old railway track Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Primula x polyantha Miller (P. vulgaris x P. veris) False Oxslip
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
This hybrid is likely to arise spontaneously where the parents grow together – as has, for example, occurred in
author's garden in Loughgal . P. vulgaris is very common and widespread, but P. veris is very restricted. The Armagh City record may have arisen from a short-lived casual population of P. veris, whereas the Annacramph population of P. veris has a stronger claim to be native (see below). Armagh City-1 plant on roadside Annacramph, north of Armagh City - 4 plants at various places in a field with numerous P. veris and P. vulgaris (1987) Primula veris Linnaeus Cowslip Ireland: Native, RDB Not Threatened N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Native & introduced, scarce (9) Native and common on limestone in the Irish Midlands, but at the margins of its range, the native distribution of this species is obscured by deliberate introductions. Armagh appears to be at the northern edge of the range, and most occurrences are likely or certain to be non-native. The best candidate for native status is the population at Annacramph, where it grows in two small sloping fields close to a limestone quarry. Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Drumgar, 2km SE of Killylea - one plant in lane at 1987-1999 I McNeill Armagh City – near Corr's Garage Annacramph, north of Armagh City - c. 60 flowers on H886494 7 May 1995 on ungrazed bank; 17 plants (2006) Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Ballybrannan, 3km NE of Armagh Markethill – apparently sown on sloping bank alongside Alexander's Furniture Store Castle Dillon Estate Castle Dillon Lake-1 plant Castle Dillon House - woodland, most probably a R Birch, C Graham & Y McElarney naturally occurring plant Loughgall - Ardrea Drumherriff Lodge – introduced from Annacramph Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Oxford Island, Lough Neagh - planted 1981; one plant J0461 (1982); not seen in 1987, although may have been seen by the staff in 1986 or earlier; possibly planted; 1987-1999 I McNeill & J S Faulkner near Centre, certainly planted (2006) Discovery Centre, Oxford Island-1 plant (1996); probably planted (2007) Shan Port to Kinnegoe Point Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Prunus padus Linnaeus Bird Cherry Ireland: Native, RDB Near Threatened Armagh: Native & planted, occasional (11) The species is widely planted and will spread both by suckers and by seed. Its status as Near Threatened in Ireland is thus potential y misleading. Some of the records listed below are probably either planted or derived from planted trees. The population at Lough Gall, however, is in carr woodland, and has every appearance of being native. Derrynoose Church, Listarkelt Lissagally, 3.5km SSE of Killylea Carnagh Forest Nature Reserve Carryhugh, 2km SW of Keady Gentle Owen's Lake Clay Lake, Keady Clonmain, 2.5km SE of Moy Peatlands Park west Loughgall Manor Drumherriff Lodge – introduced from local source Coney Island, off Derrywarragh Island Tandragee, north of kiln (disused) - woodland East of Acton House - woodland Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass Armagh: Native, extinct (0) This saltmarsh species is infrequent in Ireland, but present to both the north and south of Armagh's coast. The record by Praeger is ambivalent as to its precise location: Narrow Water itself is a constriction in Carlingford Lough that separates Co. Down from Co. Louth, but as he included the record in his Flora of County Armagh, it must be assumed that it was present on the Armagh shore, which at its closest is about 500m nearer Newry. Shore near Narrow Water Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Puccinellia maritima (Huds.) Parl. Common Saltmarsh-grass Armagh: Native, rare (3) This is the dominant grass of saltmarshes and is common round the entire coast of Ireland. There is no well-formed saltmarsh in Armagh, but the species occurs in small quantities on patches of muddy shore. Estuary of Newry River Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Newry River Estuary at Fathom Pyrola minor Linnaeus Common Wintergreen Armagh: Native, rare (2) A rather rare plant in Ireland, occurring mainly in acid to neutral woodlands in the north. Both of its Armagh sites are associated with woodland paths, where the plant appears to be a recent colonist. Annagarriff Wood, Peatlands Park – 1 plant beside path (2005); 1 plant, now rather weak (2014) Goragh Wood Quarry – small linear colony on path through birch scrub on immediate approach to quarry faces, with 2 smaller patches Radiola linoides Roth Al seed Armagh: Native, extinct (0) A tiny annual of bare infertile ground, scarce in Ireland and most frequent along the west coast. The record by Praeger must have been from Brackagh Bog, which has become more enriched and scrubby, with less suitable habitat. The species is listed as Near Threatened in Great Britain. 2 miles south of Portadown – abundant on a bog 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Ranunculus aquatilis Linnaeus Common Water-crowfoot Armagh: Native, rare (3) A subaquatic of shallow, still or slow-flowing, usually eutrophic water, widespread in Ireland. The taxonomy and identification of aquatic Ranunculus spp. is difficult, and the epithet aquatilis has sometimes been applied in a broad sense to include other aquatic Ranunculus species. As well as the records listed below, there are others from Al istragh (1994), Camlough River (1892) and Forkhil (2013) which would require confirmation. The species is probably under-recorded. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh A Waterman & R J H Hamill Causanagh, 2.5km NW of Loughgal Annaghmore, 2.5km south of Peatlands Park S A Stewart det. S Webster T H Corry det. S Webster Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Ranunculus circinatus Sibth. Fan-leaved Water-crowfoot Armagh: Native, rare (3) An aquatic of deep, still or slow-flowing, mesotrophic to eutrophic water, scattered in inland Ireland. It is more easily identified than other aquatic Ranunculus spp. In Armagh, it appears to be restricted to Lough Neagh. Reedy Flat, Derryinver N.I. Lake Survey Derryadd Bay – covering several acres of water with Derryadd, Lough Neagh Raughlan Peninsula, Lough Neagh Flax hole on shore at Ardmore Glebe Ardmore Rectory, Derryadd Derryadd Bay, Lough Neagh Discovery Centre, Oxford Island Bird's Island inlet E Lawrie, T Haughian & N.I. Lake Entrance of Lagan Canal Ranunculus lingua Linnaeus Greater Spearwort Armagh: Native, scarce (4) A perennial herb of fens and the margins of lakes, ponds and diches. It was once frequent, especially in the central limestone districts of Ireland, but it has disappeared from many original localities. At the same time, it is occasionally planted in ponds as an ornamental, so its original distribution is being masked. It used to be widespread in Armagh, but it has gone from most of its sites and its continued survival at the remaining ones hangs by a thread. H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh Bog SE of Charlemont Mullaghmore Lough, Loughgilly Hamiltonsbawn – railway to south Annaghmore, 2.5km south of Peatlands Park Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Loughgall – c. 10-12 plants in fen east of outflow Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Habitat Survey Team, NIEA P Hackney & J. Wilde Madden Bridge, Newry Canal Entrance of Lagan Canal Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot Armagh: Native, rare (2) An aquatic of very slow-flowing or still waters such as ditches, ponds or sheltered lakes, throughout Ireland but more frequent in the centre. The Armagh records are al from the north or west of the county. Quarry off The Rock Road, Farmacaffly The Palace Grounds, Armagh Roscory (Marks) Bog, Causanagh Bird's Island, Lough Neagh J McK Moon & E N Carrothers Rhamnus cathartica Linnaeus Buckthorn Armagh: Absent? (0) There is an early (pre-1825) record for this species from the River Blackwater, which is unconfirmed. It used to occur a short distance outside the county boundary near the Lagan Canal entrance to Lough Neagh. Rorippa islandica (Oeder ex Murray) Borbas Northern Yellow-cress Ireland: RDB Rare Armagh: Absent? A record from Derryadd Lough (1996) is an error. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rosa arvensis Huds. Field-rose Armagh: Native, rare (2) Common further south in Ireland, but spasmodic in Armagh, and usual y found in hedges. As there are many thousands of kilometres of hedge in the County which have not been individual y searched at the right time of year, it is likely that this species occurs more often than the records suggest. There are several other records which require confirmation – from Creevekeeran, Moy Road, Ennislare House, Drumatee, Lisbane & Cargans. North of Corran's crossroads Killylea – disused railway south of College Hall Lisnafeedy – in hedge, several plants Lisnadill - roadside Scarva Bridge – one bush in hedge disused (Newry) Canal at Terryhoogan Monbrief - common J S Faulkner & I McNeill Rosa caesia Sm. Hairy Dog-rose Armagh: Native, rare (1) The species is scattered throughout much of the north, but very rare elsewhere in Ireland. It is not known to which subspecies the Armagh record belongs. A plant recorded as this species from Fathom Forest (1988) may actually have been R. x dumalis (R. canina x caesia). Rosa mollis Sm. sensu stricto Soft Downy-rose Armagh: Native, scarce (5) While there are several records of this species, it is not certain that they al represent R. mollis sensu stricto, rather than other species or hybrids of Downy Rose. Lough Ross - shore Aughnagurgan Lough Armagh – frequent on limestone Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve
Rosa x rothschildii Druce (R. canina x R. sherardi )
Armagh: Native, scarce (4)
The two parent species of this hybrid are the commonest roses in the county, and their hybrid is likely to occur more often than has been recorded. Knappagh, 2.5km NE of Killylea Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rosa rubiginosa Linnaeus sensu stricto Sweet Briar Armagh: Native or introduced? Rare (1) It is probably impossible to determine whether the Armagh plants of this species are native or introduced, and indeed some of the records may be of hybrids rather than the pure species. Praeger believed the plants from the shores of Lough Neagh were native. By Ulster Canal near Eglish Between Charlemont and Blackwatertown South of Markethil - roadsides Shores of Lough Neagh, west & south of Ardmore By canal below Newry Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Rosa spinosissima Linnaeus Burnet Rose Armagh: Native, rare (1) This species is characteristic of dunes and other coastal habitats, but also occurs on basic rocky and heathland sites inland. The Slieve Gullion plant appears to be native, but the details of the Poyntzpass record are not known. Slieve Gullion – NW side at c. 1500 feet Near Poyntzpass Rubus fruticosus L. (Aggregate) Brambles The fol owing species of Rubus all fall within the R. fruticosus aggregate, apart from Rubus saxatilis (listed after species within the aggregate section). They are not species in the classic sense of self-contained interbreeding populations because the sexual process has been modified to allow the production of apomictic seed which is genetically identical with the parent plant. There are about 200 species within the aggregate in Ireland, of which the great majority are native. Very few botanists are competent to identify them: the great majority of recorders simply record the presence of the aggregate, and do not attempt to identify the plants to species level. The line taken here is that all species except laciniata (omitted) and possibly norvicensis and rudis (both included) are native, and that in most cases there is insufficient evidence on which to base comments about distribution or abundance in the county. For that reason, the tables are left to speak for themselves without additional text, except in few cases where D E Allen has provided additional background or comments. None of these species has special statutory protection. Rubus adenanthoides Newton Common (D E Al en) Charlemont hectad Gosford Castle Forest Park Jerrettspass hectad Oxford Island hectad Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus aghadergensis D E Allen Endemic to NE Ireland and W Scotland. The taxon was originally collected by Rev. H W Lett as R. rhamnifolius, both in his own parish of Aghaderg (Loughbrickland, Co. Down) and just across the boundary into Armagh at Scarva. It was then studied in situ by W M Rogers in 1901. Rogers regarded it as a variety of R. lindleianus, giving it the name var. latifolia. As it was clearly a distinct species, D E Al en published the new specific name – aghadergensis - for the taxon in 1980, named after Lett's parish. Near Scarva Station (in Ballymore Parish) - roadside Rubus albionis Watson Near Flagstaff Viewpoint, Fathom Forest Rubus amplificatus Lees Probably common, as in most of Northern Ireland (D E Al en). Lane uphil from Lough Ross Jerrettspass hectad Oxford Island hectad Rubus anisacanthos G Braun Lane north of Kil een Church Viewpoint north of Meigh Rubus borreri T B Salter Newry – beside rivulet on the Dundalk road, true R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers borreri beyond doubt Rubus botryeros (Focke ex W M Rogers) W M Rogers Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus boudiccae A. L. Bull & Edees By Ballynacary Bridge Lane uphil from Lough Ross Newry Canal – towpath by Park Bog Rubus calvatus Lees ex Bloxam Charlemont hectad Peatlands Park – plentiful in bog garden D E Allen & P. Hackney D E Allen & P. Hackney Oxford Island hectad Rubus cardiophyllus Lefèvre & P.J. Müll. Probably frequent, although mainly coastal (D E Allen). R Ll Praeger det. A Newton Gosford Castle Forest Park Jerrettspass hectad D E Allen, J S Faulkner & D A Doogue Rubus confertiflorus W C R Watson A specimen tentatively identified as this species was collected from Ballynacary Bridge, Cullaville, in 2010. If proved correct, this would be the first record of the species in Ireland. Rubus conjungens (Bab.) Rogers Ballynacarry Bridge – roadside hedge Drumlougher Lough, 2.5km NW of Crossmaglen R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers Church Hill, Peatlands Park Mil town Church, Derryaugh Slieve Gullion Forest park – trail through conifer Newry Canal at Poyntz Pass Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus dasyphyllus (Rogers) E. Marshall Likely to be common throughout the county (D E Al en). Jerrettspass hectad Oxford Island hectad Rubus decussatus W C Barton ex A Newton There is a confirmed 2006 record of a patch of this species on a lane downhil from Flagstaff Hill. It is unclear if the plant was in Armagh (H37) or Louth (H31). Rubus dentatifolius (Briggs) W C R Watson Probably common (D E Allen). Reservoir, 1 mile south of Newry Lane north of Kil een Church Near Loughgilly G C Druce det. W M Rogers Rubus drejeri Jensen ex Lange Ballymore – not typical in leaf dserration and sepal R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers position Rubus dumnoniensis Bab. Hedges around Killeen Church - plentiful Near Flagstaff, Fathom Forest Rubus dunensis W.M. Rogers Jerrettspass hectad Oxford Island hectad Rubus echinatoides (Rogers) Dallman Apparently one of the most widespread and common species. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

South Armagh – several localities Gosford Castle Forest Park Jerrettspass hectad Scarva - abundant Rubus echinatus Lindley G C Druce det. W M Rogers conf. A Jerrettspass hectad Rubus errabundus W C R Watson Lane north of Kil een Church – one patch on hedgetop Rubus fissus Lindl. Raughlan – peaty ground R D Meikle det. Watson Rubus hesperius W M Rogers Peatlands Park – one bush in bog garden Rubus hibernicus (Rogers) Rogers Jerrettspass hectad Rubus lanaticaulis Edees & Newton Probably common (D E Al en). Oxford Island hectad Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus lettii W M Rogers Slieve Gullion Forest Park – abundant on banks next Rubus leucostachys Scleich. ex Sm. Rubus lindleianus Lees Charlemont hectad Tandragee – Lower Demesne Rubus longithyrsiger Lees ex Focke A Newton & P Hackney Peatlands Country Park – abundant in bog garden Rubus macrophyllus Weihe & Nees Near Newry – as var. schlechtendalii; or between this J02 R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers and R. microphyllus – panicle exceptionally weak Rubus melanodermis Focke ex W M Rogers Lane uphil from Lough Ross - frequent Slieve Gullion Forest Park – car park Rubus micans Godr. Tartaraghan – or between this and R. echinatus, near H95 R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers Slieve Gullion Forect Park – conifer plantation Newry – not a typical specimen R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus 'mournensis'
This is an undescribed species that is locally abundant in several hilly areas of Ireland, including the Mournes (D
Newry – lane near reservoir on Dublin Road, in some J02 quantity as R. bloxamii Rubus mucronulatus Boreau R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers South shore of Lough Neagh - hedgerows A Newton & P Hackney Brackagh Moss - roadside Rubus nemoralis Müll North Armagh – as var. pulcherrimus Gosford Castle Forest Park Jerrettspass hectad Tandragee – Lower Demesne Oxford Island hectad Rubus nemorosus Hayne & Willd. Charlemont hectad Jerretpass hectad Rubus nessensis Hall Peatlands Park bog garden – open birchwood Rubus norvicensis A L Bul & Edees Gosford Forest Park - patches Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus plicatus Weihe & Nees Charlemont hectad R Ll Praeger det. P J Muell conf. A Newry – lane by Dublin Road Rubus plymensis (Focke) Edees & A Newton Argory – large bush growing out of yew tree Rubus polyanthemus Lindeb. Charlemont hectad Loughgall hectad G C Druce det. W M Rogers Oxford Island hectad Rubus pruinosus Arrh. Rubus pyramidalis Kalt. Richhill hectad H W lett det. R Ll Praeger Roadsides near Lurgan – armature of panicle rachis R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers unusual y mixed Rubus radula Weihe Rubus raduloides (W.M. Rogers) Sudre R Ll Praeger det. D E Allen North of Lough Gullion Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus rhamnifolius Weihe. & Nees. Rubus rhombifolius Wiehe ex Boenn. North of Lough Gullion A Newton & P Hackney Rubus robiae (Watson) A Newton North of Lough Gullion - hedges A Newton & P Hackney Rubus rosaceus Weihe & Nees Ballymore – not typical Rubus rubristylis W C R Watson Lane north of Kil een Church - clump Rubus rudis Weihe Probably an accidental introduction, in the opinion of D E Al en. One other Irish site, on Hill of Howth, otherwise confined to S E England within these islands. Newry – lane near reservoir on Dublin Road, as newbouldii then gelertii Clare Glen - colony Rubus scaber Weihe Newry – apparently a strong form with hirsute panicle J02 R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers and leaves softly hairy beneath Lurgan – apparently the typical plant R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus scissus Watson Peatlands Country Park A Newton & P Hackney Rubus segontii A Newton & M Porter Rubus ulmifolius Schott Armagh as rusticanus Lough Ross, 2km west of Crossmaglen Armagh – as rusticanus R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers Tartaraghan – as rusticanus R Ll Praeger det. W M Rogers Loughgall hectad Drunherriff, Loughgal Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve P Hackney & J Wilde Lough Gullion NE J S Faulkner & P Hackney Rubus vestitus Weihe Oxford Island hectad Rubus villicaulis Koehl. H W lett det. R Ll Praeger Rubus wirralensis Newton Gosford Castle Forest Park – patch at plantation Jerrettspass hectad Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Rubus saxatilis Linnaeus Stone Bramble Armagh: Native, rare (1) A stoloniferous perennial, not part of the Rubus fruticosus aggregate complex. It grows on basic rocky or stony sites, on mountains or in deciduous woods. In Ireland - frequent on the north and west. There is relatively little suitable habitat for the species in Armagh. North side of Slieve Gullion at 1500 feet J S Faulkner & I McNeill
Rumex x dufftii Hausskn. (R. sanguineus x R. obtusifolius)
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
A hybrid dock, scattered throughout the British Isles. There are rather few Irish records, but as the parent species often grow in close proximity, it may well be overlooked. Ballynamony, Portadown Rumex hydrolapathum Huds. Water Dock Armagh: Native, rare (0) A large perennial dock of wet sites in fens and at the edges of lakes, slow-flowing rivers and ditches. Widespread in lowland Ireland, but confined in Armagh to the Newry Canal and Lough Neagh, and not recorded since 1982. Coney Island, off Derrywarragh Island Newry Canal north of Terryhoogan Pool near Terryhoogan Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal - not seen in J051473 1986
Rumex x pratensis Mert. & W.D.J. Koch. (R. crispus x R. obtusifolius)
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
The commonest hybrid dock, likely to occur occasional y wherever the two parents co-exist, which they do often. It is probably much more frequent in Armagh than the records suggest. Ruppia maritima Linnaeus Beaked Tasselweed Armagh: Native, rare (1) Occasional in brackish pools and saltmarsh round the Irish coast. There is very little suitable habitat in Armagh – Drumalane Quarry is at the inland end of the Newry estuary. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Drumalane Quarry
Salicornia sp. Linnaeus Glassworts
Armagh: Native, rare (2)
Salicornia species are succulent herbs of saltmarsh and brackish mud, found on most of the coast of Ireland. Their
taxonomy is fluid and identification to species level is very difficult. Estuary of Newry River – as S. herbacea Rough Island, Newry River County Bridge – on mud
Salix x fruticosa Doell (S. viminalis x S. aurita) Shrubby Osier
Armagh: Hybrid between archaeophyte and native parents, scarce (6)
This hybrid willow appears to have arisen spontaneously in some sites, but others are certainly planted. It was used for basket-making, and is sometimes planted for biomass production. Leap of Carryhugh – 1 small tree in glen Ballytroddan south – several plants in damp hollow Derrycorry north – on laneway to Bog Derrycoose – beside Sandy Rampart Derrytrasna, Lough Neagh – one tree Seagoe - planted
Salix x reichardtii A. Kern (S. caprea x S. cinerea)
Armagh: Native, scarce (5)
Probably frequent in Ireland. Many hybrid trees are likely to be passed over by recorders as one of the parents – usually S. caprea. The latter indeed may be somewhat over-recorded as a consequence. Goragh Wood Quarry Goragh Wood north Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve P Hackney & J Wilde Fathom (Newry) Forest Salix repens Linnaeus Creeping Willow Armagh: Native, rare (2) Frequent in much of Ireland in coastal habitats, in fens, and on heaths and mountains. It has almost certainly died out at some of its Armagh sites, perhaps as a result of mineral enrichment and increased competition. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Drumcarn Fen (ASSI), Drumnahavil Bog Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Loughgall Quarry Annacloghmullin, Belleek - cashel Castle Dillon Estate Quarry at Goragh Wood Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Abraham's Bog – edge of bog holes Kinnegoe Point to Oxford Island Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Oxford Island National Nature Reserve S Beesley & J Wilde Salix triandra Linnaeus Almond Willow Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (4) By rivers and lakes and in osier beds, scattered through most of Ireland. It was once grown extensively for basket work, and the current shrubs are likely to be either planted or descendants from earlier plantations. Eagralougher – planted on bank of River Callan Balancing Lakes, Craigavon Kinnego Harbour as var. hoffmanniana – on jetty Sambucus ebulus Linnaeus Dwarf Elder Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) A persistent perennial scattered throughout Ireland, but not known to set seed. Although it had medicinal uses, these do not appear to have been its mainstream purpose, and so it is not clear how and why it has spread. Coney Island, Lough Neagh Samolus valerandi Linnaeus Brookweed Armagh: Native, extinct (1) A small herb of lake shores and wet coastal habitats. Formerly widespread around Lough Neagh, but declining. Shore of Lough Neagh by entrance to Lagan Canal H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Saxifraga granulata Linnaeus Meadow Saxifrage Ireland: Native or introduced, FPO, RDB Endangered Armagh: Introduced, rare (0) Very rare in Ireland, but much more common in Great Britain, on moist pastures and in damp shady places. It is grown in gardens as an ornamental, and is sometimes naturalised, possibly always so in Ireland. Mound at Rathtrillick, Middletown - sparingly The Argory, Derrycaw - planted Fort at Crowhill, Magarty Saxifraga hirsuta Linnaeus Kidney Saxifrage Ireland: Native Armagh: Introduced, rare (1) Native by streams and on rocks in South-west Ireland, and occasionally naturalised elsewhere. The Argory, Derrycaw - naturalising from planted 1987-1999 I McNeill stock Saxifraga tridactylites Linnaeus Rue-leaved Saxifrage Armagh: Native, scarce (8) A small winter annual, common further south in Ireland in open dry habitats such as on rocks, walls and sandhills. It was not recorded in Armagh until 1983, but since then has spread through much of the county as a colonist of man-made habitats. Armagh City north – on shallow car park detritus Clonmore – in gravelled area Markethill – on edge of footpath Lough Gall – many hundreds of plants on concrete base of demolished Nissen huts North of Sturgeon's Hill Balancing Lakes, Craigavon – several hundred plants Craigavon Lakes – roundabout on A2 Schoenus nigricans Linnaeus Black Bog-rush Armagh: Native, rare (3) Common in the west of Ireland, in sites with base-rich flushing or even on acid bog. Scattered in the east, and mainly near the sea. The Armagh records are al from either the eastern slopes of Slieve Gul ion or the margins of Lough Neagh. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Slieve Gullion south spur above Drumintee Annahaia flushes Killevy Castle, Slieve Gullion Forest J S Faulkner & CAWS Derryadd, Lough Neagh Oxford Island hectad S Beesley & J Wilde Scleranthus annuus Linnaeus Annual Knawel Ireland: FPO Armagh: Absent A 1970 record of this species, supposedly from Bann Foot or Derrylard on the south shore of Lough Neagh, is a transcription error. The correct location for the record is Far Waterfoot at the mouth of the Moyola River, which is at the NW corner of Lough Neagh in Co. Derry (H40). Scrophularia umbrosa Dumort. Green Figwort Ireland: RDB Vulnerable N.I.: WOAA Armagh: Absent? Records for Skegatillida (2004) and Drumbanagher Forest (2005) are almost certain to be errors. Sedum anglicum Huds. English Stonecrop Armagh: Native, scarce (7) Common on acidic rock in coastal areas in Ireland, but scarce inland. The Armagh records are all from the southern half of the county. Ballynasack, 2km NW of Mullaghbane Slieve Gulion west – above Longfield Levallymore, NW of Slieve Gullion Slieve Gullion north - Ballard Camlough Mountain Rocks on a hill near Milltown Chapel, west of Cam Slieve Gullion – rock at western base Slieve Gullion – beside road on west slope J S Faulkner & BSBI Selaginella selaginoides (Linnaeus) P. Beauv. Lesser Clubmoss Armagh: Native, scarce (9) In Ireland, mainly in the north and west, in non-acid flushes where there is little competition. In Armagh, it is confined to the hil s of the south. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Clontygorra south J S Faulkner & I Rippey Slieve Gullion south spur, above Drumintee Slieve Gullion – west slopes (2014) J S Faulkner & BSBI Slieve Gullion west – above Longfield Slieve Gullion north – above Ballintemple J S Faulkner & I McNeill Camlough Mountain , at 700-1000 feet Camlough Mountain Camlough Mountain – north side Sherardia arvensis Linnaeus Field Madder Armagh: Native, scarce (5) An annual of cultivated and disturbed land and open grassland. It was formerly common throughout most of Ireland, but has been decreasing. Included in the Praeger list of common plants in Armagh. Lough Ross, 2km west of Crossmaglen Maddan near Keady - minor road west of marsh Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh Railway near Millford The Palace Grounds, Armagh Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh Loughgall Quarry 2 Col one - roadside Darby's Bridge, Tall River Lisdoo Lake, 3.5km NE of Markethill Armagh to Portadown road at Ballybay River Camlough Mountain - quarry on west side Disused (Newry) Canal at Terryhoogan J S Faulkner & I McNeill Craigavon South Lake - roadside verge to west Craigavon North Lake - field to north Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Oxford Island NNR Staff Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Silene gallica Linnaeus Small-flowered Catchfly N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (0) A winter annual of dry cultivated and disturbed ground, rare in Ireland. This species has declined sharply, and in Britain is classified as Endangered in the RDB. There is slight ambiguity about the site of the record below, as the recorder notes it as West of bridge over R. Cusher, but her grid reference and place name correspond to a bridge over the Closet River, and not to the River Cusher which is some distance to the south. Derrymacash – c. 12 plants in flower by roadside west J0459 of bridge. Not seen in 1974
Silene latifolia ssp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet
Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (3)
Locally frequent in central and southern Ireland, but rarer and probably decreasing further north. The Armagh records are al from either Loughgall or Oxford Island. Loughgall – healdland of cultivated field (1983); in ground cultivated previous autumn, c. 1 plant (1989) H9052 Oxford Island – tip of J S Faulkner, I & D McNeill Disturbed ground north of Waterside House, Oxford J0561 Oxford Island, Lough Neagh Silybum marianum (Linnaeus) Gaertn. Milk Thistle Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0) A rare casual, recorded in most districts of Ireland except in the north-west, but not known in Armagh since late 19th century. Co. Armagh – always near buildings Maghery, Lough Neagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Seagoe, Portadown H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Sinapis alba Linnaeus White Mustard Armagh: Archaeophyte/crop, rare (1) Occasional as a weed of cultivated land and disturbed ground throughout most of Ireland, but declining. This is one of the species used as a condiment and as seedling greens, so it has been moved around in commerce and its distribution as an archaeophyte has been obscured. Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh Moyrourkan Lough Tandragee Station area Lough Shark – apparently sown together with cereal Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Solanum nigrum Linnaeus Black Nightshade Ireland: Archaeophyte Armagh: Casual, rare (1) Scarce in Ireland as a weed of waste ground and gardens, but possibly increasing with the spread of maize as a forage crop (the berries are approximately the same size as a maize grain, and may be toxic when immature). So far, it has only been recorded twice in Armagh. Derryhale as ssp. nigrum – 1 plant, near edge of Canary, 1.5km east of Moy – garden weed Solidago virgaurea Linnaeus Goldenrod Armagh: Native, rare (1) Common in the south, west and hilly areas elsewhere in Ireland, but scarcer in the lowlands of the centre and east. Its foothold at its only Armagh locality - Slieve Gullion - may be precarious. Sorbus hibernica E.F. Warburg Irish Whitebeam N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Native, scarce (5) An endemic Irish species, scattered thinly through most of the island, in a variety of habitats. It often occurs as single trees, so the Milford population, on the banks of a disused railway cutting is an important one. Further searching might reveal new sites, notably in the south of the county. Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve – 7+ trees at H8543 west of Mullinure Lane, Armagh City – 2 trees in N Dawson det. D A Webb hedge on bank of disused railway Carricknaffrin – 1 tree J Harron det. T Rich Crosslieve – 1 tree on rock face J Harron det. T Rich Slievenabolea – 1 tree by Carewamean J Harron det. T Rich Camlough Mountain - Corrinshigo J S Faulkner & I McNeill J Harron det. T Rich Spergula arvensis Linnaeus Corn Spurrey Armagh: Archaeophyte Although this species is listed as Vulnerable in the British RDB, it remains one of the common weeds of cultivated and disturbed land in Armagh. There are post-1986 records in over 50 monads (not listed here), distributed throughout the county but rather thinly on the limestone in the west. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Spergularia media (Linnaeus) C. Presl. Greater Sea-spurrey Armagh: Native, rare (2) Common in various muddy maritime habitats round the Irish coast. In Armagh, strictly confined to the small stretch of coast on the Newry estuary. Estuary of Newry River - abundant Newry River Estuary Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Rough Island, Newry River Spergularia rubra (Linnaeus) J. & C. Presl. Sand Spurrey Armagh: Native, rare (0) Much less strictly maritime than other species of Spergularia, but rather scarce in Ireland, occurring in quarries, and on roadsides, etc. Apparently associated with the railway system in Armagh, but not recorded since 1981. Tynan Abbey Estate Altnaveigh, Camlough Mountain - quarry Goragh Wood – disused railway station On railway near Narrow Water - abundant On railway at Wellington cuttng near Newry On railway, 1 mile south of Portadown Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham. Irish Lady's Tresses Ireland: FPO, RDB Rare N.I.: WOAA, Priority Species Armagh: Native, rare (0) One of the most celebrated of Irish wild plants, following its discovery first in Co. Cork and then at Brackagh Moss in Armagh by Praeger. The species has now been recorded in several dozen sites in Ireland and West Scotland and one in South-west England. Its habitats vary from lakeshores to bog and grazed Molinia pasture; they are usually low in nutrients but either flushed or subject to flooding. Its presence at any site can be transient; it has not been seen at Brackagh for over 30 years. It is a Priority Species in Great Britain as well as in Northern Ireland. Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA N Dawson & CAWS Oxford Island National Nature Reserve S Beesley & J Wilde Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Stachys arvensis (Linnaeus) Linnaeus Field Woundwort Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0) An annual of cultivated and disturbed ground, rare and decreasing in Ireland outside the south-east and south-west corners. There is only one reliable record in Armagh. Records in the CEDaR database for Seagahan (1997), Carganamuck (1989), Ballylane (1998), Ballyfodrin (1989) and Derryvore Fen (1997) are al errors. Clare Glen – in field nearby
Stachys x ambigua Sm. (S. sylvatica x S. palustris) Hybrid Woundwort
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
A sterile rhizomatous perennial occurring in the company of both, one or none of the parents. Scattered in Ireland, and probably much more common in Armagh than the two records suggest. Folly Glen – 1 plant in woodland Silverwood near Lurgan - roadside H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Stellaria palustris Ehrh. ex Hoffm. Marsh Stitchwort N.I.: Priority Species Armagh: Absent? A perennial of grazed fens and marshes liable to winter flooding, frequent in central Ireland and Co. Fermanagh. There is one record in the database for Brackagh Moss (1974), but it is probably an error. Suaeda maritima (Linnaeus) Dumort Annual Sea-blite Armagh: Native, rare (2) An annual of saltmarsh and other maritime sediments, occurring round most of the Irish coast. In Armagh, confined to the estuary of the Newry River. Estuary of Newry River Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Subularia aquatica Linnaeus Awlwort Armagh: Native, extinct (0) An aquatic of shallow lake margins in acid, nutrient poor water. It is now very rare in Ireland, being limited to the extreme west and south-west. The species was first recorded in the British Isles in Lough Neagh at or around Kilmore, a Co. Down townland that abuts Armagh, by William Sherard in ca 1690. It was subsequently reported elsewhere around Lough Neagh, but the most recent record was in 1956 (Lough Beg) so it appears to have died out, presumably as a result of the vastly increased nutrient load. Praeger had doubts as to whether the species had ever been present in the Armagh, but its reported abundance so close as Kilmore is in itself highly suggestive. It is worth noting that Newry record by Thompson may wel have been in that small area at the centre of the town which was transferred to County Down but remained in the vice county of Armagh. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lough Neagh (Co. Armagh) Newry – in the canal Taraxacum F H Wigg Dandelions Taraxacum is a genus with a large number of so-called microspecies, genetically fixed lines that reproduce apomictically and which can for the most part only be identified with certainty by botanists who have specialised in taraxacology. The Taraxacum flora of Armagh has received very little attention, and would not be sensible to attempt any generalised comments about the species. As with Rubus, therefore, the tables of records below are without accompanying text. All of the species listed are believed to be native to the British Isles, or at least probably so. Taraxacum hamatum Raunk. Derrykeevan, SE of Junction 12 - M1 P Hackney det. A J Richards Taraxacum lingulatum Markl. Terryhoogan Moss P Hackney det. A J Richards Taraxacum longisquameum H. Lindb. Derrykeevan, SE of Junction 12 - M1 P Hackney det. A J Richards Taraxacum maculosum A.J. Richards Castle Dillon Estate – roadside verge nearby P Hackney det. A J Richards Taraxacum pseudohamatum Dahlst. Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal P Hackney det. A J Richards Taraxacum selandii Dahlst. Kinnegoe Harbour (Bay), Lough Neagh D S Lambert det. C C Haworth Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Taraxacum subcyanolepis M.P. Christ in Raunk. Terryhoogan Moss P Hackney det. A J Richards Taraxacum subhamatum M.P. Christ Derrykeevan, SE of Junction 12 - M1 P Hackney det. A J Richards Thalictrum flavum Linnaeus Common Meadow-rue Armagh: Native, scarce (10) A tall distinctive herb, frequent in wet fens and ditches with base-rich water, mainly in the centre of Ireland. It is decreasing everywhere because of land drainage, and is no longer present in many of its former haunts in north and west Armagh. Near Middletown – on river side Tynan, 2km SE of Caledon Methodist Drain, running into the River Blackwater Mullinure Meadows, near Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger The Argory, Derrycaw Dartry Lodge, Drumask or Ballycullen Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Teague's Bridge, River Blackwater - south J S Faulkner & I McNeill The Argory, Derrycaw - ditch Refuse Tip, Ballyfodrin Foy More, Dungannon Road, Portadown Near Maghery – shores of Lough Neagh Maghery, Lough Neagh River Blackwater at Derrywarragh Island - mouth River Blackwater Derrywarragh Island, Lough Neagh Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal Brackagh Bog (NE & NW) - widepread and numerous J019507 Habitat Survey Team, NIEA on banks of drains (2013) A McMullan, P Corbett, P Brain, S Wolfe-Murphy & S Leach J S Faulkner & I McNeill Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J Wilde & P Hackney J S Faulkner & BSBI Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

South of Portadown – wet meadows by railway Ballynery, 2km N of Portadown - bog east of Balancing Lakes, Craigavon - 6 plants in one patch Craigavon North Lake N.I. Lake Survey Meadows near the Blackwater Blackwater at Maghery Near entrance of Lagan Canal Thelypteris palustris Schott Marsh Fern Armagh: Native, rare (1) A rare fern of fen and carr, thinly distributed in Ireland and mainly in the centre. There is one vigorous population in Armagh. Kiltubbrid Loughs - 6 plants (1994); very abundant, good stands on edge of reeds to east of north lake (1995); enormous stand c. 100m in length on east side H768394 Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J S Faulkner, CAWS & I McNeill J S Faulkner & I McNeill Lower Kiltubbrid Lough A - abundant Thlaspi arvense Linnaeus Field Penny-cress Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (7) An annual weed of cultivation and disturbed roadsides, frequent in the south and east of Ireland. All the Armagh records are in the northern half of the county. Teague's Bridge, River Blackwater - roadside north Derryveen, Derryhubbert South Stonebridge - 12-24 plants in disturbed ground Loughgall – cultivated ground Roadside between Portadown and Tartaraghan Loughgall - in ground cultivated previous autumn - c.10 - 20 plants South of Clontylew House, 6km NW of Portadown Derrykeevan (Derrykeeran), SE of Junction 12 - M1 Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Junction 12 (Birches), M1 Motorway Derrylileagh Lough Near Cusher River, south of Knock Bridge Cusher River, near Old Cusher bridge Fields near Enniscrone Park, Portadown Balteagh, Craigavon Thymus polytrichus A. Kern. ex Borbás Wild Thyme Armagh: Native, rare (1) Given how common this species is around the Irish coast, and on thin dry basic soils and rocky places inland, it is remarkable that it is so rare in Armagh. Much of the Slievenabolea site has now been altered by development.There is one further record (Verner's Bridge in the NW corner of the county, 1950s) that might have been in Armagh, but was probably in Co. Tyrone. The record by Praeger is given as T. serpyllum but is assumed to be what we now know as T. polytrichus. South of Armagh – apparently very rare Slievenabolea – spread over low outcrops on south- facing slope of hill Torilis nodosa (Linnaeus) Gaertn. Knotted Hedge-parsley Armagh: Native, extinct (0) An annual of roadsides, hedgerows and woodland margins. It is occasional in the southern half of Ireland, but thins out northwards, and Armagh is at the northern edge of its range. Drumintee, Slieve Gullion 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Knock Bridge, Upper Bann 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Trifolium arvense Linnaeus Hare's-foot Clover Armagh: Absent A record in the database for Blackwatertown (1972) is understood to be an error. Trifolium campestre Schreb. Hop Trefoil Armagh: Native, scarce (8) A winter annual of dry grassland and disturbed ground, common in the south of Ireland but becoming scarce in the north-west. It was included in the Praeger list of common species in Armagh, but appears to have declined since that time. Rocks Quarry, Ballyheridan J S Faulkner & I McNeill Old railway at Mullynure Dismantled railway at Ballybrannan Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Un-Named (Ballygasey) Quarry Charlemont - on industrial land Charlemont - waste ground, SE of village Richhill Station Lenalea (Ballybee) Bog 1987-1999 I McNeill Charlestown or Bannfoot, Lough Neagh Newry Station approach road Craigmore Viaduct, Bessbrook River Old bridge at railway east of Lough Gilly Goragh wood railway station – by bridge Newry Canal at Fathom Forest Trifolium medium Linnaeus Zigzag Clover Armagh: Native, rare (0) A perennial of neutral grasslands, roadsides and ruderal sites. Though scattered throughout Ireland, it appears to have become much rarer, perhaps as a consequence of the reseeding of pastures and increased use of nitrogenous fertiliser. It has not been recorded in Armagh for 30 years. While it may have been overlooked, it is certainly now rare. Tynan Abbey Estate Aughnagurgan, 4km SE of Keady Maddan near Keady Mullynure, Armagh Blackwatertown, south Moyrourkan Lough (A) Lisdoo Lake, 3.5km NE of Markethill Rockmacreeny, 2km south of Richhil Church Hill, Peatlands Park Killevy Castle, Slieve Gullion Forest Enagh Lough, 3km NW of Bessbrook Annaloist, Lough Neagh Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Trifolium micranthum Viv. Slender Trefoil Ireland: Native Armagh: Introduced, extinct (0) This is a native winter annual of open neutral to acid grasslands, in Ireland mostly near the coast. It is also noted as a weed of lawns. It seems likely that the Tynan record was of introduced material, possibly brought in with lawn seed. Tynan Abbey – on lawns Triglochin maritima Linnaeus Sea Arrowgrass Armagh: Native, rare (3) Common in saline and brackish habitats round the whole of the Irish coast. Very localised in Armagh. Estuary of the Newry River - common Newry River Estuary Rough Island, Newry River Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Tripleurospermum maritimum (Linnaeus) W.D.J. Koch Scentless Mayweed Armagh: Native, rare (3) A common perennial of open habitats round the entire coast of Ireland. There has been some confusion in the past because the related species T. inodorum was sometimes regarded as a subspecies (ssp. inodorum) of T. maritimum and recorded as such without the subspecific name. In Armagh, T. maritimum is confined to the Newry Estuary, while T. inodorum is widespread inland. Estuary of the Newry River J S Faulkner & P Hackney Newry River Estuary Victoria Lock, Newry Canal Rough Island north Trisetum flavescens (Linnaeus) P. Beauv. Yellow Oat-grass Armagh: Native, scarce (6) A perennial of well-drained neutral to calcareous grassland, locally frequent in south and central Ireland, and very scarce in the north-west. It was regarded as a member of the natural herbage of the soil in Coote's Statistical Survey of Armagh (1804). Most of the Armagh records are from the limestone district, a few from the basalt and one from the SE corner. There are very few recent records, and one can only conclude that this species has declined drastically. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Tullyard ASSI - meadows Habitat Survey team, NIEA W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger Railway east of Armagh Station Lisadian (Thompson's) Quarry Navan, Armagh - dry banks CAWS, BSBI & J S Faulkner Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve (UWT) Quarry off The Rock Road, Farmacaffly Carganamuck, 3.5km north of Armagh Old railway at Mullynure Annacramph Meadow ASSI Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park Derryhale, 4.5km NE of Richhil Lurgan & Portadown Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve (N) Oxford Island (Tip) – ssp. purpurascens J S Faulkner, I & D McNeil Typha angustifolia Linnaeus Lesser Bulrush Armagh: Native, rare (3) A tall emergent aquatic, said to grow in deeper and less enriched water than the much commoner species T. latifolia. Scarce in Ireland and chiefly in the north. In Armagh, confined to the northern fringe and in decline. Records in the database for Drumboy Lough (2009), Cashel Lough (1997), and Annaghmore (1997) are errors. A record for Brackagh Moss (1974) requires confirmation. Annagarriff Lake Lurgan Park Lake N.I. Lake Survey Lough Gullion – south shore Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lough Gullion – in shallow water bordering lake 1955-1958 E Hoey & BSBI Habitat Survey Team, NIEA N.I. Lake Survey Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J S Faulkner & P Hackney Derrytrasna Bog, Derryadd 1965-1967 Queen's University Belfast Mouth of Lagan Canal
Ulex x breoganii Castrov. & Valdés-Berm.) Castrov. & Valdés-Berm. (U. europaeus x U. gallii)
Armagh: Native
A fertile hybrid, likely to occur where the two parents grow together, as they do at Enagh Lough. It may well occur, undetected, elsewhere in the south of the county. Enagh Lough – steep banks to the south Urtica urens Linnaeus Small Nettle Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (3) A spring annual of cultivated land on light soils, occasional throughout Ireland. Praeger included it in his list of common plants, but it no longer merits that term. All localised records are from the north of the county. I & A McNeill & J S Faulkner West of Portadown Maghery, Lough Neagh North of Portadown Ardmore, Lough Neagh I McNeill & J S Faulkner Derrytagh North, Lough Neagh J S Faulkner & I McNeill Utricularia australis R. Br Bladderwort Armagh: Native, rare (3) A free-floating perennial aquatic of nutrient-poor, still or slow-flowing water, probably distributed throughout Ireland. This species is more or less indistinguishable from U. vulgaris except when in flower, and even then only with microscopic examination. Most records are inevitably, therefore, of an aggregate normal y referred to as U. vulgaris agg. Unfortunately, older identification books did not use very reliable characters for the distinction between the species, and in addition recorders and digitisers have sometimes failed to distinguish properly between records of U. vulgaris s.s. and those of the aggregate, so it is impossible to gauge the relative frequency of the two species. In the following table, I am making the assumption that when they specify U. australis, it is that species, and not the aggregate, that is intended. (That, of course, does not preclude the possibility of misidentification!). Records of U. australis are not numerous, but they do suggest that the species is widespread rather than localised in the county, and tolerant of different water types. An equivalent table for U. vulgaris is not feasible. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lower Kiltubbrid Lough A - at south end of lake Kiltubbrid Loughs - several in flower J S Faulkner, CAWS & I McNeill Tynan Abbey Lake CAWS & N Dawson Lough Ross, 2km west of Crossmaglen N Dawson & CAWS Lisadian, 2.5km west of Armagh - in flower Derrycorry Bog – in bog pools and drains Lurgan Lough Upper, Lurgancullenboy Brackagh Bog (pools) Utricularia minor Linnaeus Lesser Bladderwort Armagh: Native, scarce (9) Similar to U. vulgaris/australis, but more readily distinguished to species level. It has occurred throughout Ireland but has decreased in the south and east. The Armagh records come from al corners of the county, but not the centre. Praeger included this in his list of common species. Kiltubbrid Loughs Fenbase Surveyor Derrycory South, 4km north of Moy Glasdrumman Fen Marsh at Tullydonnell Derryvane, 3km NW of Portadown Slieve Gullion – in rocky pool on west side Slieve Gullion – north base at Ballard Madden Bridge (Armagh), Newry Canal Brackagh Moss National Nature Reserve Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Fenbase Surveyor L Corbett, P Campbell & K Keys J S Faulkner & I McNeill Oxford Island hectad S Beesley & J Wilde Vaccinium vitis-idaea Linnaeus Cowberry Armagh: Native, rare (3) A dwarf shrub of acid heath and the understorey of open woodland. In Ireland, mainly in mountain areas from Wicklow northwards. The Annagarriff and Derryadd Lough records were remarkable for their low altitude, but the plant has now disappeared from there, and also from the Carnagh site. It remains frequent on the upper parts of Slieve Gullion. A record from Aughnagurgan Wood (2005) requires confirmation. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Carnagh Forest Nature Reserve - among Vaccinium myrtillus under deciduous trees, one patch seen on west side of lake; not found 2014 Annacloghmullin, 2km south of Bel eek Annagarriff Lake Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park - gone by Slieve Gullion – summit (1892); scattered to NE of cairn (2011); between southern cairn and lake (2012) J0220 A Waterman & P Corbett Habitat Survey Team, NIEA J S Faulkner & BSBI Valerianella dentata (Linnaeus) Pollich Narrow-fruited Cornsalad Armagh: Archaeophyte, extinct (0) A weed of field crops on calcareous soils, which was once widely but thinly distributed through much of Ireland. It is now extremely rare and confined to the SE corner. There have been no reports of it in Armagh since the 19th century. Middletown – fields to the east 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Lough Ross, 2km west of Crossmaglen 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Beech Hill, Armagh City 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Between Loughgall & Armagh W F Johnson det. R Ll Praeger 1892-1893 R Ll Praeger Valerianella locusta (Linnaeus) Laterr. Common Cornsalad Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (6) A winter annual of thin soils, mainly coastal or in man-made habitats. Frequent in Ireland, but more so in the east than the west. Praeger included it in his list of common plants; it is scarce now, but remains distributed throughout the county. Clovenden tetrad J S Faulkner & I McNeill Mullynure, Armagh Loughgall Quarry 2 Corhammock, S of Gosford Forest Park Castle Dillon Estate Railway west of Richhill station Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Kingarve, 2km W of Portadown Drumnasoo - on small patch of disturbed ground Forkhill - road edge near lower bridge, but all killed by herbicide &/or drought Craigmore Viaduct, Bessbrook River Goraghwood Station Mullaghglass Station Veronica agrestis Linnaeus Green Field-speedwell Armagh: Archaeophyte or neophyte, scarce (7) A spring annual of cultivated and disturbed land, occasional throughout Ireland but apparently decreasing. In Armagh, usually seen on roadsides and in small numbers; the colonies are ephemeral. Tynan Abbey Estate Grange, near Armagh H W Lett det. R Ll Praeger Mullynure, Armagh The Argory Farm Tullyroan School - roadside Church Hill, Peatlands Park - ditches Loughgall Manor Sandy Rampart - one plant Killevy Castle, Slieve Gullion Forest Craigmore Viaduct, Bessbrook River Derrykeeran, NW of Portadown Portadown Foundry Balancing Lakes, Craigavon Silverwood, Lurgan Bay west of Ardmore Point Veronica catenata Pennell Pink Water-speedwell Armagh: Native, scarce (8) A perennial of the muddy edges of lakes and slow-flowing rivers. occasional throughout most of Ireland. The Armagh records are concentrated along the shores of Lough Neagh and on tributaries of the Blackwater. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lower Kiltubbrid Lough A N.I. Lake Survey N.I. Lake Survey Straghans Lough Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Mullyleggan Bridge Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Derryadd Lough, Peatlands Country Park N.I. Lake Survey Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Derrywarragh Island, Maghery Bay, Lough Neagh Mouth of River Blackwater 1970-1979 J Harron Bann Foot to Mill Bridge Habitat Survey Team, NIEA Columbkille Point NE of Bannfoot, Lough Neagh - shoreline Derrycrow, Derryinver Reedy Flat, Derryinver N.I. Lake Survey Morrow's Point, Clanrolla Veronica polita Fr. Grey Field-speedwell Armagh: Archaeophyte or neophyte, rare (1) An annual of cultivated land, found scattered through Ireland but decreasing and now largely in the south. Praeger regarded it as common in Armagh, but there have been are only two more recent records, both at Loughgall. Loughgall - in ground cultivated previous autumn, several dozen plants Vicia sylvatica Linnaeus Wood Vetch Armagh: Native, rare (1) A scrambling perennial of woodland edges, hedges, and rocky places. It is rare in Ireland, and mainly on the coast of Ulster. The colony at Navan Fort is small but has been there a long time. There is also a record from Brackagh Moss, but this requires confirmation. Navan Fort - top of bank beside ditch on north side, open rather rank grassland, c. 3 patches, close N Dawson, J Harron & BNFC together (1992); one patch remaining (2014) Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Viola arvensis Murray Field Pansy Armagh: Archaeophyte, scarce (10) An annual of cultivated ground, typically on light soils, occurring throughout Ireland but less common in the west. It was listed by Praeger among his common plants in Armagh, but appears to have become somewhat scarcer. Drumhillery (N), 5km NW of Keady Carrickduff, 6km south of Keady Tray, 3.5km W of Armagh - lane J S Faulkner & I McNeill Milford Railway Cutting Nature Reserve (UWT) Aughinlig, 2km SE of Charlemont East of Drumill Shaws Lake - quarry Mullaghmore Lough, Loughgilly Killycapple, 2.5km SE of Armagh - spring barley field H907403 West of Lough Gullion South of Bessbrook Bernish Rock, Ballymacdermot Mountain Lough Gil y (Dane's Lough) Eleven Lane Ends - arable field J S Faulkner & I McNeill Poyntzpass Station J S Faulkner & I McNeill Gamble's Bridge (East) J S Faulkner & I McNeill Clare Glen entrance Aughlish, Scarva Acton Lower Bridge Island Hill, Lough Shark - sparingly at edge of wheat J065417 Derrykeeran, NW of Portadown Brackagh Bog (pools) – waste ground Derryvore, 1km N of Portadown Tannaghmore Gardens (SE) Oxford Island – in crop Oxford Island NNR Staff
Viola x bavarica Schrank (V. riviniana x V. reichenbachiana)
Armagh: Native, rare (1)
A sterile hybrid, found occasional y where the parents grow together, such as in woods and shaded areas on calcareous soils. There not many records in Ireland, but it may occur frequently but undetected. Gosford Forest Park – in arboretum, beech walk and Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Viola canina Linnaeus Heath Dog-violet Armagh: Native, rare (0) A perennial of acid heath and stony river and lake shores, widespread but local and decreasing in Ireland. It was once common along the Lough Neagh shore but there have been no reports of there since 1978. At Lough Ross, the shoreline vegetation has been much altered, and its future must be at risk. Banks of Lough Neagh Along Lough neagh shore - common On shore of Lough Ross Lough Ross – east corner, holding on in quantity amid H889153 improved grassland Maghery, Lough Neagh Oxford Island NNR Oxford Island NNR staff Viola tricolor Linnaeus Wild Pansy Armagh: Native/archaeophyte, scarce (5) Occurs in Ireland as two subspecies: ssp. tricolor (archaeophyte) grows on cultivated land and on acidic heaths and grassland; ssp. curtisi (native) occurs on coastal grassland and dunes. Many observers have not identified plants to subspecific level, but it is likely that all Armagh plants belong to ssp. tricolor. This subspecies occurs throughout Ireland, but is commoner in the north, and like V. arvensis appears to be declining. It was included in the Praeger list of common plants for Armagh, but is now encountered infrequently. Listarkelt, 3km west of Clay Lake Black Hill, Tievenamara Carnagh Forest Nature Reserve - gravelled road Carnagh Forest Nature Reserve as ssp. tricolor Armaghbrague, 5.5km SE of Keady Clay Lake, Keady Cullyhanna Lough Tullydonnel , 2.5km SE of Silverbridge Ballymoyer Wood (National Trust) Mullaghmore Lough, Loughgilly Lisdoo Lake, 3.5km NE of Markethill Lenalea (Ballybee) Bog Cam Lough – east shore Ballard (E) as ssp. tricolor Bessbrook River at Craigmore Viaduct - as ssp. Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Hawthorn Hill, Annahaia Craigmore Viaduct, Bessbrook River Lissummon, 4.5km E of Mount Norris McCourt's Lake - as ssp. tricolor J S Faulkner & I McNeill Oxford Island National Nature Reserve Vulpia myuros (Linnaeus) C.C. Gmel. Rat's-tail Fescue Armagh: Archaeophyte, rare (1) An annual grass of disturbed habitats in towns and beside transport corridors. In Ireland, it is frequent in the south, rare in the north. There is just one casual record in Armagh. Annaghmore, 2.5km south of Peatlands Park - levelled H917578 J S Faulkner det. C Stace car park with gravel Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

PROVISIONAL LIST OF TAXA FROM COUNTY ARMAGH
The taxa listed here comprise all vascular plant species and subspecies recored in Armagh, including hybrids, casuals, aliens, garden escapes, and – in wild situations - planted species. It should be noted that a few of the taxa listed are not mutually exclusive, i.e. they fall within higher level taxa whicha re also listed (e.g. Hypericum maculatum ssp. obtusiusculum and Hypericum maculatum) Varieties and cultivars have been excluded.
Taxa for which there is an entry in this Register are listed in bold. If their identification is considered wrong or
in doubt, the name is placed in brackets. For taxa that are not entered in the Register, these have not general y been assessed for reliability of their identification, so it is possible that a few of the neophyte or planted taxa included in the Checklist may be incorrect. Abies alba Alchemil a xanthochlora Abies grandis Alisma lanceolatum
Abies procera Alisma plantago-aquatica Acaena anserinifolia Alliaria petiolata Acaena novae-zelandiae Allium carinatum Acaena ovalifolia Allium schoenoprasum Acer campestre Allium triquetrum Acer cappadocicum Allium ursinum Acer platanoides Alnus cordata Acer pseudoplatanus Alnus glutinosa Achillea millefolium Alnus incana Achil ea ptarmica Alopecurus geniculatus Acorus calamus Alopecurus pratensis [Adoxa moschatel ina]
Althaea officinalis Aegopodium podagraria Anacamptis pyramidalis
Aesculus hippocastanum Anagallis arvensis Aetheorhiza bulbosa Anagallis tenella
Aethusa cynapium Andromeda polifolia
Agrimonia eupatoria Anemone nemorosa Agrimonia procera
Angelica sylvestris Agrostemma githago
Anisantha diandra Agrostis canina Anisantha sterilis Agrostis capil aris Antennaria dioica
Agrostis gigantea
Anthemis cotula
Agrostis stolonifera Anthoxanthum odoratum [Agrostis stolonifera x vinealis]
Anthriscus sylvestris Agrostis vinealis Anthyllis vulneraria
Aira caryophyl ea Antirrhinum majus Aira praecox Apera spica-venti Ajuga reptans Aphanes arvensis Alcea rosea Aphanes australis Alchemilla filicaulis ssp. vestita Apium graveolens
Alchemil a glabra Apium inundatum Alchemilla mollis Apium nodiflorum Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Apium nodiflorum x inundatum (A. x moorei)
Betula pubescens Aquilegia vulgaris Bidens cernua Arabidopsis thaliana Bidens tripartita Arabis hirsuta
[Blackstonia perfoliata]
Araucaria araucana Blechnum spicant Arctium lappa
Bolboschoenus maritimus
Arctium minus Borago officinalis Arctium nemorosum Botrychium lunaria
Arenaria leptoclados
Brachyglottis laxifolia x compacta (B. x jubar) Arenaria serpyllifolia
Brachypodium sylvaticum Armeria maritima
Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Armoracia rusticana
Brassica oleracea Arrhenatherum elatius Brassica rapa Artemisia vulgaris Briza media Arum maculatum Bromopsis erecta
Asperula cynanchica
Bromopsis ramosa Asplenium adiantum-nigrum Bromus commutatus
Asplenium ceterach Bromus hordeaceus Asplenium ruta-muraria Bromus lepidus Asplenium scolopendrium Bromus secalinus
Asplenium trichomanes ssp. quadrivalens Bryonia dioica [Asplenium viride]
Buddleja davidii Aster tripolium
Butomus umbel atus Athyrium filix-femina Buxus sempervirens [Atriplex glabriuscula]
Calamagrostis stricta
Atriplex patula Callitriche brutia ssp. hamulata Atriplex portulacoides
Callitriche hermaphroditica Atriplex prostrata
Callitriche obtusangula Aubrieta deltoidea [Callitriche palustris]
Aucuba japonica Callitriche platycarpa
Avena fatua Callitriche stagnalis Avena sativa Calluna vulgaris Avena strigosa
Caltha palustris Avenula pubescens
Calystegia pulchra Azolla filiculoides [Calystegia sepium ssp. roseata] Baldel ia ranunculoides
Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium Barbarea intermedia [Calystegia sepium ssp. spectabilis] Barbarea vulgaris Calystegia silvatica Bellis perennis Campanula latifolia Berberis darwinii Campanula rapunculoides Berberis vulgaris Campanula rotundifolia
Berula erecta
Capsel a bursa-pastoris Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima
Cardamine amara
Betonica officinalis
Cardamine corymbosa Betula pendula Cardamine flexuosa Betula pendula x pubescens (B. x aurata)
Cardamine hirsuta Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Cardamine pratensis Carex vesicaria Carduus crispus
Carpinus betulus Carduus tenuiflorus
Carum carvi
Carex acuta
Castanea sativa Carex acutiformis Catabrosa aquatica
Carex binervis Catapodium marinum Carex canescens Catapodium rigidum Carex caryophyl ea
Cedrus atlantica Carex demissa Cedrus deodara Carex diandra Cedrus libani Carex dioica Centaurea cyanus
[Carex distans x hostiana (C. x muelleriana)] Centaurea nigra Carex disticha Centaurium erythraea Carex divulsa
Centranthus ruber Carex echinata Centunculus minimus
Carex elata Cerastium diffusum
Carex elongata
Cerastium fontanum ssp. holosteoides Carex flacca Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare Carex flava agg. Cerastium glomeratum Carex hirta Cerastium tomentosum Carex hostiana Ceratocapnos claviculata Carex hostiana x demissa Ceratophyl um demersum Carex hostiana x lepidocarpa (C. x fulva)
Ceterach officinarum Carex laevigata Chaenorhinum minus
[Carex lasiocarpa]
Chaerophyl um temulum
Carex lepidocarpa Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Carex leporina Chamaemelum nobile
Carex limosa
Chamerion angustifolium Carex muricata ssp. pairae
Chelidonium majus Carex nigra Chenopodium album Carex oederi
Chenopodium bonus-henricus
Carex otrubae
Chenopodium capitatum Carex pallescens Chenopodium murale Carex panicea Chenopodium polyspermum Carex paniculata Chenopodium rubrum
Carex pendula Chenopodium suecicum Carex pilulifera Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Carex pseudocyperus
Cicerbita macrophyl a Carex pulicaris Cichorium intybus
Carex remota Cicuta virosa Carex riparia
[Circaea alpina]
Carex rostrata Circaea lutetiana Carex rostrata x vesicaria (C. x involuta)
Circaea lutetiana x alpina (C. x intermedia)
Carex spicata
Cirsium arvense Carex strigosa
Cirsium dissectum
Carex sylvatica Cirsium palustre Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Cirsium vulgare Dactylis glomerata Cladium mariscus
Dactylorhiza fuchsi Claytonia sibirica Dactylorhiza fuchsi x maculata (D. x transiens)
Clematis vitalba Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. coccinea
Cochlearia anglica
Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. incarnata Cochlearia anglica x officinalis (C. x hol andica)
Dactylorhiza incarnata ssp. pulchella
Cochlearia danica Dactylorhiza maculata ssp. ericetorum Cochlearia officinalis ssp. officinalis
Dactylorhiza purpurel a
[Cochlearia officinalis ssp. scotica]
Danthonia decumbens Coeloglossum viride
Daphne laureola Colchicum autumnale Datura stramonium Comarum palustre Daucus carota Conium maculatum Deschampsia caespitosa ssp. cespitosa Conopodium majus Deschampsia caespitosa ssp. parviflora Convallaria majalis Deschampsia flexuosa Convolvulus arvensis Dicentra formosa Cornus alba Digitalis purpurea Cornus sanguinea
Diplotaxis muralis Cornus sericea Dipsacus fullonum [Corydalis sp.] Doronicum pardalianches Corylus avel ana Draba muralis Cotoneaster bullatus Drosera anglica
Cotoneaster frigidus x salicifolius (C. x watereri) Drosera intermedia
Cotoneaster horizontalis Drosera rotundifolia Cotoneaster integrifolius Dryopteris aemula
Cotoneaster rehderi Dryopteris affinis Cotoneaster simonsii Dryopteris borreri Crassula helmsi Dryopteris carthusiana Crataegus laevigata Dryopteris dilatata Crataegus monogyna Dryopteris filix-mas Crataegus monogyna x laevigata (C. x media) Dryopteris oreades x aemula (D. x Crepis biennis Crepis capillaris Echium vulgare
Crepis paludosa Elatine hexandra
Crepis setosa Elatine hydropiper
Crepis vesicaria Eleocharis acicularis
Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora Eleocharis multicaulis Crocosmia paniculata Eleocharis palustris ssp. vulgaris Cryptogramma crispa
Eleocharis quinqueflora
Cupressus sp. Eleocharis uniglumis Cydonia sp. Eleogiton fluitans Cymbalaria muralis Elodea callitrichoides Cynosurus cristatus Elodea canadensis Cystopteris fragilis
Elodea nuttalli Cytisus scoparius Elymus caninus
Daboecia cantabrica [Elytrigia juncea]
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Elytrigia repens Euphrasia nemorosa
Empetrum nigrum
[Euphrasia officinalis ssp. anglica]
Epilobium brunnescens Euphrasia officinalis ssp. pratensis
Epilobium ciliatum Euphrasia salisburgensis Epilobium hirsutum [Euphrasia scottica]
Epilobium montanum Fagopyrum esculentum Epilobium obscurum Fagus sylvatica Epilobium palustre Fallopia baldschuanica Epilobium parviflorum Fallopia convolvulus Epilobium parviflorum x montanum (E. x
Fallopia japonica Fallopia japonica x sachalinensis (F. x bohemica) Epipactis hel eborine Fallopia sachalinensis Epipactis palustris
Festuca altissima
Equisetum arvense Festuca filiformis
Equisetum fluviatile Festuca heterophyl a Equisetum fluviatile x arvense (E. x litorale)
Festuca ovina Equisetum hyemale
Festuca rubra Equisetum palustre Ficaria verna Equisetum sylvaticum Filago minima
Equisetum telmateia Filago vulgaris
Erica cinerea Filipendula ulmaria Erica tetralix Foeniculum vulgare
Erigeron acris
Fragaria ananassa Erigeron karvinskianus Fragaria vesca Erinus alpinus Frangula alnus
Eriophorum angustifolium Fraxinus excelsior Eriophorum vaginatum Fuchsia magel anica Erodium cicutarium
Fumaria bastardii Erophila glabrescens Fumaria capreolata
Erophila verna Fumaria densiflora
Erysimum cheiranthoides Fumaria muralis ssp. boroei Erysimum cheiri
Fumaria officinalis ssp. officinalis Erythronium dens-canis Fumaria officinalis ssp. wirtgenii Escallonia macrantha Galanthus nivalis Eucalyptus Galeopsis bifida Euonymus europaeus Galeopsis speciosa
Euonymus latifolius Galeopsis tetrahit Eupatorium cannabinum
Galinsoga parviflora Euphorbia exigua
Galium album Euphorbia helioscopia Galium aparine Euphorbia hyberna
Galium boreale
Euphorbia lathyris Galium odoratum Euphorbia peplus Galium palustre ssp. elongatum Euphrasia arctica ssp. borealis Galium palustre ssp. palustre [Euphrasia confusa]
Galium saxatile Euphrasia micrantha
Galium uliginosum
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Galium verum Gaultheria mucronata Hieracium grandidens
Gaultheria shallon [Hieracium sect. Foliosa]
Gentiana verna Hieracium umbel atum
Gentianel a amarel a [Hieracium sect. Vulgata]
Gentianel a campestris
Hierochloe odorata Geranium dissectum Hippuris vulgaris Geranium endressi Holcus lanatus Geranium endressi x versicolor (G. x oxonianum) Holcus mollis Geranium lucidum Hordeum distichon Geranium macrorrhizum Hordeum jubatum Geranium mol e Humulus lupulus Geranium nodosum Huperzia selago
Geranium phaeum Hyacinthoides hispanica Geranium pratense
Hyacinthoides non-scripta Geranium pyrenaicum Hyacinthoides non-scripta x hispanica (H. x Geranium robertianum Geranium sylvaticum
Hydrangea macrophyl a Geum rivale
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae
Geum rivale x urbanum (Geum x intermedium)
Hydrocotyle vulgaris Geum urbanum Hymenophyl um tunbrigense
Glaux maritima
Hymenophyl um wilsoni
Glebionis segetum
Hyoscyamus niger
Glechoma hederacea Hypericum androsaemum Glyceria declinata Hypericum calycinum Glyceria fluitans Hypericum elodes
Glyceria fluitans x notata (Glyceria x pedicellata)
Hypericum hirsutum
Glyceria maxima
Hypericum humifusum Glyceria notata Hypericum maculatum Gnaphalium sylvaticum
Hypericum maculatum ssp. obtusiusculum Gnaphalium uliginosum Hypericum perforatum [Groenlandia densa]
Hypericum perforatum x maculatum (H. x
Gunnera tinctoria desetangsi )
[Gymnadenia conopsea]
Hypericum pulchrum Gymnadenia densiflora
Hypericum tetrapterum [Gymnadenia conopsea x Anacamptis
Hypochaeris radicata pyramidalis (x Gymnanacamptis anacamptis)]
Ilex aquifolium Hammarbya paludosa
Impatiens glandulifera Hedera helix ssp. helix Imperatoria ostruthium Hedera helix ssp. poetarum Inula helenium
Hedera hibernica
Iris foetidissima
Hel eborus foetidus Iris pseudacorus Helleborus viridis Isatis tinctoria
Heracleum mantegazzianum Isoetes lacustris
Heracleum sphondylium Isolepis cernua
Hesperis matronalis Isolepis setacea Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Jasione montana Leontodon saxatilis Juglans regia Lepidium campestre Juncus acutiflorus Lepidium didymum Juncus articulatus Lepidium draba Juncus articulatus x acutiflorus (J. x surrejanus)
Lepidium heterophyl um Juncus bufonius Lepidium ruderale Juncus bulbosus Leucanthemum vulgare Juncus conglomeratus Leycesteria formosa [Juncus effus x conglomeratus (J. x Ligustrum ovalifolium Ligustrum vulgare Juncus effusus Lilium sp. Junus foliosus
Limonium humile
Juncus gerardii
Linaria purpurea Juncus inflexus Linaria vulgaris Juncus maritimus
Linum bienne
Junus ranarius
Linum catharticum Juncus squarrosus Linum usitatissimum Juncus subnodulosus
Lithospermum arvense
Juncus tenuis Lithospermum officinale
[Juniperus communis] Littorella uniflora Knautia arvensis Lobelia dortmanna
Laburnum anagyroides Lobelia erinus Lagarosiphon major Lobularia maritima Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. argentatum Lolium multiflorum Lamium album Lolium perenne Lamium amplexicaule
Lolium perenne x multiflorum (L. x boucheanum) Lamium confertum
Lonicera nitida Lamium hybridum Lonicera periclymenum Lamium maculatum Lonicera pileata Lamium purpureum Lotus corniculatus Lapsana communis Lotus pedunculatus Larix decidua Lunaria annua Larix decidua x kaempferi (Larix x marschlinsi ) Luzula campestris Larix kaempferi Luzula multiflora ssp. multiflora Lathraea squamaria Luzula multiflora ssp. congesta Lathyrus aphaca Luzula pilosa Lathyrus grandiflorus Luzula sylvatica Lathyrus linifolius Lycium barbarum Lathyrus palustris
Lycopersicon esculentum Lathyrus pratensis Lycopodiel a inundata
Lathyrus sylvestris Lycopodium clavatum
Lemna gibba Lycopus europaeus Lemna minor Lysimachia nemorum Lemna minuta Lysimachia nummularia Lemna trisulca Lysimachia punctata Leontodon hispidus
Lysimachia vulgaris Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Lythrum portula
Myriophyllum alterniflorum Lythrum salicaria Myriophyl um spicatum Mahonia aquifolium Myrrhis odorata Malus pumila Narcissus pseudonarcissus Malus sylvestris Nardus stricta [Malva arborea]
Narthecium ossifragum Malva moschata Nasturtium microphyl um Malva neglecta
Nasturtium officinale Malva sylvestris
Nasturtium officinale x microphyl um (N. x sterile) Matricaria chamomil a
Neottia cordata
Matricaria discoidea Neottia nidus-avis
Matteuccia struthiopteris Neottia ovata Meconopsis cambrica
Nothofagus obliqua Medicago lupulina Nuphar lutea Medicago sativa Nymphaea alba Melampyrum pratense
Nymphoides peltata Melica uniflora Odontites vernus ssp. serotinus Melilotus albus Oenanthe aquatica Mentha aquatica Oenanthe crocata Mentha aquatica x spicata (M. x piperita) Oenanthe fistulosa
Mentha arvensis Oenanthe fluviatilis Mentha arvensis x aquatica (M. x verticillata) Oenothera glazioviana Mentha arvensis x spicata (M. x gracilis) Ophioglossum vulgatum
Mentha pulegium
Ophrys apifera
Mentha requienii Orchis mascula Mentha spicata Oreopteris limbosperma
Mentha spicata x suaveolens (M. x villosa) Origanum majorana Menyanthes trifoliata Origanum vulgare
Mercurialis perennis Orobanche minor Milium effusum
Osmunda regalis Mimulus guttatus Oxalis acetosella Mimulus guttatus x luteus (M. x robertsii) Oxalis corniculata Mimulus moschatus Oxalis exilis Moehringia trinervia Oxalis pes-caprae Molinia caerulea ssp. arundinacea Oxalis stricta Montia fontana Papaver argemone
Mycelis muralis Papaver dubium Myosotis arvensis Papaver lecoqii
Myosotis discolor Papaver rhoeas
Myosotis laxa Papaver somniferum Myosotis scorpioides Parapholis strigosa
[Myosotis scorpioides x laxa (M. x suzae)]
Parietaria judaica
Myosotis secunda Parnassia palustris
Myosotis sylvatica Pastinaca sativa Myosoton aquaticum Pedicularis palustris Myrica gale Pedicularis sylvatica Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Pentaglottis sempervirens Platanthera bifolia
Persicaria amphibia Platanthera chlorantha Persicaria bistorta Platanthera chlorantha x bifolia (P. x hybrida)
Persicaria hydropiper Platanus occidentalis x orientalis (P. x hispanica) Persicaria lapathifolia Pleioblastus simonii Persicaria maculosa Poa annua Persicaria minor
Poa compressa Persicaria mitis
Poa humilis Persicaria wallichii Poa nemoralis Petasites fragrans Poa palustris
Petasites hybridus Poa pratensis Petasites japonicus Poa trivialis Petroselinum crispum
Polemonium caeruleum Phalaris arundinacea Polygala serpyllifolia Phalaris canariensis Polygala vulgaris Phalaris minor Polygonatum multiflorum Phegopteris connectilis
Polygonatum multiflorum x odoratum (P. x Philadelphus coronarius hybridum) Phleum arenarium Polygonum arenastrum Phleum bertoloni
Polygonum aviculare Phleum pratense Polypodium cambricum
Phormium sp. Polypodium interjectum Phragmites australis [Polypodium interjectum x cambricum (P. x
Picea abies Polypodium vulgare Picea glauca x interjectum (P. x Picea sitchensis Polypodium vulgare Pilosel a aurantiaca ssp. carpathicola [Polypodium vulgare x cambri cum (P. x
Pilosella officinarum Pilularia globulifera
Polystichum aculeatum Pimpinel a major
Polystichum setiferum Pimpinel a saxifraga
Polystichum setiferum x aculeatum (P. x Pinguicula lusitanica
Pinguicula vulgaris Populus alba Pinus contorta Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens) Pinus nigra Populus balsamifera Pinus nigra ssp. laricio Populus nigra
Pinus pinaster Populus nigra ssp. betulifolia
Pinus radiata Populus nigra x deltoides (P. x canadensis) Pinus sylvestris Populus tremula Pittosporum sp. Populus trichocarpa Plantago coronopus Potamogeton alpinus Plantago lanceolata Potamogeton berchtoldii Plantago major ssp. intermedia
Potamogeton coloratus
Plantago major ssp. major Potamogeton crispus Plantago maritima
Potamogeton filiformis Plantago media Potamogeton friesi
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Potamogeton gramineus
Puccinel ia distans [Potamogeton gramineus x alpinus (P. x
Puccinellia maritima
nericius)]
Pulicaria dysenterica Potamogeton gramineus x perfoliatus (P. x
Pyracantha coccinea Pyrola minor
Potamogeton lucens Pyrus communis Potamogeton lucens x gramineus (P. x
Quercus cerris Potamogeton natans Quercus ilex Potamogeton natans x gramineus (P. x Quercus petraea Quercus petraea x robur (Q. x rosacea) Potamogeton obtusifolius Quercus robur Potamogeton pectinatus Quercus rubra Potamogeton perfoliatus Radiola linoides
Potamogeton polygonifolius Ranunculus acris Potamogeton praelongus
Ranunculus aquatilis
Potamogeton praelongus x crispus (P. x
Ranunculus auricomus Ranunculus bulbosus Potamogeton pusil us Ranunculus circinatus
[Potamogeton trichoides]
Ranunculus flammula Potentil a anglica Ranunculus hederaceus Potentil a anglica x reptans (P. x mixta)
Ranunculus lingua
Potentilla anserina Ranunculus peltatus Potentil a erecta ssp. erecta Ranunculus penicil atus Potentil a erecta ssp. strictissima
Ranunculus repens Potentil a erecta x anglica (P. x suberecta)
Ranunculus sceleratus Potentil a reptans Ranunculus trichophyl us
Potentilla sterilis Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus Primula veris
Reseda luteola Primula vulgaris Rhamnus cathartica
Primula vulgaris x veris (P. x polyantha)
Rheum x rhabarbarum Prunel a vulgaris Rhinanthus minor ssp. stenophyl us Prunus avium Rhododendron ponticum Prunus cerasifera Rhynchospora alba Prunus cerasus Ribes nigrum Prunus domestica ssp. domestica Ribes rubrum Prunus domestica ssp. insititia Ribes sanguineum Prunus dulcis Ribes uva-crispa Prunus laurocerasus Rorippa amphibia Prunus lusitanica [Rorippa islandica]
Prunus padus
Rorippa palustris Prunus persica Rorippa sylvestris Prunus spinosa Rosa arvensis
Pseudofumaria lutea Rosa caesia ssp. caesia
Pseudosasa japonica Rosa canina Pseudotsuga menziesi Rosa canina x caesia (R. x dumalis) Pteridium aquilinum Rosa canina x sherardii (R. x rothschildii)
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

[Rosa mollis]
Rubus plicatus
Rosa rubiginosa
Rubus plymensis
Rosa rugosa Rubus polyanthemus
Rosa sherardii Rubus pruinosus
Rosa spinosissima
Rubus pyramidalis
Rosa tomentosa Rubus radula
Rubus adenanthoides
Rubus raduloides
Rubus aghadergensis
Rubus rhamnifolius
Rubus albionis
Rubus rhombifolius
Rubus amplificatus
Rubus robiae
Rubus anisacanthos Rubus rosaceus
Rubus borreri
Rubus rubristylis
Rubus botryeros
Rubus rudis
Rubus boudiccae
Rubus saxatilis
Rubus calvatus
Rubus scaber
Rubus cardiophyl us
Rubus scissus
Rubus confertiflorus
Rubus sectiramus Rubus conjungens
Rubus segonti
Rubus dasyphyl us
Rubus spectabilis [Rubus decussatus]
Rubus ulmifolius
Rubus dentatifolius
Rubus vestitus
Rubus drejeri
Rubus villicaulis
Rubus dumnoniensis
Rubus wirralensis
Rubus dunensis
Rumex acetosa Rubus echinatoides
Rumex acetosel a Rubus echinatus
Rumex conglomeratus Rubus errabundus
Rumex crispus ssp. crispus Rubus fissus
Rumex crispus ssp. littoreus Rubus fruticosus agg. Rumex crispus x obtusifolius (R. x pratensis)
Rubus hesperius
Rumex hydrolapathum
Rubus hibernicus
Rumex obtusifolius Rubus idaeus Rumex sanguineus Rubus lanaticaulis
Rumex sanguineus x obtusifolius (R. x duffti )
Rubus letti
Ruppia maritima
Rubus leucostachys
Sagina apetala Rubus lindleianus
Sagina filicaulis Rubus longithyrsiger
Sagina maritima Rubus macrophyl us
Sagina nodosa Rubus melanodermis
Sagina procumbens Rubus micans
Sagittaria sagittifolia Rubus ‘mournensis'
Salicornia sp.
Rubus mucronulatus
Salix alba Rubus nemoralis
Salix alba x fragilis (S. x rubens) Rubus nemorosus
Salix aurita Rubus nessensis
Salix babylonica Rubus norvicensis
Salix caprea Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Salix caprea x cinerea (Salix x reichardti )
Scrophularia auriculata Salix cinerea ssp. cinerea Scrophularia nodosa Salix cinerea ssp. oleifolia [Scrophularia umbrosa]
Salix cinerea x aurita (Salix x multinervis) Scutel aria galericulata Salix fragilis Sedum acre Salix myrsinifolia
Sedum album Salix pentandra Sedum anglicum
Salix pentandra x fragilis (Salix x meyeriana) Sedum dasyphyl um Salix purpurea Sedum forsterianum Salix repens
Sedum rupestre Salix triandra
Sedum sexangulare Salix triandra x viminalis (Salix x mollissima) Sedum spurium Salix viminalis Sedum telephium Salix viminalis x aurita (S. x fruticosa)
Selaginel a kraussiana Salix viminalis x caprea (S. x smithiana) Selaginel a selaginoides
Salix viminalis x caprea x aurita (S. x stipularis) Sempervivum tectorum Salix viminalis x cinerea (S. x holiserica) Senecio aquaticus Sambucus ebulus
Senecio cineraria x jacobaea (S. x albescens) Sambucus nigra Senecio jacobaea Sambucus racemosa Senecio jacobaea x aquaticus (S. x ostenfeldii) Samolus valerandi
Senecio sarracenicus Sanicula europaea Senecio squalidus Saponaria officinalis Senecio sylvaticus Sarracenia purpurea Senecio viscosus Sasa palmata Senecio vulgaris Saxifraga cymbalaria Sequoia sempervirens Saxifraga granulata
Sequoiadendron giganteum Saxifraga hirsuta
[Sesleria caerulea] Saxifraga hypnoides Sherardia arvensis
Saxifraga tridactylites
Silene dioica Saxifraga umbrosa x spathularis (S. x urbium) Silene flos-cuculi Schedonorus arundinacea Silene gallica
[Schedonorus arundinaceus x Lolium perenne Silene latifolia (x Schedolium holmbergii)] Silene latifolia ssp. alba
Schedonorus giganteus Silene noctiflora
Schedonorus pratensis Silene uniflora Schedonorus pratensis x Lolium multiflorum Silene vulgaris (x Schedolium braunii) Silybum marianum
Schedonorus pratensis x Lolium perenne (x Schedolium loliaceum) Sinapis alba
Schoenoplectus lacustris Sinapis arvensis Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani Sisymbrium officinale Schoenus nigricans
Sisymbrium orientale Scil a bithynica Sium latifolium Scirpus sylvaticus Smyrnium olusatrum [Scleranthus annuus]
Solanum dulcamara Scorzoneroides autumnalis Solanum nigrum
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Solanum tuberosum Tanacetum parthenium Soleirolia soleirolii Tanacetum vulgare Solidago virgaurea
Taraxacum hamatum
Sonchus arvensis Taraxacum lingulatum
Sonchus asper Taraxacum longisquameum
Sonchus oleraceus Taraxacum maculosum
Sorbus aria Taraxacum officinale agg. Sorbus aucuparia Taraxacum pseudohamatum
[Sorbus devoniensis] Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia
Sorbus hibernica
Taraxacum selandii
Sorbus latifolia Taraxacum subcyanolepis
Sparganium angustifolium Taraxacum subhamatum
Sparganium emersum Taraxacum sect. Vulgaria Sparganium erectum ssp. neglectum Taxus baccata Sparganium natans Tellima grandiflora Spartina maritima x alterniflora (S. x Teucrium scorodonia Thalictrum flavum
Spergula arvensis
Thalictrum minus Spergularia media
Thelypteris palustris
Spergularia rubra
Thlaspi arvense
Spergularia rupicola Thuja plicata Spiraea douglasi Thymus polytrichus
Spiraea salicifolia [Thymus pulegioides] Spiraea salicifolia x alba (S. x rosalba) [Thymus serpyl um] Spiraea salicifolia x douglasi (S. x Tilia cordata Tilia platyphyllos Spiranthes romanzoffiana
Tilia platyphyllos x cordata (T. x europaea) Spirodela polyrhiza Torilis japonica Stachys arvensis
Torilis nodosa
Stachys palustris Trachystemon orientalis Stachys sylvatica Tragopogon porrifolius Stachys sylvatica x palustris (S. x ambigua)
Tragopogon pratensis Stellaria alsine Trichophorum cespitosum ssp. germanicum Stellaria graminea [Trifolium arvense]
Stellaria holostea Trifolium aureum Stellaria media Trifolium campestre
[Stel aria palustris]
Trifolium dubium Suaeda maritima
Trifolium hybridum Subularia aquatica
Trifolium medium
Succisa pratensis Trifolium micranthum
Symphoricarpos albus Trifolium pratense Symphytum officinale Trifolium repens Symphytum officinale x asperum (S. x Triglochin maritima
Symphytum tuberosum Triglochin palustre Syringa vulgaris Tripleurospermum inodorum Tamus communis Tripleurospermum maritimum
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Trisetum flavescens
Veronica montana Triticum aestivum Veronica officinalis Tsuga heterophyl a Veronica peregrina Tussilago farfara Veronica persica Typha angustifolia
Veronica polita
Typha latifolia Veronica salicifolia Ulex europaeus Veronica scutel ata Ulex europaeus x gallii (U. x breogani )
Veronica serpyllifolia Ulex gallii Veronica el iptica x speciosa (V. x franciscana) Ulmus glabra Viburnum lantana Ulmus glabra ssp. montana Viburnum opulus Ulmus minor Viburnum tinus [Ulmus plotii] Vicia cracca Ulmus procera Vicia hirsuta Umbilicus rupestris Vicia sativa ssp. nigra Urtica dioica Vicia sativa ssp. sativa Urtica urens
Vicia sativa ssp. segetalis Utricularia australis
Vicia sepium Utricularia minor
Vicia sylvatica
Utricularia vulgaris
Vicia tetrasperma Vaccinium myrtil us Vinca major Vaccinium oxycoccos Vinca minor Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Viola arvensis
Valeriana officinalis Viola canina
Valerianel a dentata
Viola hirta Valerianel a locusta
Viola palustris ssp. juressi Verbascum blattaria Viola odorata Verbascum thapsus Viola palustris ssp. palustris Veronica agrestis
Viola reichenbachiana Veronica anagallis-aquatica Viola riviniana ssp. minor Veronica arvensis Viola riviniana x reichenbachiana (V. x
Veronica beccabunga Veronica catenata
Viola tricolor ssp. tricolor
Veronica chamaedrys Viscum album Veronica filiformis Vulpia bromoides Veronica hederifolia ssp. hederifolia Vulpia myuros
Veronica hederifolia ssp. lucorum Zannichel ia palustris Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

PUBLICATIONS RELEVANT TO THE FLORA OF COUNTY ARMAGH
This is a selected list of publications and other sources relevant to the flora of county Armagh. It includes any cited references, together with additional references which may be of interest. It is not a comprehensive bibliography. Armagh Field Naturalists' Society, 1953-2002 Annual Reports Nos 1-50, for 1952-2001. Unpublished BSBI Distribution Database,[last consulted 9th March 2015] Carrothers, E.N., Meikle, R.D. & Moon, J. McK. 1947 Records and notes for the flora of the North-east of Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal 9: 24-28
Cheffings, C.M. & Farrell, L. (eds) Dines, T.D., Jones, R.A., Leach, S.J., McKean, D.R., Pearman, D.A., Preston, C.D., Rumsey, F.J., Taylor, R.I. 2005 The vascular plant Red Data List for Great Britain. Species Status 7: 1-116. Joint Nature Conservation
Committee, Peterborough Coote, C. 1804 Statistical Survey of the County of Armagh. Royal Dublin Society, Dublin Cope, T. & Gray, A. 2009 Grasses of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London County Armagh Wildlife Society (formerly Armagh Field Naturalists' Society) 2002 Annual Report No. 51. Unpublished County Armagh Wildlife Society (formerly Armagh Field Naturalists' Society) 2006 Annual Report No. 55. Unpublished Curtis, T.G.F. & McGough, H.N. 1988 The Irish Red Data Book 1. Vascular plants. Wildlife Service Ireland, Dublin Curtis, T. & Thompson, R. 2009 The Orchids of Ireland, 160pp. National Museums Northern Ireland, Holywood Dickie, G. 1864 Flora of Ulster. C. Aitchison, Belfast Dudman, A.A. & Richards, A.J. 1997 Dandelions of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook No. 9, Botanical Society of the Faulkner, J.S. 1990 A Co. Armagh (H37) site for Hypericum hirsutum L. Irish Naturalists' Journal 23: 283-284
Forbes, R.S. & Northridge, R. H. 2012 The Flora of County Fermanagh. National Museums Northern Ireland, Holywood
Hackney, P (ed.) 1992 Stewart & Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland, Third edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The
Queen's University of Belfast Harron, J. 1986 Flora of Lough Neagh. Irish Naturalists' Journal Committee, Belfast, and University of Ulster, Coleraine Jebb, M. 2014 Irish vascular plant synonym listlast accessed 13 March Jermy, A.C., Simpson, D.A., Foley, M.J.Y., & Porter, M.S. 2007 Sedges of the British Isles, 3rd edition. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London Mackay, J.T. 1836 Flora Hibernica. William Curry Jun & Company, Dublin McCosh, D.J. & Rich, T.C.G. 2011 Atlas of British and Irish Hawkweeds. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London & National Museum of Wales, Cardiff McNeill, I. 2010 The Flora of County Tyrone. National Museums Northern Ireland, Holywood Meikle, R.D. 1984 Willows and Poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. BSBI Handbook no. 4, Botanical Society of the British Moore, D. & More, A.G. 1866 Contributions towards a Cybele Hibernica
More, A.G., 1860 Localities for some plants observed in Ireland. Natural History Review 7: 434-443
NIEA Northern Ireland Priority Species(last consulted 17th
Praeger, R.Ll. 1893 The Flora of County Armagh. Irish Naturalist 10: 11-15, 34-38, 59-62, 91-95, 127-134, 155-159, 182-184,
Praeger, R.Ll. 1901 Irish topographical botany. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (Series 3) 7: 1-410. Dublin
Praeger, R.Ll. 1934 The botanist in Ireland. Dublin
Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (eds.) 2002 New Atlas of the British & Irish Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Reynolds, S.C.P. 2002 A Catalogue of Alien Plants in Ireland. National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin
Rogers, W.M. 1901 Some North-East Ireland Rubi. Irish Naturalist 10: 213-220
Stace, C.A. 2010 New Flora of the British Isles (third edition). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Weyl, R.S. & Leach, S.J. & Waterman, A.C. 1989 Additions and amendments to the Lough Neagh Flora. Irish Naturalists'
Journal 23: 22-24
Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

SPECIES INDEX
The species and other taxa in the main section of this Register are arranged in alphabetical order of Latin names, so an index to their page numbers is unnecessary. This Species Index allows the reader to find the relevant Latin name from the English (or 'common' name. Both the Latin and English names used here are those given in the third edition of Stace's New Flora of the British Isles. In addition, some Latin-Latin translations are included where the third edition differs from the second edition. Adder's-tongue = Ophioglossum vulgatum Burnet Rose = Rosa spinosissima Agrimony, Fragrant = Agrimonia procera Burnet-saxifrage = Pimpinella saxifraga Alder Buckthorn = Frangula alnus Burnet-saxifrage, Greater = Pimpinella major Allseed = Radiola linoides Butterfly-orchid, Lesser = Platanthera bifolia Almond Willow = Salix triandra Butterwort, Pale = Pinguicula lusitanica Alpine Enchanter's-nightshade = Circaea alpina Anagallis minima , see Centunculus minimus Caraway = Carum carvi Annual Knawel = Scleranthus annuus Catchfly, Small-flowered = Silene gallica Annual Sea-bite = Suaeda maritima Cats-tail, Smaller = Phleum bertoloni Arenaria serpyllifolia ssp. leptoclados, see Arenaria Celery, Wild = Apium graveolens Chaffweed = Centunculus minimus Arrowgrass, Sea= Triglochin maritima Chalk Fragrant-orchid = Gymnadenia conopsea Aster, Sea = Aster tripolium Chamomile = Chamaemelum nobile Atlantic Ivy = Hedera hibernica Chamomile, Stinking = Anthemis cotula Autumn Gentian = Gentianella amarella Cherry. Bird = Prunus padus Avens, Water = Geum rivale Chervil, Rough = Chaerophyl um temulum Awlwort = Subularia aquatica Chicory = Cichorium intybus Chrysanthemum segetum , see Glebionis segetum Babington's Orache = Atriplex glabriuscula Cinquefoil, Hybrid = Potentilla x mixta Beaked Tasselweed = Ruppia maritima Clover, Hare's-foot = Trifolium arvense Bearded Couch = Elymus caninus Clover, Zigzag = Trifolium medium Bedstraw, Fen = Galium uliginosum Clubmoss, Fir = Huperzia selago Bedstraw, Northern = Galium boreale Clubmoss, Lesser = Selaginella selaginoides Bee Orchid = Ophrys apifera Clubmoss, Marsh = Lycopodiella inundata Beech Fern = Phegopteris connectilis Clubmoss, Stag's-horn = Lycopodium clavatum Beet, Sea = Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima Club-rush, Sea = Bolboschoenus maritimus Bent, Black = Agrostis gigantea Club-rush, Slender = Isolepis cernua Betony = Betonica officinalis Common Cornsalad = Valerianella locusta Bird Cherry = Prunus padus Common Cow-wheat = Melampyrum pratense Bird's-nest Orchid = Neottia nidus-avis Common Cudweed = Filago vulgaris Bitter-cress, Large = Cardamine amara Common Eyebright = Euphrasia nemorosa Black Bent = Agrostis gigantea Common Gromwel = Lithospermum officinale Black Bog-rush = Schoenus nigricans Common Mal ow = Malva sylvestris Black Nightshade = Solanum nigrum Common Meadow-rue = Thalictrum flavum Black Poplar = Populus nigra ssp. betulifolia Common Poppy = Papaver rhoeas Bladder-fern, Brittle = Cystopteris fragilis Common Saltmarsh-grass = Pucinellia maritima Bladderwort = Utricularia australis Common Scurvygrass = Cochlearia officinalis Bladderwort, Lesser = Utricularia minor Common Stork's-bill = Erodium cicutarium Blue Fleabane = Erigeron acris Common Water-crowfoot = Ranunculus aquatilis Blunt-flowered Rush = Juncus subnodulosus Common Wintergreen = Pyrola minor Bog Orchid = Hammarbya paludosa Confused Eyebright = Euphrasia confusa Bog Pimpernel = Anagallis tenella Corn Marigold = Glebionis segetum Bog-rosemary = Andromeda polifolia Corn Spurrey = Spergula arvensis Bog-rush, Black = Schoenus nigricans Corncockle = Agrostemma githago Bog-sedge = Carex limosa Cornflower = Centaurea cyanus Bramble, Stone = Rubus saxatilis Cornsalad, Common = Valerianella locusta Brambles = Rubus fruticosus agg. Cornsalad, Narrow-fruited = Valerianella dentata Briar, Sweet = Rosa rubiginosa Couch, Bearded = Elymus caninus Bright-leaved Pondweed = Potamogeton x nitens Couch, Sand = Elytrigia juncea Bristle Oat = Avena strigosa Cowberry = Vaccinium vitis-idaea Brittle Bladder-fern = Cystopteris fragilis Cowslip =Primula veris Brome, Meadow = Bromus commutatus Cow-wheat, Common = Melampyrum pratense Brome, Upright = Bromopsis erecta Crane's-bill, Meadow = Geranium pratense Brookweed = Samolus valerandi Crane's-bill, Wood = Geranium sylvaticum Buckler-fern, Hay-scented = Dryopteris aemula Creeping Willow = Salix repens Buckthorn = Rhamnus cathartica Crowberry = Empetrum nigrum Buckthorn, Alder = Frangula alnus Cudweed, Common = Filago vulgaris Bugloss, Viper's = Echium vulgare Cudweed, Heath = Gnaphalium sylvaticum Bulrush, Lesser = Typha angustifolia Cudweed, Smal = Filago minima Burdock, Greater = Arctium lappa Cyperus Sedge = Carex pseudocyperus Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Flat-stalked Pondweed = Potamogeton friesi Dandelions = Taraxacum Flax, Pale = Linum bienne Dead-nettle, Hen-bit = Lamium amplexicaule Fleabane, Blue = Erigeron acris Dead-nettle, Northern = Lamium confertum Fox-sedge, False = Carex otrubae Dense-flowered Fumitory = Fumaria densiflora Fragrant Agrimony = Agrimonia procera Des Etangs' St John's-wort = Hypericum x Fragrant-orchid, Chalk = Gymnadenia conopsea Frog Orchid = Coeloglossum viride Dock, Water = Rumex hydrolapathum Frog Rush = Juncus ranarius Dog-rose, Hairy = Rosa caesia Frogbit = Hydrocharis morsus-ranae Dog-violet, Heath = Viola canina Fumitory, Dense-flowered = Fumaria densiflora Dogwood = Cornus sanguinea Garden Parsley = Petroselinum crispum Downy Oat-grass = Avenula pubescens Gentian, Autumn = Gentianella amarella Downy-rose, Soft = Rosa mollis Gentian, Field = Gentianella campestris Drosera longifolia , see Drosera anglica Glassworts = Salicornia sp. Dwarf E lder = Sambucus ebulus Goldenrod = Solidago virgaurea Dwarf Mal ow = Malva neglecta Good-King-Henry = Chenopodium bonus-henricus Dwarf Spurge = Euphorbia exigua Goosefoot, Red = Chenopodium rubrum Grass of Parnassus = Parnassia palustris Early Marsh Orchid = Dactylorhiza incarnata Grass, Hard = Parapholis strigosa Eight-stamened Waterwort = Elatine hydropiper Great Fen-sedge = Cladium mariscus Elder, Dwarf = Sambucus ebulus Great Sundew = Drosera anglica Elecampane = Inula helenium Greater Burdock = Arctium lappa Elongated Sedge = Carex elongata Greater Burnet-saxifrage = Pimpinella major Enchanter's-nightshade, Upland = Circaea x Greater Pond-sedge = Carex riparia Greater Sea-spurrey = Spergularia media Enchanter's-nightshade, Alpine = Circaea alpina Greater Spearwort = Ranunculus lingua English Eyebright = Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Green Field-speedwel = Veronica agrestis Green Figwort = Scrophularia umbrosa Green Spleenwort = Asplenium viride English Scurvygrass = Cochlearia anglica Grey Field-speedwel = Veronica polita English Stonecrop = Sedum anglicum Grey Sedge = Carex divulsa ssp. divulsa Erigeron acer, see Erigeron acris Gromwel , Common = Lithospermum officinale Euphrasia anglica = Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Gromwell, Field = Lithospermum arvense Euphrasia rostkoviana = Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Hairlike Pondweed = Potamogeton trichoides Hairy Dog-rose = Rosa caesia Everlasting, Mountain = Antennaria dioica Hairy Rock-cress = Arabis hirsuta Eyebright, Common = Euphrasia nemorosa Hairy St John's-wort = Hypericum hirsutum Eyebright, Confused = Euphrasia confusa Hard Grass = Parapholis strigosa Eyebright, English = Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Harebell = Campanula rotundifolia Hare's-foot Clover = Trifolium arvense Hawkbit, Rough = Leotodon hispidus Eyebright, Rostkov's = Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Hawkweeds = Hieracium Hay-scented Buckler-fern = Dryopteris aemula Eyebright, Scottish = Euphrasia scottica Heath Cudweed = Gnaphalium sylvaticum Eyebright, Slender = Euphrasia micrantha Heath Dog-violet = Viola canina Hedera helix ssp. hibernica, see Hedera hibernica False Fox-sedge = Carex otrubae Hedge-parsley, Knotted = Torilis nodosa False Oxslip = Primula x polyantha Helictotrichon pubescens , see Avenula pubescens Fan-leaved Water-crowfoot = Ranunculus Helleborine, Marsh = Epipactis palustris Hemp-agrimony = Eupatorium cannabinum Fen Bedstraw = Galium uliginosum Hemp-nettle, Large-flowered=Galeopsis speciosa Fen Pondweed = Potamogeton coloratus Henbane = Hyoscyamus niger Fennel = Foeniculum vulgare Hen-bit Dead-nettle = Lamium amplexicaule Fen-sedge, Great = Cladium mariscus Hop Trefoil = Trifolium campestre Fern, Beech = Phegopteris connectilis Horse-radish = Armoracia rusticana Fern, Lemon-scented = Oreopteris limbosperma Horsetail, Rough = Equisetum hyemale Fern, Marsh = Thelypteris palustris Horsetail, Shore = Equisetum x litorale Fern, Parsley = Cryptogramma crispa Hybrid Cinquefoil = Potentilla x mixta Fescue, Rat's-tail = Vulpia myuros Hybrid Sweet-grass = Glyceria x pedicellata Fescue, Wood = Festuca altissima Hybrid Woundwort = Stachys x ambigua Few-flowered Spike-rush = Eleocharis quinqueflora Field Gentian = Gentianella campestris Iris, Stinking = Iris foetidissima Field Gromwell = Lithospermum arvense Irish Lady's Tresses = Spiranthes romanzoffiana Field Madder = Sherardia arvensis Irish Spurge = Euphorbia hyberna Field Pansy = Viola arvensis Irish Whitebeam = Sorbus hibernica Field Penny-cress = Thlaspi arvense Ivy, Atlantic = Hedera hibernica Field Woundwort = Stachys arvensis Field-speedwell, Green = Veronica agrestis Juncus ambiguus, see Juncus ranarius Field-speedwel , Grey= Veronica polita Figwort, Green = Scrophularia umbrosa Kidney Saxifrage = Saxifraga hirsuta, Filmy-fern, Wilson's = Hymenophyllum wilsoni Kidney Vetch = Anthyllis vulneraria Fine-leaved Sheep's-fescue = Festuca filiformis Knawel, Annual = Scleranthus annuus Fir Clubmoss = Huperzia selago Knotted Hedge-parsley = Torilis nodosa Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Orache, Spear-leaved = Atriplex prostrata Large Bitter-cress = Cardamine amara Orchid, Bird's-nest = Neottia nidus-avis Large-flowered Hemp-nettle = Galeopsis speciosa Orchid, Bog = Hammarbya paludosa Lavatera arborea, see Malva arborea Orchid, Frog = Coeloglossum viride Lax-flowered Sea-lavender = Limonium humile Orchid, Pyramidal = Anacamptis pyramidalis Leafy Rush = Juncus foliosus Orchid. Bee = Ophrys apifera Lemon-scented Fern = Oreopteris limbosperma Osier, Shrubby = Salix x fruticosa Lesser Bladderwort = Utricularia minor Oxslip, False = Primula x polyantha Lesser Bulrush = Typha angustifolia Lesser Butterfly-orchid = Platanthera bifolia Pale Butterwort = Pinguicula lusitanica Lesser Clubmoss = Selaginella selaginoides Pale Flax = Linum bienne Lesser Twayblade = Neottia cordata Pansy, Field = Viola arvensis Lesser Water-parsnip = Berula erecta Pansy, Wild = Viola tricolor Lesser Water-plantain = Baldellia ranunculoides Papaver dubium ssp. lecoqi , see Papaver lecoqi Listera cordata, see Neottia cordata Parsley Fern = Cryptogramma crispa Lobelia, Water = Lobelia dortmanna Parsley, Garden = Petroselinum crispum Long-headed Poppy = Papaver dubium Pea, Marsh = Lathyrus palustris Long-leaved Pondweed = Potamogeton x Pellitory-of-the-wall = Parietaria judaica Penny-cress, Field = Thlaspi arvense Long-stalked Pondweed = Potamogeton Pennyroyal = Mentha pulegium Pillwort = Pilularia globulifera Lycopodium inundatum, see Lycopodiella inundata Pimpernel, Bog = Anagallis tenella Pink Water-speedwel = Veronica catenata Madder, Field = Sherardia arvensis Plantain, Sea = Plantago maritima Mal ow, Common = Malva sylvestris Polypody, Southern = Polypodium cambricum Mal ow, Dwarf = Malva neglecta Pond-sedge , Greater= Carex riparia Mal ow, Tree = Malva arborea Pondweed, Bright-leaved = Potamogeton x nitens Marigold, Corn = Glebionis segetum Pondweed, Fen = Potamogeton coloratus Marjoram, Wild = Origanum vulgare Pondweed, Flat-stalked = Potamogeton friesi Marsh Clubmoss = Lycopodiella inundata Pondweed, Hairlike = Potamogeton trichoides Marsh Fern = Thelypteris palustris Pondweed, Long-leaved = Potamogeton x Marsh Helleborine = Epipactis palustris Marsh Orchid, Early = Dactylorhiza incarnata Pondweed, Long-stalked = Potamogeton Marsh Pea = Lathyrus palustris Marsh St John's-wort = Hypericum elodes Pondweed, Opposite-leaved = Groenlandia densa Marsh Stitchwort = Stellaria palustris Pondweed, Various-leaved = Potamogeton Marsh-orchid, Northern= Dactylorhiza purpurel a Matricaria recutita, see Matricaria chamomilla Poplar, Black = Populus nigra ssp. betulifolia Mayweed, Scented = Matricaria chamomilla Poppy, Common = Papaver rhoeas Mayweed, Scentless = Tripleurospermum Poppy, Long-headed = Papaver dubium Poppy, Prickly = Papaver argemone Meadow Brome = Bromus commutatus Poppy, Welsh = Mecanopsis cambrica Meadow Crane's-bill = Geranium pratense Poppy, Yel ow-juiced = Papaver lecoqi Meadow Saxifrage = Saxifraga granulata Prickly Poppy = Papaver argemone Meadow Thistle = Cirsium dissectum Prickly Sedge = Carex muricata ssp. pairae Meadow-rue, Common = Thalictrum flavum Purslane, Sea = Atriplex portulacoides Milk Thistle = Silybum marianum Pyramidal Orchid = Anacamptis pyramidalis Millet, Wood = Millium effusum Moonwort = Botrychium lunaria Quillwort = Isoetes lacustis Moschatel = Adoxa moschatellina Mountain Everlasting = Antennaria dioica Rampling-fumitory, White = Fumaria capreolata Mouse-ear, Sea = Cerastium diffusum Rat's-tail Fescue = Vulpia myuros Mustard, White = Sinapis alba Red Goosefoot = Chenopodium rubrum Reed Sweet-grass = Glyceria maxima Narrow Smal -reed = Calamagrostis stricta Reflexed Saltmarsh-grass = Pucinellia distans Narrow-fruited Cornsalad = Valerianella dentata Rock-cress, Hairy = Arabis hirsuta Narrow-fruited Water-starwort = Callitriche Rosa pimpinellifolia, see Rosa spinosissima Rose, Burnet = Rosa spinosissima Narrow-leaved Water-plantain = Alisma Rostkov's Eyebright = Euphrasia officinalis ssp. Needle Spik e-rush = Eleocharis acicularis Nettle, Small = Urtica urens Rough Chervil = Chaerophyl um temulum Nightshade, Black = Solanum nigrum Rough Hawkbit = Leotodon hispidus Northern Bedstraw = Galium boreale Rough Horsetail = Equisetum hyemale Northern Dead-nettle = Lamium confertum Rue-leaved Saxifrage = Saxifraga tridactylites Northern Marsh-orchid = Dactylorhiza purpurel a Ruh, Blunt-flowered= Juncus subnodulosus Northern Yel ow-cress = Rorippa islandica Rush, Frog = Juncus ranarius Rush, Leafy = Juncus foliosus Oat, Bristle = Avena strigosa Rush, Saltmarsh = Juncus gerardii Oat-grass, Downy = Avenula pubescens Rush, Sea = Juncus maritimus Oat-grass, Yel ow = Trisetum flavescens Rye Brome, Rue-leaved = Bromus secalinus Oblong-leaved Sundew = Drosera intermedia Opposite-leaved Pondweed = Groenlandia densa Saltmarsh Rush = Juncus gerardii Orache, Babington's = Atriplex glabriuscula Saltmarsh-grass, Common = Pucinellia maritima Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Saltmarsh-grass, Reflexed = Pucinellia distans Stone Bramble = Rubus saxatilis Sand Couch = Elytrigia juncea Stonecrop, English = Sedum anglicum Sand Spurrey = Spergularia rubra Stork's-bill, Common = Erodium cicutarium Sandwort, Slender = Arenaria leptoclados Sundew, Great = Drosera anglica Sandwort, Thyme-leaved Sandwort = Arenaria Sundew, Oblong-leaved = Drosera intermedia e = Saxifraga tridactylites Sweet Briar = Rosa rubiginosa Saxifrage, Kidney = Saxifraga hirsuta Sweet-grass, Hybrid = Glyceria x pedicellata Saxifrage, Meadow = Saxifraga granulata Sweet-grass, Reed = Glyceria maxima Scented Mayweed = Matricaria chamomilla Scentless Mayweed = Tripleurospermum Tasselweed, Beaked = Ruppia maritima Tasteless Water-pepper = Persicaria mitis Scottish Eyebright = Euphrasia scottica Thin-spiked Wood-sedge = Carex strigosa Scurvygrass, Common = Cochlearia officinalis Thistle, Meadow = Cirsium dissectum Scurvygrass, English = Cochlearia anglica Thistle, Milk = Silybum marianum Sea Arrowgrass = Triglochin maritima Thistle, Slender = Carduus tenuiflorus Sea Aster = Aster tripolium Thistle, Welted = Carduus crispus Sea Beet = Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima Thread-leaved Water-crowfoot = Ranunculus Sea Club-rush = Bolboschoenus maritimus Sea Mouse-ear = Cerastium diffusum Thrift = Armeria maritima Sea Plantain = Plantago maritima Thyme, Wild = Thymus polytrichus Sea Purslane = Atriplex portulacoides Thyme-leaved Sandwort = Arenaria serpyllifolia Sea Rush = Juncus maritimus Toadflax, Smal = Chaenorhinum minus Sea-bite, Annual = Suaeda maritima Tree Mal ow = Malva arborea Sea-lavender, Lax-flowered = Limonium humile Trefoil, Hop = Trifolium campestre Sea-milkwort = Glaux maritima Trefoil, Slender = Trifolium micranthum Sea-spurrey, Greater = Spergularia media Tubular Water-dropwort = Oenanthe fistulosa Sedge, Cyperus = Carex pseudocyperus Tufted-sedge, Slender = Carex acuta Sedge, Elongated = Carex elongata Tunbridge Filmy-fern = Hymenophyllum Sedge, Grey = Carex divulsa ssp. divulsa Sedge, Prickly = Carex muricata ssp. pairae Twayblade, Lesser = Neottia cordata Sedge, Slender = Carex lasiocarpa Sedge, Smal -fruited Yellow = Carex oederi Upland Enchanter's-nightshade = Circaea x Sedge, Spiked = Carex spicata Sheep's-fescue, Fine-leaved = Festuca filiformis Upright Brome = Bromopsis erecta Shore Horsetail = Equisetum x litorale Shrubby Osier = Salix x fruticosa Various-leaved Pondweed = Potamogeton Six-stamened-waterwort = Elatine hexandra Slender Club-rush = Isolepis cernua Slender Eyebright = Euphrasia micrantha Various-leaved Water-starwort = Callitriche Slender Sandwort = Arenaria leptoclados Slender Sedge = Carex lasiocarpa Vetch, Kidney = Anthyllis vulneraria Slender Thistle = Carduus tenuiflorus Vetch, Wood = Vicia sylvatica Slender Trefoil = Trifolium micranthum Viper's Bugloss = Echium vulgare Slender Tufted-sedge = Carex acuta Smal Cudweed = Filago minima Water Avens = Geum rivale Small Nettle = Urtica urens Water Dock = Rumex hydrolapathum Smal Toadflax = Chaenorhinum minus Water Lobelia = Lobelia dortmanna Smal Water-pepper = Persicaria minor Water-crowfoot, Common = Ranunculus aquatilis Smal er Cats-tail = Phleum bertoloni Water-crowfoot, Fan-leaved = Ranunculus Small-flowered Catchfly = Silene gallica Small-fruited Yellow Sedge = Carex oederi Water-crowfoot, Thread-leaved = Ranunculus Soft Downy-rose = Rosa mollis Southern Polypody = Polypodium cambricum Water-dropwort, Tubular = Oenanthe fistulosa Spear-leaved Orache = Atriplex prostrata Water-parsnip, Lesser = Berula erecta Spearwort, Greater = Ranunculus lingua Water-pepper, Smal = Persicaria minor Spiked Sedge = Carex spicata Water-pepper, Tasteless = Persicaria mitis Spike-rush, Few-flowered = Eleocharis Water-plantain, Lesser = Baldellia ranunculoides Needle = Eleocharis acicularis Water-purslane = Lythrum portula Spleenwort, Green = Asplenium viride Water-speedwel , Pink = Veronica catenata Spring-sedge = Carex caryophyl ea Water-starwort, Narrow-fruited = Callitriche Spurge, Dwarf = Euphorbia exigua Spurge, Irish = Euphorbia hyberna Water-starwort, Various-leaved = Callitriche Spurrey, Corn = Spergula arvensis Spurrey, Sand = Spergularia rubra Squinancywort = Asperula cynanchica Waterwort, Eight-stamened = Elatine hydropiper Welsh Poppy = Mecanopsis cambrica St John's-wort, Des Etangs' = Hypericum x Welted Thistle = Carduus crispus White Mustard = Sinapis alba St John's-wort, Hairy = Hypericum hirsutum White Rampling-fumitory = Fumaria capreolata St John's-wort, Marsh = Hypericum elodes Whitebeam, Irish = Sorbus hibernica Stachys officinalis, see Betonica officinalis Whorl-grass = Catabrosa aquatica Stag's-horn Clubmoss = Lycopodium clavatum Wild Celery = Apium graveolens Stinking Chamomile = Anthemis cotula Wild Marjoram = Origanum vulgare Stinking Iris = Iris foetidissima Wild Pansy = Viola tricolor Stitchwort, Marsh = Stellaria palustris Vascular Plants Register County Armagh

Wild Thyme = Thymus polytrichus Woundwort, Field = Stachys arvensis Willow, Almond = Salix triandra Woundwort, Hybrid = Stachys x ambigua Willow, Creeping = Salix repens Wilson's Filmy-fern = Hymenophyllum wilsoni Yellow Oat-grass = Trisetum flavescens Wintergreen, Common = Pyrola minor Yellow Sedge, Smal -fruited = Carex oederi Woad = Isatis tinctoria Yellow-cress , Northern= Rorippa islandica Wood Crane's-bill = Geranium sylvaticum Yellow-juiced Poppy = Papaver lecoqi Wood Fescue = Festuca altissima Yellow-wort = Blackstonia perfoliata Wood Millet = Millium effusum Wood Vetch = Vicia sylvatica Zigzag Clover = Trifolium medium Wood-sedge, Thin-spiked = Carex strigosa

Source: http://www.habitas.org.uk/flora/publications/ArmaghRegister.pdf

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Management of Concussion and Post-Concussion SyndromeBarry Willer, PhD*John J. Leddy, MD Address*University at Buffalo, G 96 Farber Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.E-mail: willer@vaxxine.com Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2006, Current Science Inc. ISSN 1092–8480Copyright © 2006 by Current Science Inc.

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