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Microsoft word - abmp - dec 1999.docALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT PLAN Algoa Bay is a multi-use coastal zone that requires a proactive and practical management plan based on scientific integrity and stakeholder participation to ensure future sustainable development CLABBS Consortium
c/o 36 River Road, Walmer, Port Elizabeth 6070
Tel: 041 581 2983 Fax: 041 581 2983 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
African Environmental Solutions
P.O. Box 53577
The contributors cannot be held responsi ble for any damages whatsoever (including without limitation, damages for loss of trade or business p rofits, business interruption or any other pecuniary loss) arising out of the adoption of any scientific advice or recommended guidelines in this management plan DECEMBER 1999
Algoa Bay is a multi-use coastal zone with a variety of interest groups. Threats to and impacts on the environment will therefore affect both the commercial and the recreational interests in the area. This report outlines the rationale towards, and the development of, a management plan for Algoa Bay, for the marine environment below the spring high-water mark between Cape Recife and Woody Cape. The Algoa Bay Management Plan is a holistic document, drawing on previous environmental studies and has aimed to consolidate the ideas of all interested and affected parties. The plan has built on some previous public participation during previous environmental studies and has included some further consultation with management authorities locally and nationally (Port Elizabeth Municipality, University of Port Elizabeth, Portnet, Coega IA, Bay World and MCM). The development of the plan has defined critical issues and concentrated on these. This required collating all existing information on Algoa Bay and outlining areas of concern. These concerns were identified as follows: Potential depletion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity, Potential destruction of marine fauna and flora and Discharge of liquid pollution in the Bay Activities related to these concerns were identified as follows: Increase in shipping activity Use of small recreational and commercial vessels Discharge of ballast waters Discharge of dredged spoil Discharge of polluted effluents into the bay from shore based activities Construction of infrastructure below the high-water mark This plan proposes that a greater Algoa Bay Management Authority be established to oversee and implement the recommendations and guidelines outlined in the ABMP. A summary of issues that need to be addressed by the Algoa Bay Management Authority, their recommended action(s), responsible authorities and a suitable time frame for their implementation are outlined below. Recommended Action
Initiate formal buy-in Circulation of ABMP manual to process for ABMP Initiate formal buy-in Present Plan to the authorities process for ABMP Initiate formal buy-in Open House – General public invited to process for ABMP participate in the plan for Coega process Revision of ABMP Update plan on basis of feedback Implementation of ABMP Constitution of Algoa Bay Management Coastal Management (MCM) Legalisation of ABMP Draft legislation to address the issues identified through the ABMA Restriction of launching of small craft from Ngqura Harbour Development of 300 m powerboat exclusion zone from Bird Rock-Cape Recife (see map) Recommended Action
Development of a no take zone between PE Harbour-Bell Buoy-Cape Recife (see map) No bottom fishing within 1 nm of Bird Economic Affairs Environment and Tourism/ MCM Shipping lanes and No vessels may approach within 1 nm of shipping exclusion zones Shipping lanes and No additional navigation lights to be Economic Affairs shipping exclusion zones erected on Islands Environment and Tourism/ MCM Shipping lanes and Maximum speed of ships within Algoa shipping exclusion zones Bay to be controlled by Portnet Commence with formulation of a National Strategy Marine seabird and Furnish MacArthurs baths with mammal treatment centre necessary equipment for emergency make recommendations Marine seabird and Investigate feasibility of the development mammal treatment centre of a treatment/education centre at Cape make recommendations Routine bird rehabilitation Minimal upgrade of Bayworld Routine bird rehabilitation Increase trips to monitor seabirds on Continue with appropriate control Ensure adequate controls in place Pollution monitoring plan Routine mussel monitoring (see Figure Pollution monitoring plan Routine benthic community analysis (see MCM Pollution monitoring plan Pollution monitoring and compliance Marine Protected Areas Amend legislation to restrict access to and Marine Reserves Bird Islands to 1 nm Conservation / MCM Marine Protected Areas Maintain existing legislation for access to Nature and Marine Reserves St Croix islands at ½ nm Conservation / MCM Marine Protected Areas Development of 300 m powerboat and Marine Reserves exclusion zone from Bird Rock-Cape Recife (see map) Marine Protected Areas Development of a no take zone between and Marine Reserves PE Harbour-Bell Buoy-Cape Recife (see Marine Protected Areas Incorporation of area between Sunday and Marine Reserves River Mouth and Cape Padrone into Greater Addo National Park Initiative TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO THE ALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT PLAN. 6
PURPOSE OF THE PLAN. 7 BROAD AIMS OF THE PAN. 7 FOCUS ON CRITICAL ISSUES . 7 SECTION 2.
MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND GUIDELINES . 8
REDUCTION OF IMPACTS BY SHIPPING . 8 Background. 8 Island issues. 8 Whale and dolphin issues . 8 Guidelines. 8 REDUCTION OF IMPACTS BY SMALL CRAFTS . 9 Background. 9 Fishing craft issues . 9 Other recreational craft issues . 10 Guidelines. 10 BALLAST WATER . 10 Background. 10 Current issues . 10 International Situation . 10 South African Situation . 11 Ballast water management . 11 Draft Guidelines based on the AQUIS Strategy. 12 Procedures for ships. 12 Precautionary approach. 12 Ballast water management options . 13 Guidelines. 15 GUIDELINES FOR THE DISPOSAL OF MAINTENANCE DREDGED SPOIL IN ALGOA BAY . 15 Background. 15 Legal issues . 15 Guidelines for the issuing of permits for dumping of dredged spoil in Algoa Bay . 16 SEABIRD MONITORING AND ROUTINE REHABILITATION . 17 Background. 17 Guidelines. 18 DEVELOPMENT OF FACILITIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF MARINE SEABIRDS AND SMALL Background. 18 Marine bird issues . 18 Key threats relating to seabirds. 19 Emergency rehabilitation facility. 20 Emergency response . 20 Requirements of the emergency facility . 21 Selection of a suitable site . 21 Facilities and equipment. 21 Functional requirements. 22 Support and satellite facilities . 23 Guidelines. 24 RAT CONTROL MEASURES FOR SHIPS ENTERING ALGOA BAY . 24 Background. 24 Current issues . 24 Rat control on ships. 24 Rat Control in the Port Elizabeth Harbour . 25 Algoa Bay Islands . 25 Guidelines. 26 MANAGEMENT OF WATER POLLUTION IN ALGOA BAY . 26 Background. 26 International legislation . 27 Minimise Discharge of Marine Pollutants and Waste . 28 ADOPTION OF A POLLUTION MONITORING PLAN AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL POLLUTION INDICATOR SPECIES. 28 Background. 28 Benthic community analysis . 29 Mussel watch programme. 29 Guidelines. 30 ESTABLISHMENT OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS AND MARINE RESERVES . 30 Background. 30 Guidelines. 31 INTEGRATION OF THE ALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT PLAN AND THE CONSERVATION OF THE ALGOA BAY ISLANDS . 31 SECTION 3.
COMPLIANCE OF THE ALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT PLAN TO THE
PROPOSED POLICY AS ARTICULATED IN THE WHITE PAPER ON SUSTAINABLE
COASTAL DEVELOPMENT. 32
INSTITUTIONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS . 33
LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT . 34
ENFORCEMENT . 34 RELEVANT LEGISLATIVE ACTS . 34 SECTION 6.
START-UP AND ONGOING COSTS TO ADMINISTER THE ALGOA BAY
MANAGEMENT PLAN . 36
RECOMMENDATIONS AND MAP(S) OF PROPOSED MARINE USES . 36
APPENDIX A: LEGISLATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND RESPONSIBLE AGENCIES.
IMO GUIDANCE ON SAFETY ASPECTS OF BALLAST WATER EXCHANGE AT EXAMPLE OF AQIS BALLAST WATER REPORTING FORM . 44 LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION – ANNEX I SUBSTANCES . 53 LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION – ANNEX II SUBSTANCES . 54 INTERPRETATION OF LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION TERMINOLOGY (FROM: GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DREDGE SPOIL IN SOUTH AFRICAN COASTAL WATERS) . 54 APPENDIX G : ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES/MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AS DEFINED BY THE NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AND TOURISM FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DREDGE SPOIL IN SOUTH AFRICAN COASTAL WATERS . 55 LIST OF CONTAMINATS TO BE MEASURED. 60 APPENDIX H : NON-QUANTITATIVE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLY LIST FOR AN EMERGENCY FACILITY FOR THE REHABILITATION OF OILED PENGUINS. 60
INTRODUCTION TO THE ALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT
Through its Spatial Development Initiative, the South African government identified Port Elizabeth, situated in Algoa Bay, as one of several regions in the country where growth and industrial development was to be stimulated. Algoa Bay has been identified as a multi-use coastal zone with strong commercial and recreational interest groups. It has also been recognised that all stakeholders have a responsibility to contribute towards the management and sustainable development of the Bay. A formal Algoa Bay Management Plan (ABMP) is therefore required. Government has formally recognised the importance of sustainable coastal development. A draft white paper, outlining governments proposed policy1, was published in March 1999.The Draft White Paper is structured towards satisfying a number of fundamental goals. These are: Summary of relevant goals – Draft White Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development
Goal A1: To ensure meaningful public participation, and to promote partnerships
between the State, the private sector and civil society in order to foster co-responsibility
in coastal management
Goal A2: To promote public awareness about the coast and to educate and train coastal
managers and other stakeholders to ensure more effective coastal planning and
Goal A3: To promote a dedicated, co-operative, co-ordinated and integrated coastal
planning and management approach
Goal A4: To conduct coastal planning and management activities in a manner that
promotes learning through continuous research, monitoring, review and adaptation
Any integrated coastal management plan should be developed in accordance with this policy. The ABMP is therefore structured to address its goals to facilitate integrated management. Because the management plan follows the policies as proposed by the National Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism it is essential that both the government and the constituency it represents own the process by which it is developed and refined. In taking the plan further it will be important to: Obtain the endorsement and involvement of the national and provincial government. Obtain the endorsement and involvement of Regional and Local Government institutions Solicit broad stakeholder participation Ensure full disclosure of information and an open dialogue among user groups Obtain the support and involvement of non-governmental organisations and the business 1 Draft White Paper for Sustainable Coastal Development in South Africa. March 1999. Department of
Environmental Affairs and Tourism
Purpose of the plan
The purpose of the ABMP is to provide a comprehensive framework for the management of
Algoa Bay. Recommendations and guidelines for the management of critical issues in Algoa
Bay extending from Cape Recife in the west to Woody Cape in the east, including the islands
within the Bay, are provided. The terrestrial limit of the management plan is the spring high-
water mark. The ABMP includes a summary of baseline information from environmental and
other studies and presents marine-use maps/charts together with suggestions for the
development of a centralised management authority. Institutional arrangements that are
required to implement and manage the plan are suggested and relevant organisational
structures and their responsibilities discussed.
Broad aims of the pan
The plan should seek to achieve the following broad aims: To ensure that there should be no long-term decline in the natural and scenic beauty of landscapes and seascapes, the range and variety of landforms and the diversity of natural fauna and flora. To support the need to maintain biodiversity in line with the Government's commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity. To ensure that the many different uses of the Bay are planned for and managed in a sustainable, environmentally responsible and integrated way in order to meet the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To stimulate and secure closer co-operation and communication among all users of the To achieve a better understanding of the Bay area and to ensure that information on the Bay is widely disseminated. Focus on critical issues
The development of the plan has defined and concentrated on critical issues. These concerns were identified as: Potential depletion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity, Potential destruction of marine fauna and flora and Discharge of liquid pollution in the Bay Various causative activities related to these concerns were identified as the: Increase in shipping activity Use of small recreational and commercial vessels Discharge of ballast waters Discharge of dredged spoil Discharge of polluted effluents into the Bay The ABMP addresses these issues in detail (Section 2) and formulates management recommendations (Section 7) to either avoid or reduce impacts associated with these activities (such as monitoring and setting aside zones for distinct use) or to mitigate their impacts (through the development of a facility to treat marine fauna). The approach taken within the ABMP was that of a desktop assessment that aims to synthesise and collate information on the various impacts on and threats to the marine environment of Algoa Bay. The primary and secondary literature was consulted. Additional guidelines were also formulated to address larger system issues.
Consultation with management authorities locally and nationally (Port Elizabeth Municipality,
University of Port Elizabeth, Portnet, Coega IA, Bay World and MCM) was conducted in the
drafting of the ABMP. Extensive public participation with all interested and affected parties will
be conducted through an open-house discussion to consolidate, and build on, the extensive
public participation process of previously conducted environmental studies. This consultative
process offers all stakeholders an active role in developing a common plan for the sustainable
management of their consumable and non-consumable marine resources.
MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND
Reduction of impacts by shipping
Existing shipping lanes within Algoa Bay are loosely defined. Ships are merely required to enter
the Bay from the east around the Bird Island group and from the west around Cape Recife
between St Croix Island and the Rij Bank.
Two fishing groups could be minimally affected by additional shipping traffic and the delineation
of formalised shipping lanes. These are the line fishery (Section 2.2) and squid fishery. Other
important fishing sectors not affected by additional shipping traffic are the trawl- and purse-seine
net fisheries. Trawling within Algoa Bay between Cape Recife and Woody Cape was prohibited
in 1989 and the majority of the purse-seine catch is taken in St Francis Bay.
An area of concern is access to the islands, particularly the Bird Island group. Trawlfishing
vessels often anchor on the lee side between the islands and Woody Cape at night or during
rough weather, as it is the only accessible and protected area during bad conditions. Anchoring
near the islands is therefore necessary on the grounds of safety. The seventy-four Polysteganus
undulosus nursery area around Bird Island however needs urgent protection as this species has
been fished to commercial extinction. This is in line with draft policy being formulated by the
Marine Reserves Task Group of the Chief Directorate: Marine and Coastal Management (MCM).
Whale and dolphin issues
Algoa Bay has large population of humpback dolphins and is used as a breeding area by
southern right whales in the summer months. A new pilotage service, based at the Port of Port
Elizabeth as of March 2000, is to be provided for both the Ports of Port Elizabeth and Nqgura.
The system uses a Vessel Traffic Separation System where all ship movements will be
controlled from a central point, Port of Port Elizabeth. Shipping pilots will be able to report the
presence of whales whereby Port Control can issue a warning and appropriate speed limits to all
shipping in the Bay. This system will therefore avoid imposing a blanket shipping speed limit
throughout the year.
Shipping lanes can be loosely delineated. However: Shipping should not approach within 1 km of the islands group (Bird and Stag Islands, Black Rocks) and 500 m from the St Croix Island group (St Croix and Jahleel Islands and Brenton Rocks). See Figure 7.1. No shipping lights are to be positioned on the islands (an established lighthouse is on All ships within the Bay must adhere to shipping speeds recommended by the Port of Port Reduction of impacts by small crafts
Numerous different recreational and commercial small craft operate within Algoa Bay.
Examples include fishing activities, dive charters, pleasure cruises, sailing and water sports.
Fishing craft issues
Commercial line fishery
Small craft operating in the commercial line fishery are ski-boats. These vessels are usually
between 4.5 - 10m, either single-hulled or of the catamaran type. They may be powered by two
outboard motors of between 45 and 200 hp each, or by an inboard engine with tilting propulsion
gear. In Port Elizabeth there are two principal launching sites; Port Elizabeth harbour and the
Noordhoek ski-boat club. Sardinia Bay is also used to a lesser extent. The areas fished are
from Sardinia Bay to Bird Island and out to the continental shelf. The average distance travelled
from port by ski-boats is 24.5 km (range 9-80 km). Capital investment in the commercial line
fishery is in the region of R 19 300 000 with approximately R 9 800 000 spent on equipment
Commercial fishing permits are currently under review by the Department of Marine and Coastal
Management as this fishery is presently over-subscribed. The reduction of the size of this fishing
sector will mean that there will be no need for additional launching/mooring facilities.
The greater Algoa Bay region, with its Port Elizabeth Metropole and associated local councils,
reflects the national trend in being an important region for recreational fishing. It has been
demonstrated in many studies that increased leisure opportunities are important components
of social upliftment. Recreational angling falls into this category. This is especially true in an
industrialised urban situation such as Port Elizabeth, where opportunities for outdoor leisure
are likely to decrease with time. Future access to, and availability of, recreational fishing
opportunities in areas such as Algoa Bay are likely to have consequences for the general
social well-being of the region's people. In South Africa, recreational fishing is a pass-time
that attracts a large number of participants. Surveys have shown that there is at least one
angler in every four urban households and that an estimated 15% of coastal residents fish in
the sea on a regular basis.
Besides contributing to the social well-being of South Africans, marine recreational fishing
also contributes to economic wealth at the local, provincial and national levels. This is in the
form of tourism, the supply of fishing and boat gear, support industries such as the bait and
fuel industries as well as taxes on fishing and bait licences.
A large light-tackle boat angling fraternity exists in the Port Elizabeth area. This fraternity has
traditionally been divided into freshwater, estuarine and inshore-marine areas, with
participants frequently alternating between categories. The inshore-marine component mainly
fish along the southern edge of Algoa Bay in the area between the PE Harbour and the
This fishery is practised from small solid-hulled ski-boats or inflatable boats of 4.5 - 8 m,
usually powered by twin outboard motors. The boats are transportable on trailers and can be
launched from a permanent berth or through the surf. These same craft are also used to fish
Presently, there are a total of 14 Eastern Province Light Tackle Boat Association (EPLTBA)
affiliated angling clubs. Eleven of these clubs are located in the surrounds of Algoa Bay.
Total membership for the EPLTBA-affiliated clubs is approximately 1 000 anglers with an
estimated total of 163 angling boats registered with the EPLTBA.
Other recreational craft issues
This category includes those craft involved in sailing, dive chartering and general water sport
activities. This category of small craft are either motorised (power boating, jet skiing, pleasure
cruises and SCUBA dive charters) or unmotorised (yachting, kayaking).
Potential environmental impacts are restricted to fishing activities and motorised recreational boating. Over 90% of bottom fish targeted by commercial and recreational fishers have been classified as over-exploited, critical or collapsed. Management action is imperative. A marine protected area is needed to contribute to the sustainability of fish stocks in the Bay. Such an area that incorporates the main dive charter sites will also enhance the non-consumptive tourism potential in the area. An area of concern is that there will most probably be a shift in line fishing effort to areas more accessible from the Coega harbour. Fishers should therefore not be allowed to launch close to areas such as the Algoa Bay islands that include St Croix, Jaheel, Brenton Rocks, Bird, Stag and Black Rocks. These areas are currently lightly fished, principally due to the long distances needed to travel to these islands by boat. These islands, with Bird Island in particular, support relatively healthy reef fish populations that help support heavily fished stocks in Algoa Bay through distant recruitment. Increasing accessibility to these areas could have serious consequences for the Algoa Bay line fishery, which have already showed evidence of a decline. This shift in fishing effort wil also bring fishers closer to St Croix Island Marine Reserve, which could increase the incidence of poaching. • No commercial or recreational fishing vessels are permitted to launch from the Coega Harbour A power boating exclusion zone is to be established between Cape Recife and Bird Rock to minimise disturbance of humpback dolphins to a distance of 300 m (10 m effective depth). The number of dolphins within this area should be monitored by Eastern Cape Nature Conservation and recommendations made where necessary. See Figure 7.1. A bottom fishing exclusion zone is to be established in the area enclosed by a straight line between the PE harbour breakwater wall, Bell Buoy and Cape Recife Point. See Figure 7.1. No bottom fishing within 1 nautical mile of Bird Island. See Figure 7.1. Ballast water
Even though the international community has been aware of the problems posed by the international transfer of vast volumes of ballast water, the situation has only been formally addressed in recent years. The issue has been on the agenda of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO, the
United Nations body concerned with maritime issues) since 1973 when it called for "research
into the role of ballast water as a medium for the spreading of epidemic disease bacteria"
(International Conference on Marine Pollution, 1973).
In 1991 the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO adopted a set of
voluntary international guidelines for ships' handling of ballast water and encouraged further
research into ballast water management. This initiative led to the drafting of a new Annex to
the MARPOL Convention (the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
While there are no safe, practical, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable solutions to
the ballast water problem, there are a number of measures that can be taken to minimise the
risk BUT these will only be effective if there is international co-operation.
South African Situation
The current legal context for coastal management is provided by the Constitution and a wide
range of national Acts, including the Sea Shore Act, the Environment Conservation Act and
the Environmental Management Act, as well as other legislation relating to land-use planning,
protected areas, natural resource management and pollution control. A large number of laws
and regulations also exist at provincial and local levels to control coastal development and
manage coastal resources.
The numerous and varied Acts which apply to coastal and marine pollution (see Appendix A)
are administered by a number of Government departments. This includes:
The Department of Transport (DOT), which has responsibility while a potential pollutant is on board a vessel, The Department of Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), when the marine or coastal environment is polluted, The Department of Water Affairs (DWAF), for land-based sources, The Department of Minerals & Energy (DME) for off-shore mining activities and The Department of Health (DOH) for international health regulations. The South African Maritime Safety Authority Act (5 of 1998) provides for a statutory authority will take over many of the functions of the Department of Transport. One of the objectives of the Draft White Paper on Sustainable Coastal Development1 is: Pollution relevant objective – Draft White Paper for Sustainable Coastal
Objective C1.2: The discharge of marine pollutants and waste, especially ship-
board waste, marine fuels and ballast waters, into coastal waters shall be
minimised and strictly controlled.
To achieve the above objective the following steps are required: International and national marine pollution policies and protocols ratified by South Africa must be implemented. Introduction of exotic organisms into coastal waters via ship ballast water must be
Ballast water management
The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) has compiled a comprehensive
national strategy for the management of ballast water. The AQIS ballast water requirements
are in accordance with the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ballast water
The following Ballast Water Management Guidelines (based on the Australian Guidelines)
should be read in conjunction with the International Maritime Organisation's "Guidelines for
the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water to Minimize the Transfer of Harmful
Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens" (Resolution A.868 (20). In particular, ships' Masters
should give their attention to the IMO Guidelines, Guidance on Safety Aspects of Ballast Water Exchange at Sea, attached to these Guidelines as Appendix B. The Department of Environmental Affairs and the Health Authorities should act as the lead agencies for the management of ballast water issues, and the monitor of compliance by shipping when entering an Algoa Bay port. The Guidelines detail the typical requirements in relation to the control of discharge of ballast water and sediment from ships entering Algoa Bay waters from overseas. Draft Guidelines based on the AQUIS Strategy
Unless otherwise determined by DEAT and the Department of Health, these Guidelines should apply to all ships visiting Algoa Bay from an overseas port. The safety of ships is a foremost consideration in the application of these Guidelines.
Procedures for ships
Ship's ballast water management plan
Every ship that carries ballast water is encouraged to maintain a ballast water management plan to assist in the minimisation of transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens. The intent of the plan should be to provide guidance on environmental ballast water management and the safe and effective procedures to achieve this. The ballast water management plan should be specific to each ship and should be modelled on the IMO Ship Ballast Water Management Plan referred to in the IMO Guidelines, which was developed by the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and Intertanko, for the IMO. The ballast water management plan should be included in the ship's operational documentation. Such a plan should address, inter alia: • relevant parts of these Guidelines approval documentation relevant to treatment equipment list of records required and the location of possible sampling points.
Minimising uptake of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens and sediments
When loading ballast for a voyage to Algoa Bay, every effort should be made to avoid the
uptake of potentially harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens and sediment that may
contain such organisms. The uptake of ballast water should be minimised or, where
practicable, avoided in areas and situations such as:
areas identified with toxic algal blooms (‘red tides'), outbreaks of known populations of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens, sewage out-falls, and any dredging activity in darkness (when bottom-dwelling organisms may rise in the water column) in very shallow water or in areas where propellers may stir up sediment. Removing ballast sediment
Where practicable, routine cleaning of a ballast tank to remove sediments should be carried out in mid-ocean or under controlled arrangements in dry dock, in accordance with the provisions of the ship's ballast water management plan. (If sediment removal is undertaken in mid-ocean, then the safety of the ship and crew is paramount, refer to Appendix B). Under no circumstances should sediment resulting from tank or hold cleaning or stripping, be disposed of in Algoa Bay waters. For instance, sediment should not be shovelled or dropped over the side of the vessel after de-ballasting. Where such disposal is necessary, as a result of tank or hold cleaning operations or at dry-docking, it should be disposed of in a manner that prevents it entering the Algoa Bay marine environment. Loose sediment is likely to be discharged in an initial flush (e.g. in the bilge well of a hold space). Such sediment should be drawn off by a suitable means (e.g. an initial "suck" to flush out any sediment that may have accumulated in hat-boxes or suction bays during the voyage). The discharge from this operation should be placed into a holding tank or by carrying out initial release into an approved discharge area, or at sea outside territorial limits, before full discharge overboard takes place.
Avoiding unnecessary discharge of ballast water
If it is necessary to take on and discharge ballast water in the same port to facilitate safe
cargo operations, care should be taken to avoid unnecessary discharge of ballast water that
has been taken up in another port.
Ballast water management options
There are various management or control options currently approved by Australian
Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) and ship owners, operators or Masters may select
to minimise the risk of introduction of harmful aquatic organisms or pathogens into Australian
waters. The Department of Health in conjunction with DEAT should review and approve these
Ballast water exchange
In general, near-coastal (including port and estuarine) organisms released in mid- ocean, and oceanic organisms released in coastal waters, do not survive. When exchanging ballast at sea, guidance on safety aspects of ballast water exchange, as set out in Appendix B, should be taken into account. Furthermore, the following practices are recommended: Where practicable, ships should conduct ballast exchange in deep water, in the open ocean, as far as possible from shore and outside Algoa Bay waters (i.e. greater than 200 nautical miles from shore). Where this is not possible, exchange should not occur within Algoa Bay coastal waters and DEAT/Health Authority should be advised that ballast exchange has taken place inside Algoa Bay waters. DEAT/Health Authority must be provided with the exchange location on the Ballast Water Reporting Form (see Appendix C for an example of the AQIS Ballast Water Reporting Form). Consistent with safe operations at sea, when using the empty/refill ballast water exchange method, all of the ballast water should be discharged until suction is lost, and stripping pumps should be used if possible. Where the flow-through method is employed in open ocean, by pumping ballast water into the tank or hold and allowing the water to overflow, at least three times the tank volume should be pumped through the tank. Where neither form of open ocean exchange is practicable, ballast exchange may be accepted by DEAT/Health Authority in designated areas and; Other ballast exchange options may be approved by DEAT/Health Authority. Non-release or minimal release of ballast water
In cases where ballast exchange or other treatment options are not possible, ballast water may be retained in tanks or holds. Should this not be possible, the ship should only discharge the minimum essential amount of ballast water in accordance with AQIS or DEAT/Health Authority contingency strategies, which should be notified before a vessel's arrival. DEAT/Health Authority should reserve the right to require a ship to undertake any contingency action if it has taken up ballast water in a high-risk overseas port (where there are toxic algal blooms or a cholera outbreak) and has not fully exchanged its ballast water in mid-ocean. Recording and reporting procedures
All ships travelling in Algoa Bay waters must be required to complete the Ballast Water Reporting Form, which should be attached to the current Quarantine Declaration for Vessels (Pratique) Form. All details on the Ballast Water Reporting Form must be filled out and returned with the Quarantine Declaration for Vessels. These Forms together with instructions for their completion are attached to these Guidelines as Appendix C. Ships not completing the Ballast Water Reporting Form should not be given formal Quarantine clearance. On arrival in port these ships will be required to complete the form with a DEAT or Health officer present. This will attract additional fee-for-service inspection charges. A ship's ballast water report may be verified by DEAT/Health Authority and there should be significant penalties for false reporting.
Other reporting procedures for ships
If a required ballast water procedure cannot be done due to safety reasons such as weather, sea conditions or operational impracticability, the Master should report this to the DEAT/Health Authority on the Ballast Water Reporting Form (Section 6 of the Appendix C) prior to entering Algoa Bay waters. To facilitate the administration of ballast water management and treatment procedures on
board each ship, the Master is encouraged to appoint a responsible officer to maintain
appropriate records, and to ensure that ballast water management and/or treatment
procedures are followed and recorded.
When taking on or discharging ballast water, as a minimum, the dates, geographical
locations, ship's tank(s) and cargo holds, as well as the amount of ballast water loaded or
discharged should be recorded. These details must be provided on the Quarantine
Declaration for Vessels and the Ballast Water Reporting Form. The record should be made
available to DEAT/Health Authority prior to arrival in an Algoa Bay port.
Enforcement and monitoring
New ballast water management technology
If new technology is developed and approved by DEAT/Health Authority as an alternative
option for ballast water management, this may be substituted for, or be used in conjunction
with, current options. Such technology could include thermal methods, filtration, disinfection
(including ultraviolet light) and other such means. Ships' Masters, owners, agents and
operators should contact DEAT/Health Authority for further information.
Management of ballast water issues are the responsibility of The Department of Environmental Affairs and the Health Authorities. These agencies must design and ensure the implementation of guidelines. Compliance should be monitored with the Ballast Water Management Guidelines when entering an Algoa Bay port. Every ship that carries ballast water should maintain a ballast water management plan. The plan should provide guidance on environmental ballast water management as well as safe and effective procedures. The plan should be specific to each ship and modelled on the IMO Ship Ballast Water Management Plan. The ballast water management plan should be included in the ship's operational documentation and should at least address: relevant parts of these Guidelines approval documentation relevant to treatment equipment list of records required and the location of possible sampling points.
Under no circumstances should sediment resulting from tank or hold cleaning or
stripping, be disposed of in Algoa Bay waters.
Guidelines for the disposal of maintenance dredged spoil in
Dredging activities can have a variety of negative effects on marine organisms, from habitat
disturbance for benthic communities in the dredged area, to physical smothering or chemical
contamination of those on the disposal site. The inappropriate selection of disposal sites can
also result in interference with fishery activities, recreation and navigation. It is important that
dredging activities are properly managed, both by limiting dredging to what is strictly
necessary, and by controlling the use and/or disposal of dredged materials.
South Africa is a contracting party to the London (Dumping) Convention, which it ratified in 1978. The main provisions of the Convention were incorporated into the Dumping at Sea Control Act 73 of 1980, which came into force on 23 April, 1982. With respect to the dumping of dredged spoil into marine or estuarine waters, the London Convention prohibits the dumping of dredged material containing Annex I substances
(Appendix D2), unless:
the physical, chemical conditions will ensure that they are "rapidly rendered harmless"; they are present only as "trace contaminants" or in the case of radioactive materials, at "de minimis" levels. The Convention requires that dredged materials containing Annex II substances (Appendix E3) in more than "significant amounts" are issued special permits, which prescribe "special care" measures and/or other limiting conditions. In addition, any permits issued for dumping of dredged spoil must only be granted after an assessment of the factors contained in Annex III of the London Dumping Convention4.
The implementation of the Convention with respect to dumping of dredged spoil requires the
interpretation of the clauses "rapidly rendered harmless", "trace amounts" "de minimis levels"
and "significant amounts". The definitions of these terms are presented in Appendix F.
Guidelines for the issuing of permits for dumping of dredged
spoil in Algoa Bay
Because of South Africa's obligations to the London Convention any application for the
dumping of dredged spoil, needs to be evaluated in terms of the various established technical
criteria. These criteria have been built into the decision-making procedure shown below. The
various assessment procedures contained in the Guidelines for the Management of Dredged
Spoil in South African Coastal Waters are detailed in Appendix G.
1. Is the dredging operation strictly necessary? Reject application 2. Is the dredging part of a new development, or is it maintenance dredging? 3. Is the site contaminated or uncontaminated? (See for preliminary assessment procedures) 4. Is the site contaminated or uncontaminated? (See Appendix G for assessment procedure) 2 Annex I substances include organohalogen compounds, mercury and mercury compounds, cadmium and cadmium compounds, persistent plastics and other synthetic materials, crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, radioactive wastes or matter, and materials produced for biological or chemical warfare. 3 Annex II substances include arsenic, lead, copper and it's compounds, zinc and its compounds, organosilicon compounds, cyanides, fluorides, pesticides and their by-products, beryllium, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and bulky metal ic wastes. 4 Criteria to be considered include the characteristics and composition of the matter, the characteristics of the dumping site and method of disposal, the possibility of effects on other uses of the sea and on marine life, and the practical availability of alternative, land-based methods of treatment or disposal. 5. Can the sediment be used for an alternative purpose? (See Appendix G) 6. Will dumping at the proposed site lead to interference with other activities? (See Appendix G) Issue General Permit 7. What is the level of contamination? (See Appendix G) "Trace" or "insignificant" contamination Moderately contaminated Highly contaminated 8. Can the sediment be used for an alternative purpose? (See Appendix G) 9. Is the disposal of the material at the proposed site likely to result in harmful effects to marine organisms or to human health? (See Appendix G) Issue Special Permit 10. Can the material be effectively isolated from the environment using "Special Care" techniques? (See Appendix G) Issue Special Permit with appropriate conditions5 Special permits - with specific conditions - may be issued for moderately contaminated sediments if: biological testing indicates that the impacts outside of the disposal site will be minimal marine disposal is considered to be the option least detrimental to the environment there is a real commitment on the part of the applicants to implement a source reduction programme 11. Are land treatment and/or disposal options likely to be more or less harmful to the environment as a whole? (See Appendix G) Issue special permit No permit (recommend land disposal) Seabird monitoring and routine rehabilitation
Additional shipping will increase the risk to marine birds within Algoa Bay. The current
rehabilitation facility at Bayworld can be upgraded at a minimal cost to cater for double the
average annual number of birds currently handled (Clokie, Bayworld).
5 Conditions in these applications must include a commitment to investigating and addressing the source of contamination i.e. it should be made clear that permits for contaminated sediments will not be made on an ongoing basis, and that a programme must be established to reduce or eliminate the problem at source.
The declining number of jackass penguins is a grave concern (1999 annual estimate).
Reasons for the decline are likely to be widespread, covering their distribution range. Routine
assessments of the penguin colony should assess changes in population number and remove
injured/oiled penguins for treatment on shore. Therefore the number of birds in need of
treatment are likely to rise.
Increase the number of routine trips to assess the penguin colony on the St Croix island
Upgrade existing facility at Bayworld to accommodate double the number of birds being routinely rehabilitated. Estimated capital cost: R15 000.
Estimated annual running cost: R5000.
Development of facilities for the treatment of marine seabirds and
The south-eastern Cape coastline is richly populated with marine mammals and seabirds. A
centre of this biological diversity is Algoa Bay. Its coastline extends for 90 km, which includes
surf-swept sandy beaches in the east and rocky platform beaches in the west. These beaches
and their associated surf zones vary widely in physical form, owing to the combined effects of
prevailing winds, deepwater swell and sheltering headlands. The islands of St Croix, Brenton
and Jahleel lie a few kilometres offshore and are located between the Swartkops and
Sundays river systems. St Croix lies approximately 22 km north-east of Port Elizabeth and 6
km from the Coega River Mouth; Jahleel is situated closer to the shore, less than 2 km from
the river mouth; while Brenton lies south and seaward of St Croix, 6.5 km from the river
mouth. A second group of islands, the Bird Islands (comprising Bird, Seal, Stag and Black
Rocks) are situated at the eastern end of the Bay, some 60 km from the Port Elizabeth
harbour. Both island groups are formally protected as marine reserves and/or provincial
nature reserves and are administered by the Provincial Directorate: Nature Conservation.
2.6.2. Marine bird issues
Seabirds are arguably the most conspicuous component of marine life in Algoa Bay and on
the islands, which have been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA), as they are inhabited
by threatened and endangered species. A third of all 91 seabird species recorded in southern
African waters occur with some regularity in the area. Eight of the 14 South African resident
seabird species breed here, either on islands or at the adjacent coast, and their numbers are
well documented (Table 2.6.1).
Table 2.6.1. List of resident and/or breeding birds occurring off the coast of the Coega mouth
and around the St Croix Island group with estimated population numbers.
Spheniscus demersus Morus capensis Phalacrocorax capensis Whitebreasted Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Larus dominicanus Sterna bergii Sterna dougallii Sterna balaenarum In South Africa penguins fall under the protection of the Seabird and Seal Protection Act No. 46 of 1973. They have an ‘endangered' ranking in the Cape Nature and Environmental Conservation Ordinance No. 19 of 1974, and the pertinent IUCN Red List Category is that of ‘vulnerable'. Two workshops held in Cape Town under the auspices of the IUCN in recent years (Conservation Assessment and Management Plan 1996; Population and Habitat Viability Assessment 1999) have confirmed this ranking and have pleaded for urgent conservation action to save the species from extinction. Extinction will happen within the next 30 years if current population trends continue. The latest counts of penguins on the two Algoa Bay island groups are presented in Table 2.6.2. Thus, the Bay holds about half of the total world population and St Croix Island accommodates the bulk of all birds. Table 2.6.2. Census of all active African Penguin nests in Algoa Bay in 1993 and in 1999. The factor of 3.24 is used to convert the number of active nests at the height of the breeding season in March/April into the number of individuals alive at that time (allowing for non-breeders and immature birds). (Census results courtesy of N. Klages, Bayworld).
Key threats relating to seabirds
The proposed harbour at the Coega River mouth will be situated almost opposite Jahleel
Island with its eastern breakwater 500 metres from the island. Seabirds, and marine
mammals, will be directly affected by the proposed development. Due to the proximity of the
proposed development some of these impacts will be more pronounced on the birds breeding
on Jahleel than those on St Croix and on Brenton Rock. There will also be seasonal
differences in the impact on birds and marine mammals.
According to specialist reports commissioned to advise on the potential impact of the
proposed development, the construction of the harbour and associated structures and the
operation may, amongst others:
alter surf zone hydrodynamic patterns and modify sand transport increase turbidity and depress primary production during the construction phase only frighten marine mammals and birds through high noise levels increase the potential for death or injury of marine mammals through collision with increase the risk of oil pollution for penguins, cormorants and gannets destroy breeding grounds and displace water birds from feeding grounds depress breeding success and fecundity of fish stocks through pollution These impacts are by no means the only problems which marine animals and seabirds are exposed to. They are, however, threats that could increase the need for care of injured, polluted or starving animals. Of these threats an oil spill is probably the event most damaging
As the pressure on coastal zone resources increases, the worldwide need for rehabilitation
centres for marine life has also increased. At present, there are two small rehabilitation
facilities in the Eastern Cape: at Bay World and a facility in Aston Bay, run by local
veterinarian Dr. Dave Hartley in association with the Regional Services Council. Both of these
facilities are inadequate for large numbers of marine birds in distress. The Bay World facility,
which currently rehabilitates small numbers of penguins and Cape fur seals, is located inside
the Oceanarium in close proximity to the resident animals. Because of this, it cannot care for
animals suffering from infectious diseases.
Emergency rehabilitation facility
"There are many variables in oil spills that effect the success of oiled bird rehabilitation efforts
The number of animals affected, species affected, type of oil that is spilled, the effectiveness of the search and rescue program, the skills and experience of rehabilitation and veterinary staff, and volunteer management are some of the variables that can have an impact on these programs. However, the lack of and/or inadequacy of oiled wildlife care facilities have historically had the most serious impact on these programs." IBRRC (International Bird Rescue Research Centre)
Due to its location and existing infrastructure, McArthur Baths could be used as an
emergency rehabilitation facility for seabirds. The facility will be capable of accommodating a
maximum of 1000 oiled birds (especially African Penguins).
As with any emergency situation the single most important factor is speed. An emergency
response is an organised flow of actions that include the identification, stabilisation, collection
and transportation of affected animals to an emergency facility where they will be
rehabilitated. In addition to the initial response, various long term aspects must be prepared
for, most notably the re-integration into the natural environment after successful rehabilitation
but also, last but not least, the decommissioning of the facility.
In November 1996 the Cordigliera sank off the Transkei coast. It spilled 880 tons of bunker oil
into the sea, contaminating in excess of 1000 African Penguins and an unknown number of
other birds. Although everybody was caught unawares by this disaster, most of these birds'
lives were saved due to the availability of local expertise (Bay World, SANCOB), community
involvement and generous donations from many parties. This oil spill also created a pool of
people with some experience in wildlife rescue as well as adding to the knowledge base of
our local professional wildlife rehabilitators.
The capture and transport of oiled penguins from their haul-out beaches (mostly on the
breeding islands) to the rehabilitation facility requires a specialist team operating under its
own planning. Transport plans will have to be formulated, possibly with the help of the NSRI.
"The design of oiled bird rehabilitation facilities must include adequate ventilation, electrical
capabilities, high volumes of hot and cold water, temperature control, indoor and outdoor
space for housing animals and supplies, communication systems and have waste disposal
capabilities if they are to be functional. Without these components the survivability of the
animals in these facilities will be severely altered."
IBRRC (International Bird Rescue Research Centre)
Requirements of the emergency facility
Once affected animals have arrived at the emergency facility for rehabilitation, their survival
depends on a number of factors that have to be in place or that can be arranged at short
notice. The emergency centre has to have/must be:
immediate access to finance well positioned well equipped for the task professionally manned operable within a maximum of 48 hours supported by the community re-supplied, equipped and maintained after use for the next spill.
Selection of a suitable site
McArthur Baths in Port Elizabeth is centrally located adjacent to Bay World and the sea along
a major road yet, sufficiently remote from residential properties. It is also surrounded by
sturdy fencing and/or boundary walls preventing unauthorised access and facilitating 24 hour
security. Management personnel of McArthur Baths have, in principal, supported this
proposal. Further consultation is however necessary.
Facilities and equipment
Water supply and electricity
The rehabilitation of oiled penguins requires large volumes of clean freshwater for cleaning.
Hot water at 40ºC at a peak rate of 8000 litres per hour is required to supply 6 wash teams,
each washing 10-15 birds daily. Up to a maximum of 50 000 litres per day will be required.
Presently there is no hot water available. Gas geysers capable of supplying the water
demand will need to be installed and a readily available gas supply will need to be sourced
and secured. The feasibility of using the water from the freshwater swimming pool needs to
There is an adequate electrical supply and outlets are suitably positioned. Problems may
arise if circumstances require the simultaneous operation of many heaters in drying rooms.
Outdoor holding facilities
The freshwater swimming pool can be drained, then subdivided into circular holding pens with
small welded mesh. The tiled surface is ideal for limiting diseases such as bumble foot and
will provide for easy cleaning. A shade-cloth covering, which can easily be erected and
removed, will provide adequate protection and ventilation.
Indoor holding facilities
The 14 change rooms adjacent to the washing bays can be converted into dry rooms, each capable of holding 4 - 6 birds. These rooms will need heating to 40 ºC with infrared lighting and oil heaters, as well as fenced doorways. The existing grated roof vent will need to be covered. The existing storeroom can be converted into a holding room and sub-divided for birds requiring specialised care. Birds can be herded along fenced alleyways to be made from welded mesh.
The existing saltwater pool can be drained to a water depth of 40 cm and this depth
maintained through continuous draining to waste and filling with fresh seawater.
The existing female ablution showers (six) can be transformed into wash bays, but require
substantial plumbing. The opposite changing cubicle can serve as a rinse bay.
First aid facilities
An existing first aid room already equipped with basin, hot and cold water, electricity,
cupboards and tables, is suitable as a hospital. Supplies and equipment needed for this have
been listed in the Appendix H.
The male toilets can be subdivided for use of both sexes during an exercise.
McArthur Baths already has a telephone connection enabling the installation of modern
communication equipment. There is no space for an intensive care unit on the premises but
Bay World's animal hospital can possibly take over this role (although there may be a problem
maintaining strict quarantine measures). An ICU requires special supplies and equipment.
The existing Oceanarium freezers can be used for storage of food fish. Implementation of a
comprehensive waste management for the Baths will encounter problems relating to the safe
disposal of the soap/oil mix washed off the polluted birds, the storage of carcasses prior to
incineration, and the fish offal left over from the feeding of large numbers of penguins.
However, these problems are not insurmountable.
Conversion of the McArthur Baths into an emergency oil-spill facility could be accomplished
with few alterations to the infrastructure and a modest capital outlay. In the light of this
positive assessment, the remainder of this report outlines the additional requirements with
regard to staff and equipment towards a fully functional emergency rehabilitation facility.
As penguins receive high levels of sympathy by the public, the closure of the McArthur Baths
as a public recreational facility in the event of an oil-spill crisis should be acceptable to large
sectors of the community. This acceptance should be facilitated through a suitable information
A fund from which money can be drawn immediately by authorised personnel in the case of
an emergency needs to be made available. At 1999 prices some R20 000 should suffice on
the first day. Further details are beyond the scope of this report.
The many tasks needed to be accomplished daily in the successful operation of the emergency facility requires specialist groups of personnel. These comprise command and control (records and finance), planning, buying, communication, animal care, cleaning and waste disposal, catering etc. The staff will consist of a mix of professionals and volunteers, from both the public and the private sectors and from NGOs. There will be a change in staff composition and numbers throughout the crisis period; for instance initially there will be an increased need for vets and animal handlers in order to receive, treat and stabilise birds on arrival. The hospital and ICU needs to be manned by veterinary personnel on a 24-hour basis. Therefore two full shifts are required comprising some 10 qualified people in total (vets and nurses). A hygienist should form part of this team. The washing team is split into three rotating shifts of 4 hours each as this is back breaking work. Assuming 6 birds are washed simultaneously, this requires a total of 24 washers and rinsers per shift, resulting in 48 people per day, if double-shifts every alternate day are worked. This high manpower demand will only be needed during the peak effort to clean all birds. To feed ±1000 birds twice daily is extremely time-consuming and requires at least 30 people working together. Fish preparation (thawing, cutting, mincing, plus cleaning afterwards) requires 6 staff in total, 4 during the day and 2 at night. A sufficient number of ancillary support personnel will be required to maintain the cleanliness and functionality of equipment and buildings and to control access. At least 2 drivers should be included in the ancillary support personnel. Most of this manpower expertise is available locally and nationally at short notice, as past oil-spills (Apollo Sea, Cordigliera) have demonstrated. NGOs have played a fundamental role in making this possible. Accordingly, their involvement in this whole process is imperative.
Support and satellite facilities
Situated in Cape Town, this world-class facility is first and foremost a source of expertise and
know-how. SANCCOB is capable of handling upwards of 1000 birds with relatively short (a
day) notice, provided the oiled birds collected in Algoa Bay are fit for the taxing flight.
Across the road from McArthur Baths, Bay World's existing rehabilitation facilities are
rudimentary and presently cater for 100 - 300 incapacitated seabirds annually. The
responsibility is mainly geared towards resident animals. However, in the event of an oil-spill
crisis, the existing hospital could accommodate small numbers (max. 50) of serious cases.
Some upgrading will have to be done in order to fulfil this function adequately.
Jeffreys Bay Rehabilitation Centre (Aston Bay)
A 45-minute drive from Port Elizabeth, this facility consists of an enclosed area with a
swimming pool, adjacent holding pens, storage rooms and chest freezers for fish. Aston Bay
is capable of handling 100 contaminated or incapacitated birds. The volunteer base is small
but dedicated and well trained in all aspects of bird rehabilitation. Unfortunately, the centre
has no hospital or any intensive rehabilitation facilities, at present. All birds needing advanced
medical attention are housed at Dr Hartley's surgery in Jeffreys Bay. Its envisaged role is that
of a satellite facility in support of the main centre during a spill crisis. As such, it is ideally
suited for slightly contaminated birds requiring no intensive medical care. Alternatively it could
serve as an isolation facility.
Other sectors of the community
Equipment controlled by the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) is almost indispensable for the success of a rescue operation, as they own large helicopters and mobile kitchens. Helicopters are essential for the initial reconnaissance flights and later to collect oiled penguins from distant areas such as Bird Island. A mobile kitchen is an effective solution to an otherwise difficult catering problem for numerous people running the operation. This equipment is available at the military base in close-by Forest Hill. The Humewood Fire Station could loan hoses and pumps to move large quantities of water quickly (i.e. from pools) as well as assisting in waste management; particularly oil separation, transport and disposal. For an effective response to an emergency all these different
components will have to work in concert.
Once the last bird has left the emergency centre, clean-up operations can begin. Equipment,
supplies and emergency facility infrastructure will be removed, unless this infrastructure was
permanently installed. In this case it will be necessary to maintain such permanent
infrastructure. Equipment and supplies will need to be replaced and/or maintained,
inventoried, upgraded and stored for future use. All surfaces of pools, paving and buildings
will need to be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. Swimming pools must be refilled with
clean freshwater and seawater. A week should be allowed for decommissioning.
Short-term: Purchase and storage of necessary material to transform MacArthur baths
into an emergency rehabilitation centre. Long-term: Investigate terrestrial/marine rehabilitation and educational centre at Cape Rat control measures for ships entering Algoa Bay
The problems associated with rats can be broadly classified into the potential for increased
predation on sensitive species and the potential outbreak of plague and disease. The
management or control of rats needs to be addressed on the vessels entering the Algoa Bay
area and in the port areas, including docking areas and the storage areas.
2.7.2. Current issues
Currently, shipping companies, port authorities and private companies undertake rat control.
Any ship entering a harbour applies for pratique. In the process of application for pratique, the
Deratting Certificate or Deratting Exemption Certificate is inspected. The last port of call is
also listed, to ensure that all other health measures required are adequately implemented.
Rat control on ships
Rat control on ships is governed by the International Health Regulations Act, 1974 (Act 28, 1974); (Government Gazette No. 4219, 15 March 1974) as well as in the Supplementary Regulations under International Health Regulations Act 1974 (Government Gazette No. 4878, 24 October 1975). The International Health Regulations (Part V) make special provisions relating to each of the diseases subject to the regulations. Chapter 1 of Part V relates specifically to plague. Article 536 states that: Every ship shall be either: (a) permanently kept in such a condition that it is free of rodents and the plague vector; or (b) periodically deratted. A Deratting Certificate or a Deratting Exemption Certificate will only be issued by the health authority for a port, approved for that purpose under Article 17. Every 6 Deratting Certificates and Deratting Exemption Certificates are valid for a maximum of six (6) months but, under certain conditions, the validity of such certificates may be extended only once by a period of one month. (WHO Official Records, No. 79, 1957, p. 502, No. 87, 1958, p. 404, and No. 95, 1959, p. 482). such certificate shall be valid for 6 months. Deratting Certificates and Deratting Exemption Certificates shall conform to the model specified by the International Health Regulations. If a valid certificate is not produced, the health authority for a port approved under Article 17, may proceed in the following manner after inspection: (a) If the port has been designated under paragraph 2 of Article 17, the health authority may derat the ship or cause the deratting to be done under its direction and control. In each case it shall decide which technique should be employed to secure the extermination of rodents on the ship. Deratting shall as far as possible avoid any damage to the ship and its cargo and will not take longer than is absolutely necessary. Wherever possible, deratting shall be done when the holds are empty. In the case of a ship in ballast, it shall be done before loading. When derating has been satisfactorily completed, the health authority shall issue a Deratting Certificate. (b) At any port approved under Article 17, the health authority may issue a Deratting Exemption Certificate if it is satisfied that the ship is free of rodents. Such a certificate will only be issued if the inspection of the ship was carried out when the holds were empty or when they contained only ballast or other material that is unattractive to rodents. If deratting conditions are not satisfactory, the health authority will note this on the existing Deratting certificate. Deratting on ships is usually done by fumigation of the holds, using methyl bromide. 22.214.171.124.
Rat Control in the Port Elizabeth Harbour
Harbour areas, other than direct berthing areas, can be classified as privately owned land. Portnet owns the majority of the land in the South African harbours. Rat control in harbours is usually undertaken by contractors to Portnet. According to the Risk Manager at Port Elizabeth Harbour, rat control plays a major role in the Port's management. At present a private company is contracted to control potential rat infestations. The contract includes at last 6 types of rat poison and between 600 and 700 bait stations in the harbour area. Weekly reports are delivered to Portnet on the rat situation and every six months a major report is written. This report identifies problems, addresses the current rat control and any changes to the programme if deemed necessary. 126.96.36.199.
Algoa Bay Islands
Islands fall under the jurisdiction of The Provincial Department of Economic Affairs,
Environment and Tourism who should establish a detailed monitoring programme for Jahleel
and St Croix Islands. The revised management plan for the islands should address the
potential increase in predators. Any monitoring programme must ensure that disturbance to
the birds is avoided.
At the first sign of any alien organism being introduced to an island an eradication campaign
must be started. Special attention should be given to the two rat species.
As the eastern breakwater will be located 500 metres from Jahleel Island, access to the
breakwater should be restricted to maintenance personnel. Besides a navigation light at the
end of the breakwater there will be no infrastructure on the eastern breakwater.
All vessels should be in possession of a Deratting Certificate (vessel has been fumigated) or a Deratting Exemption Certificate in accordance to the International Health Regulations. Ensure that the Health Authority comply with all International Health Regulations, including the deratting of ships, particularly those transporting cargo. All freight should be transported in rat proof containers, particularly food stuffs, grain and clothing. Bulk cargos should be fumigated where appropriate and practical. Rat guards must be fitted to all mooring lines. Deratting must be undertaken using only registered insecticides and rodenticides. All rat eradication programmes should be approved by an ornithologist to ensure that scavenging birds are not threatened by any rat poisoning exercise. Ensure that all ships docked have a valid Deratting Certificate or Deratting Exemption Ensure the rat guards are in place on all vessels. Only registered poisons may be used in bait stations. All rat eradication programmes must be approved by an ornithologist to ensure that scavenging birds are not threatened by any rat poisoning exercise. In order to ensure that non-target animals are not poisoned, Rentokil endorse that
preparations used be employed as follows for use out of doors:
Preparations should be of a bait nature that is attractive to the target pest. Preferably baits should be in the form of a bait paste. This will prevent contamination of other products should the bait container be accidentally overturned. In all cases, baits must be contained in tamper proof containers that are lockable and In order to ensure proper servicing and maintenance of bait and containers, all containers must be labelled and numbered. Highly visible stickers, endorsed with the relevant numbers, must be placed such that they can easily indicate the position of the bait stations. A site plan indicating the bait station positions and numbers should be framed and displayed in the responsible person's office on site. This should be used in conjunction with a sitting log also kept on site. Regular inspection and servicing of the bait stations is essential, as bait contaminated by water, dust etc. will become unpalatable to rodents. These inspections/services should be carried out no more than six weeks apart. In the event of an initial heavy infestation, outside burrows may be fumigated using a registered fumigant. Control in these burrows may be maintained with the use of anti coagulant dusts blown deep into burrows so that contamination outside is impossible. Inspections must be followed by written reports, carried out by suitably qualified supervisors. The inspections should be done on a quarterly basis. Only qualified and registered Pest Control Technicians should be allowed on site to carry Management of water pollution in Algoa Bay
A wide variety of point and non-point source pollutants and waste enter coastal ecosystems.
The current fragmented control and authority over the coast does not provide for effective
management. Coastal areas should be planned and managed to ensure that pollution and waste do not compromise opportunities for sustainable coastal development. Key issues that have been identified regarding pollution control and waste management are: Catchment practices and water (including storm water runoff) quality Informal settlements and water quality Inadequate sewage treatment Inadequate industrial effluent treatment Direct discharge of untreated waste Septic tanks contaminating aquifers Air and noise pollution potential Marine disposal of effluent
Ballast discharge from vessels
Oil spillage from ships
Effluent disposal in harbours
Litter and waste on beaches and dunes, and
Lack of pollution monitoring systems
Algoa Bay, according to Watling and Watling (1983)7, is relatively unpolluted with respect to
metals as shown by the concentrations found in the surface water samples and surface
sediment samples. Five sites of metal input to the Bay were found. These are the Cape
Recife sewage outfall, the manganese ore dumps on Kings Beach, Papenkuils River,
Swartkops River and Coega River. It was concluded that the present level (during 1988) of
industrialisation and urbanisation is not causing significant stress to the ecosystem, most
likely due to the considerable water movement in the Bay.
2.8.2. International legislation
According to Gowans (1997), international law provides states with little jurisdiction over
foreign vessels in their ports except for safety of navigation and pollution. The primary
regulations for pollution are contained in the Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from
Ships 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978, conventionally known as MARPOL 73/78.
This treaty was adopted under the auspices of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO).
The various Annexes of the Convention address pollution in detail:
Annex I Pollution by oil from tankers
Annex II Pollution by noxious liquids carried in bulk
Annex III Pollution by harmful substances carried in packages and dry bulk cargo
Annex IV Pollution by sewage from ships
Annex V Pollution by garbage
Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution (not yet in force)
These guidelines are continuously being updated and ratified by member states. Parties to
the Convention undertake to ensure the provision of adequate facilities at ports and terminals
for the reception of sewage and other wastes, without causing undue delay to ships.
Supporting MARPOL is the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG), which
classifies dangerous cargoes. IMO has also issued Codes for the construction of ships
carrying hazardous materials.
There is no international standard for controlling pollution in ports and harbours and national
authorities deal with the requirements in their own way.
7 Watling, R.J. and Watling, H.R. 1983b. Trace metal surveys in Mossel Bay and Algoa Bay, South Africa. Water SA9 (2): 57 – 65.
2.8.3. Minimise Discharge of Marine Pollutants and Waste
The discharge of marine pollutants and waste, especially ship-board waste, marine fuels and
ballast waters, into Algoa Bay should be minimised and strictly controlled.
IMO regulations now require vessels to have an oil-spill plan on Board (SOPEP: Strategic Oil
Pollution Emergency Procedures). Port authorities need to check regularly that these
instructions are on board, up-to-date and that the crew are conversant and trained in the
procedures. Some authorities are now requiring the same procedure documentation for solid
waste and cargo. Port authorities are required to have facilities available for the reception of
pollutants. The following typical facilities are required:
Garbage refuse: skips should be placed alongside ships for disposal.
Sewage: portable toilets should be made available to place on board.
Oil and chemical cargoes in small or large quantities: facilities should be available for
discharge to shore in containers or tanks.
All anti-pollution equipment must be available for emergencies. Appropriate coastal water
quality standards must be set and maintained according to different uses.
Adoption of a pollution monitoring plan and the identification of
potential pollution indicator species
The urban and industrial metropole of Port Elizabeth, the Coega IDZ and the Port Elizabeth
and Ngqura Harbours present a continual pollution threat. In situations where water quality is
impacted by a large number of diffuse pollutant sources, it is difficult to sample all affected
areas and a comprehensive pollution monitoring programme needs to be initiated.
A proactive long-term monitoring approach is in accordance with the Sustainable Coastal
Policy whose goals are:
Summary of goals – Draft White paper on Sustainable Coastal Development
Goal D1: To maintain the diversity, health, and productivity of coastal processes and
Goal D5: To rehabilitate damaged or degraded coastal ecosystems and habitats.
Goal E1: To implement pollution control and waste management measures in order to
prevent, minimise and strictly control discharges into coastal ecosystems.
Goal E2: To manage polluting activities to ensure that they have minimal adverse
impact on the health of coastal communities, and on coastal ecosystems and their
ability to support beneficial human uses.
The measurement of pollutants in seawater, particularly metal concentrations, is technically difficult. As a consequence a multi-tiered approach is required to monitor pollution in the Bay. Two approaches are suggested: Assessment of long-term trends in benthic community structure Simple measures of bioaccumulated water pollutants
Both approaches require base-line studies and control groups and should be conducted at
demarcated places within the Algoa Bay.
2.9.2. Benthic community analysis
Notable shifts in benthic community structures have been shown to correlate with increased
levels of pollutants.
For accurate statistical analysis of the data multiple sites need to be identified. These
sites (including the control sites) should be selected near point pollution sources and in easily accessible areas. Suitable collection gears need to be deployed to collect samples. Sampling should be conducted annually.
2.9.3. Mussel watch programme
Concentrations of chemicals in molluscs8 are related to the levels of chemicals in the water
they inhabit and in the food that they filter from the water. When chemical concentrations
increase or decrease in the water and in food sources, concentrations increase or decrease in
molluscs. It is possible to monitor chemical concentrations in water and in suspended
particles, but for many technical reasons, it is simpler to measure concentrations in molluscs.
This, together with their immobility, makes mussels and oysters ideal for monitoring changes
in chemical concentrations at fixed locations.
Public concern over the health of the coast in the USA led the National Oceanographic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to initiate its National Status and Trends (NS&T)
Program for marine environmental quality. Since 1986, the NOAA Mussel Watch Project9, a
component of the NS&T Program, has monitored contaminants in the USA's coastal waters
by sampling molluscs (mussels and oysters) and sediments. Its objectives are to determine
concentrations of trace metals and groups of organic compounds at sites on all coasts and to
identify increasing or decreasing trends. Now, the Mussel Watch Project is providing the
longest continuous national record of coastal water quality in the USA. Similar programmes
have subsequently been launched in the United Kingdom and Spain. In South Africa, the
Cape Peninsula Mussel Watch programme was initiated in 1986.
The objectives of the programme are to monitor levels of potentially harmful heavy metals in
the coastal waters of South Africa with the view of maintaining water quality and preventing
impacts on marine resources.
For accurate statistical analysis of the data, multiple sites need to be identified. These sites (including the control sites) should be selected near point pollution sources and at easily accessible areas. Sampling should be conducted annually. 8 Phillips, D.J. H. 1976. The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by zinc, cadmium, lead and copper. Mar. Biol. 38: 56-59. Regoli, F. and Orlando, E. 1993. Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator of lead pollution: biological variables and cellular responses. Sci. Tot. Environ. (Suppl.). 2: 1283-1292. 9 O'Connor, T.P. and Beliaff, B. 1994. Recent trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project 1986 to 1993. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. O'Connor, T. [P]. 1998 (on-line). "Chemical Contaminants in Oysters and Mussels" Tom O'Connor. NOAA's State of the Coast Report. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA. http://state-of-coast.noaa.gov/bulletins/html/ccom_05/ccom.html
The laboratory procedure that is conducted by both NOAA18 and the MCM10 is summarised as
Collects mussels from rocks (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at spring low tide.
Depurate the mussels for 24 hours
Obtain 20 g wet weight per sample
Homogenise and freeze dry
Acid digestion (Nitric/Perchloric), 2g dry weight
Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) for 6 elements (Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn)
Graphite Furnace AAS for lead (Pb) in some cases
Cold Vapour AAS for low mercury concentrations
Quality control with reference materials and "clean lab"
Selection of Mussel Watch sites at Jahleel Island, Swartkops Bridge pillars and Bird Rock.
Selection of Benthic Community Analysis sites on the soft substrate between Ngqura
Harbour mouth and Jahleel Island, off the PE Harbour and at Bell Buoy. Initiate long-term monitoring pollutant levels. Level of pollutants, particularly heavy metals must not exceed the guidelines summarised If pollutants are too high, these pollutant levels need to be published in local newspapers and via radio, a policy similar to Red-tide alerts around the country.
Table 2.9.1. Certified trace metal concentration limits for human consumption (SABS). The
SABS guidelines are presented on a wet-weight basis. These figures are multiplied by a
scaling factor of 5, for application to the Mussel Watch data to reflect dry weight. A suitable
wet-dry mass multiplication factor needs to be calculated for the Algoa Bay area.
2.10. Establishment of Marine Protected Areas and Marine Reserves
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have become necessary to counter modern threats to marine
biodiversity and the sustainability of fisheries. Better protection of the physical marine
environment, incorporation of MPAs in fisheries management procedures and the
management of MPAs are major areas where South Africa can improve its marine protection.
The Sustainable Coastal Development Policy has recognised this need in the form of a
variety of goals:
10 Brown, S. & Warrington, E. 1996. Cape Peninsula Mussel Watch monitoring project. Marine and Coastal management Pollution Group Report. 13 pp. (in mimeo). Summary of goals – Draft White paper on Sustainable Coastal Development
Goal D1: To maintain the diversity, health, and productivity of coastal processes and
Goal D2: To establish and effectively manage a system of coastal protected areas
Goal D3: To use non-renewable coastal resources in a manner that optimises the public
interest and retains options for alternative and future uses
Goal D5: To rehabilitate damaged or degraded coastal ecosystems and habitats
Marine Protected Areas are currently under review by the Department of Marine and Coastal
Management. As part of this process, detailed management plans for each protected area
must be formulated. Existing management plans for the islands are considered out-dated and
need review. Such a review is beyond the scope of this management plan yet certain
recommendations within the marine areas are considered immediate priorities. For example,
at present there is no permanent compliance officer stationed on Bird Island and numerous
reports of poaching are received. In the long-term, a detailed review of management plans
and their protected marine environment must be undertaken.
Amendments to existing legislation and the promulgation of new marine reserves and
protected areas are outlined as follows:
The revision of existing management plans for the islands in Algoa Bay (See Section
St Croix Marine Reserve - ½ nautical mile exclusion zone around the islands. See Figure Bird Island Marine Protected Area - 1 nautical mile that excludes bottom fishing and recreational harvesting. See Figure 7.1. Power boating exclusion zone of 300 m (effective 10m depth) extending from Bird Rock to Cape Recife Point to protect humpback dolphins in the area. See Figure 7.1. Bottom fishing exclusion zone – the area enclosed by a straight line extending from the end of the PE harbour breakwater, Bell Buoy and Cape Recife Point. See Figure 7.1. From a long-term perspective, there are plans to incorporate the Algoa Bay Islands into the Greater Addo National Park. It is recommended that shore fishing between the Sundays River Mouth and Cape Padrone is restricted. See Figure 7.1.
2.11. Integration of the Algoa Bay Management Plan and the
conservation of the Algoa Bay islands
A revision of the current management plan for the islands is urgently required. This is beyond the scope of the study. We have, however, included a number of recommended guidelines. They are listed as follows: Jahleel, Brenton, St Croix and Bird Islands are conservation areas that need to be protected from illegal visitation. The investigation of Bird Island as a potential tourist site as part of the Greater Addo National Park initiative. The investigation of funding alternatives for the management of the island groups within Ngqura harbour should not be opened for recreational or commercial fishing vessels. A full time nature conservation officer should be employed to monitor the islands and control illegal visitations. Law enforcement in the area must be improved to prevent the increased access to the islands from being abused. The new harbour must make provision for Conservation patrol vessels. These vessels will be accommodated where possible, but not specifically provided for.
COMPLIANCE OF THE ALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT
PLAN TO THE PROPOSED POLICY AS
ARTICULATED IN THE WHITE PAPER ON
SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT
The ABMP has been developed to comply will all aspects of the draft white paper on Sustainable Coastal Development, which outlines four fundamental goals. These are: To promote meaningful public participation, The ABMP has ensured that all stakeholders have had the opportunity to participate in its development. Discussions and meetings were held with stakeholders and an open house discussion is planned. To develop a policy that has scientific integrity, The ABMP builds on a considerable body of knowledge and understanding about Algoa Bay. The scientific basis for the recommendation came from specialist studies together with additional scientific studies within the Bay. Institutional collaboration included Rhodes University, the University of Port Elizabeth, Bay World and MCM. To promote integrated coastal management and to develop a practical plan. The ABMP formalises the need for partnership between local and national government, civil society and the private sector in the sustainable management of Algoa Bay. A management authority has been proposed to co-ordinate and integrate coastal activities. The ABMP has been developed to be focussed and practical, concentrating on strategic coastal issues.
INSTITUTIONAL AND ORGANISATIONAL
This plan proposes that a greater Algoa Bay Management Authority be established to oversee and implement the recommendations and guidelines outlined in the ABMP. The current principal agency responsible for the management of the Bay is the Marine and Coastal Management (MCM) arm of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). Other important role players are provincial government, Portnet, Port Elizabeth municipality and the Western District Council. As a consequence of the overlap of jurisdictions, conflict often arises in the delineation of management and enforcement responsibilities. Figure 4.1. Proposed Role Players in the Greater Algoa Bay Management Authority Figure 4.2. Proposed integration of issues, stakeholders and necessary skills in the integrated management of sustainable development of Algoa Bay. The proposed structure will allow for the integrated management of the Bay as illustrated in Figure 4.2. The proposed Algoa Bay Management Authority (Figure 4.1.) should comprise representatives from all stakeholder groups with a responsibility and/or interest in the development of the Bay. Marine and Coastal Management as the lead national agency should co-ordinate the plan and suggest specific responsibilities to the various management authorities which operate in the Bay. Funding could be sourced through the formulation of an environmental fund for Algoa Bay where industries and other stake holders will be requested to contribute. SECTION 5.
LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Current legislation on coastal management is fragmented (Section 5.3) and is administered
by a number of government departments. Considering that the implementation of the ABMP
is facilitated by the Algoa Bay Management Authority (see Task 3 in Table 7.1), meeting
between representatives of local and national government is of paramount importance to co-
ordinate legislative responsibilities.
The enforcement of compliance to legislation is crucial. Similar to the co-ordination of
legislative responsibilities, the Algoa Bay Management Authority must meet together with
local and national government to co-ordinate compliance responsibilities. For example, patrol
vessels could be shared by local police and compliance officers.
Relevant legislative Acts
Constitution of South Africa Act (108 of 1996)
The Constitution is the supreme law of South Africa. All other laws must be measured against
The environmental clause contained in the Bill of Rights makes it clear that any activity, which
is harmful to human health or well-being, is unconstitutional. The environmental component of
the Bill of Rights is presented below.
Everyone has the right -
to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that - (i) prevent pollution and ecological degradation; promote conservation; and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social
Provincial Competence under the Constitution
The Constitution creates some areas of executive and administrative competence, which are shared by more than one level of government, and some areas, which are the exclusive preserve of one level. The Constitution empowers provinces to legislate on any matter within a functional area listed in schedules 4 and 5 of the Constitution. Schedule 4 deals with functional areas of concurrent national and provisional legislative competence, including agriculture, environment and nature conservation (excluding national parks, national botanical gardens and marine resources, and soil conservation). Air pollution is specified by Schedule 4 to be a competence of local
Schedule 5, specifies areas of exclusive provincial legislative competence and includes
provincial roads and traffic. Enforcement of laws that prohibit or limit noise pollution is,
subject to certain limitations, the exclusive preserve of local authorities.
The Environment Conservation Act, 73 of 1989
The purpose of the Environment Conservation Act is to provide for the effective protection
and controlled utilisation of the environment. The Environment Conservation Act is
administered by both the national Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and the
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Many of its sections have been delegated or
assigned to competent provincial authorities to be administered by them.
The Minister of Environmental Affairs declared an environmental policy during 1994 under
section 2(1) of the Environment Conservation Act. The policy stipulates a number of
The EIA Regulations promulgated under section 2(1) of the Environment Conservation Act
entitles the "relevant authority", namely the national Department of Environment Affairs and
Tourism working in conjunction with the Eastern Cape provincial Department of Economic
Affairs, Environment and Tourism, to issue an authorisation under the regulations that is
subject to specific conditions. These conditions may include the requirement that the
developer prepares an Environmental Management Plan for the development that has been
The provisions of the EIA Regulations empower the relevant authority to include, in its record
of decision, the conditions of the authorisation, including measures to mitigate, control or
manage predicted environmental impacts. The conditions may also apply to the rehabilitation
of the site.
Sea Shore Act (21 of 1935)
The Sea Shore Act guarantees the public status of the sea and sea shore by ensuring that
they are inalienable. The Act does not, however, address issues such as the management of
the Admiralty Reserve, found above the high-water mark in certain sections of the coast, and
public access to the sea shore.
National Environmental Management Act (107 of 1998)
The newly promulgated National Environmental Management Act lays the foundation for environmental management in South Africa. The Act includes a principle that "sensitive, vulnerable, highly dynamic or stressed ecosystems such as coastal shores, estuaries, wetlands and similar systems require special attention". The White paper for Sustainable Coastal Development indicated that the proposed policy will utilise a number of provisions of the Act to promote integrated coastal management. These include: The establishment of a Coastal Management Subcommittee of the Committee for Environmental Co-ordination (CEC) in order to achieve better intergovernmental co-ordination in coastal management The establishment of working groups under the CEC to achieve provincial co-ordination of coastal management The incorporation of coastal management principles into organs of State's Environmental Implementation and Management Plans The establishment of co-operative agreements between different stakeholders in the coast; and The incorporation of coastal considerations into the Environmental Implementation and Management Plans of provincial and national departments in terms of the Act.
The proposed Greater Algoa Bay Management Authority could form a contributing arm to the
provincial organisation that will advise the Committee for Environmental Coordination.
Marine Living Resources Act (18 of 1998)
This Act addresses the sustainable and equitable utilisation of marine living resources, the
need to promote sustainable development of the fisheries industry, the need to protect marine
biodiversity, improved participation of all stakeholders in decision-making processes and the
restructuring of the fisheries industry.
START-UP AND ONGOING COSTS TO ADMINISTER
THE ALGOA BAY MANAGEMENT PLAN
The short- and long-term costs of the ABMP are difficult to estimate. From an immediate/ short-term perspective, the seabird and mammal treatment centre will require start-up capital of R15 000 to purchase necessary equipment (Table 7.1 – 10a, Section 2.5). An annual running budget of R5000 would be required in the long-term (Table 7.1 – 10b, Section 2.5). The majority of the start-up and long-term running costs involved with administering the ABMP would involve administrative costs for the Algoa Bay Management Authority (ABMA). These costs are unavailable at present. Remaining costs involve pollution monitoring (Table 7.1 – 13a,b) and the development of detailed legal plans (Section 5, Table 7.1 – 4). a) Monitoring costs could be subsidised through various management agencies such as the Mussel Watch Programme through collaboration between Rhodes University/ University of Port Elizabeth and MCM and sea bird monitoring between Bay World and MCM. The consolidation of the legislation and delegation of legislative responsibilities by the various management agencies such as PEM, MCM and Nature Conservation would significantly reduce costs. If additional plans are needed it will require the involvement of consultants. Appropriate funding for the ABMA is imperative and it is suggested that a two-tiered strategy be implemented. Principal funding for the administration of the ABMA should be sourced from all stakeholders using the Bay's resources and facilities and this will be through contributions towards an Algoa Bay Management Fund. Funds to implement specific projects within the ABMP can be sourced from foreign donor agencies.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND MAP (S) OF PROPOSED
Various issues have been addressed in the Algoa Bay Management Plan. These issues together with their recommended actions, appropriate authorities necessary for their implementation and suitable time frames have been outlined in Table 7.1. Thematic maps summarising the proposed short- and long-term marine use areas together with dredging sites and sites for pollution monitoring are illustrated in Figures 7.1 and 7.2. Table 7.1. Summary of recommended guidelines that need to be addressed by the Algoa Bay Management Plan, their recommended action(s), responsible authorities and a suitable time frame for their implementation. Recommended Action
Initiate formal buy-in Circulation of ABMP manual to process for ABMP Initiate formal buy-in Present Plan to the authorities process for ABMP Initiate formal buy-in Open House – General public invited to process for ABMP participate in the plan for Coega process Revision of ABMP Update plan on basis of feedback Implementation of ABMP Constitution of Algoa Bay Management Coastal Management (MCM) Legalisation of ABMP Draft legislation to address the issues identified through the ABMA Restriction of launching of small craft from Ngqura Harbour Development of 300 m powerboat exclusion zone from Bird Rock-Cape Recife (see map) Development of a no take zone between PE Harbour-Bell Buoy-Cape Recife (see map) No bottom fishing within 1 nm of Bird Economic Affairs Environment and Tourism/ MCM Shipping lanes and No vessels may approach within 1 nm of shipping exclusion zones Shipping lanes and No additional navigation lights to be Economic Affairs shipping exclusion zones erected on Islands Environment and Tourism/ MCM Shipping lanes and Maximum speed of ships within Algoa shipping exclusion zones Bay to be controlled by Portnet Commence with formulation of a National Strategy Marine seabird and Furnish MacArthurs baths with mammal treatment centre necessary equipment for emergency make recommendations Marine seabird and Investigate feasibility of the development mammal treatment centre of a treatment/education centre at Cape make recommendations Routine bird rehabilitation Minimal upgrade of Bay World Routine bird rehabilitation Increase trips to monitor seabirds on Continue with appropriate control Ensure adequate controls in place Pollution monitoring plan Routine mussel monitoring (see Figure Pollution monitoring plan Routine benthic community analysis (see MCM Recommended Action
Pollution monitoring plan Pollution monitoring and compliance Marine Protected Areas Amend legislation to restrict access to and Marine Reserves Bird Islands to 1 nm Conservation / MCM Marine Protected Areas Maintain existing legislation for access to Nature and Marine Reserves St Croix islands at ½ nm Conservation / MCM Marine Protected Areas Development of 300 m powerboat and Marine Reserves exclusion zone from Bird Rock-Cape Recife (see map) Marine Protected Areas Development of a no take zone between and Marine Reserves PE Harbour-Bell Buoy-Cape Recife (see Marine Protected Areas Incorporation of area between Sunday and Marine Reserves River Mouth and Cape Padrone into Greater Addo National Park Initiative
Figure 7.1. Map of recommended marine use zones in Algoa Bay
Figure 7.2. Map of proposed sites for dumping dredged material and for pollution monitoring.
APPENDIX A :
APPENDIX A: LEGISLATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND
Bills and Policies
(C) Pollution (C1) Implement
Hazardous Substances Control and
pollution control control discharges Act (1973), International Health Regulations (1974), Forestry, Management management
Water Act (1956), National Health, Water Act (1998), National Provincial, Management Bill (1998), Integrated Pollution & Waste Management White Paper (1998), Provincial Planning and Environmental Acts and Ordinances Marine Pollution Act control discharges (1986), Dumping at Sea of marine-based Act (1980), Pollution of Sea by Oil Act (1981), SA Private Transport Services Act (1989), Various International Conventions, Integrated Pollution and Waste Management White Paper (1998) Disaster Management Bill Provincial (1998), National reduce pollution Management Bill (1998) Discharges to be Water Act (1956), National DEAT, Water Water Act (1998), National Affairs & support beneficial capacity of Management Act (1998) Health Act (1977), Provincial Planning Acts enjoyment of the and Ordinances & Local coast not to be Planning Policies APPENDIX B :
IMO GUIDANCE ON SAFETY ASPECTS OF BALLAST WATER
EXCHANGE AT SEA
1.1 This document is intended to provide guidance on the safety aspects of ballast water exchange at sea. The various different types of ships, which may be required to undertake ballast water exchange at sea, make it presently impractical to provide specific guidelines for each ship type. Ship owners are cautioned that they should consider the many variables that apply to their ships. Some of these variables include type and size of ship, ballast tank configurations and associated pumping systems, trading routes and associated weather conditions, State requirements at each port and manning. 1.2 Ballast water exchange at sea procedures contained in relevant management plans should be individually assessed for their effectiveness from the environmental protection point of view as well as from the point of view of their acceptability in terms of structural strength and stability. 1.3 In the absence of a more scientifically based means of control, exchange of ballast water in deep ocean areas or open seas currently offers a means of limiting the probability that fresh water or coastal aquatic species will be transferred in ballast water. Two methods of carrying out ballast water exchange at sea have been identified: the sequential method, in which ballast tanks are pumped out and refilled with clean the flow-through method, in which ballast tanks are simultaneously filled and discharged by pumping in clean water. Safety precautions
Ships engaged in ballast water exchange at sea should be provided with applicable procedures, which will account for the following: avoidance of over and under-pressurization of ballast tanks free surface effects on stability and sloshing loads in tanks that may be slack at any one admissible weather conditions weather routeing in areas seasonably affected by cyclones, typhoons, hurricanes, or heavy icing conditions maintenance of adequate intact stability in accordance with an approved trim and stability permissible seagoing strength limits of shear forces and bending moments in accordance with an approved loading manual torsional forces, where relevant. minimum/maximum forward and aft draughts wave-induced hull vibration documented records of ballasting and/or de-ballasting contingency procedures for situations which may affect the ballast water exchange at sea, including deteriorating weather conditions, pump failure, loss of power, etc time to complete the ballast water exchange or an appropriate sequence thereof, taking into account that the ballast water may represent 50 % of the total cargo capacity for some ships and monitoring and controlling the amount of ballast water. If the flow-through method is used, caution should be exercised, as: air pipes are not designed for continuous ballast water overflow current research indicates that pumping of at least three full volumes of the tank capacity could be needed to be effective when filling clean water from the bottom and overflowing from the top and watertight and weather tight closures (e.g. manholes), which may be opened during ballast exchange, should be re-secured. Ballast water exchange at sea should be avoided in freezing weather conditions. However, when it is deemed absolutely necessary, particular attention should be paid to the hazards associated with the freezing of overboard discharge arrangements, air pipes, ballast system valves together with their means of control, and the accretion of ice on deck. Some ships may need the fitting of a loading instrument to perform calculations of shear forces and bending moments induced by ballast water exchange at sea and to compare with the permissible strength limits. An evaluation should be made of the safety margins for stability and strength contained in allowable seagoing conditions specified in the approved trim and stability booklet and the loading manual, relevant to individual types of ships and loading conditions. In this regard particular account should be taken of the following requirements: stability should be maintained at all times to values not less than those recommended by the Organization longitudinal stress values should not exceed those permitted by the ship's classification society with regard to prevailing sea conditions and exchange of ballast in tanks or holds where significant structural loads may be generated by sloshing action in the partially filled tank or hold should be carried out in favourable sea and swell conditions so that the risk of structural damage is minimized. The ballast water management plan should include a list of circumstances in which ballast water exchange should not be undertaken. These circumstances may result from critical situations of an exceptional nature, force majeure due to stress of weather, or any other circumstances in which human life or safety of the ship is threatened. Crew training and familiarisation
The ballast water management plan should include the nomination of key shipboard control personnel undertaking ballast water exchange at sea. Ships' officers and ratings engaged in ballast water exchange at sea should be trained in and familiarized with the following: the ship's pumping plan, which should show ballast pumping arrangements, with positions of associated air and sounding pipes, positions of all compartment and tank suctions and pipelines connecting them to ship's ballast pumps and, in the case of use of the flow- through method of ballast water exchange, the openings used for release of water from the top of the tank together with overboard discharge arrangements the method of ensuring that sounding pipes are clear, and that air pipes and their non- return devices are in good order the different times required to undertake the various ballast water exchange operations the methods in use for ballast water exchange at sea if applicable with particular reference to required safety precautions and the method of on-board ballast water record keeping, reporting and recording of routine APPENDIX C :
EXAMPLE OF AQIS BALLAST WATER REPORTING FORM
AQIS - BALLAST WATER REPORTING FORM
Quarantine Act 1908
DATE OF EFFECT 1 MAY 1999
TO BE COMPLETED BY ALL VESSELS GREATER THAN 25 METRES NOT EQUIPPED WITH A FAX
AND TO BE PROVIDED TO AQIS PRIOR TO VESSEL'S FIRST AUSTRALIAN PORT ARRIVAL.
MUST ACCOMPANY AQIS QUARANTINE DECLARATION FOR VESSELS FORM.
PLEASE TELEX YOUR ANSWERS ONLY IN THE FOLLOWING ORDER AND UNDER THE FOLLOWING
HEADINGS. IT IS ONLY NECESSARY TO TYPE THE NUMBER AND LETTER PRECEDING THE QUESTION AND TO PROVIDE THE ANSWERS. 1. DO YOU INTEND DISCHARGING ANY BALLAST WATER IN AN AUSTRALIAN PORT? Answer by writing YES or NO If yes - refer to questions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 AND 8 If no - refer to 2, 3, 4, 7 AND 8 only 2. VESSEL INFORMATION Next Port/s in Australia Total Ballast on Board in Total Ballast Capacity in Total Number of Ballast LAST THREE (3) PORTS, DATES AND COUNTRIES OF BALLAST WATER Port (Last Port) Port (2nd Last Port) Port (3rd Last Port) 5. BALLAST WATER HISTORY Record requested details for all tanks that will be discharged in Australian ports for current voyage. This section must be completed separately for each tank that will be discharged in Australian waters (unless tank sizes and ballast water volumes are identical). Answer all questions for each tank in Section 5 before moving onto Section 6. 5A Ballast Water Source Date of Uptake DDMMYY Port Name, or if not at Port Lat. Long (DEGREES ONLY, NO MINUTES) Vol. Taken Up (in metric Exchange method was empty-refill OR flow-through. Answer by listing one of these methods Date/s of exchange Start Point Lat. Long. (DEGREES ONLY, NO MINUTES) End Point Lat. Long. (DEGREES ONLY, NO MINUTES) Volume Exchange ( in metric % Exchange (percentage of original ballast volume exchanged) BW Discharge – best estimate of volume to be discharged Australian Port/s of Date/s of Discharge Volume of Discharge (in BALLAST WATER TANK CODES Full Tank - F Fore peak – FP Aft peak – AP Double Bottom – DB Wing – WT Topside – TS Cargo Hold – CH Other - specify. 6. REASONS FOR FAILURE TO EXCHANGE If exchanges were not conducted in any of the tanks/holds listed above, please list tank/hold and state reason why not. This Section MUST be completed if mid-ocean exchange was not achieved. 7. BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT PLANS 7A Plan for ballast water management on board, write YES or NO Has this been implemented, OFFICER'S DECLARATION 8A Responsible officer name and rank
IF YOU HAVE VISITED IN THE LAST THREE (3) MONTHS, REPORT DATE
BALLAST WATER LEVY LAST PAID
Note - Masters or Delegated Officers who wilfully make a false statement may be liable
to a significant fine and/or imprisonment under Australian Law.
BALLAST WATER REPORTING FORM (Page 1) ♦ TO BE COMPLETED BY ALL VESSELS >25 METRES AND TO BE FORWARDED TO AQIS PRIOR TO VESSEL'S AUSTRALIAN QUARANTINE Commonwealth of Australia Quarantine Act 1908 (DATE OF EFFECT: 1 MAY 1999) FIRST PORT ARRIVAL. AND INSPECTION SERVICE ♦ MUST ACCOMPANY AQIS QUARANTINE DECLARATION FOR 1. DO YOU INTEND DISCHARGING ANY BALLAST WATER IN AN AUSTRALIAN PORT? TICK THE BOX YES - complete questions 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 , 8 NO - complete question 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8 IMO/(Lloyds) No.: Next Ports in Australia: 3. BALLAST WATER: 4. LAST THREE (3) PORTS, DATES AND COUNTRIES OF BALLAST WATER UPTAKE Total Bal ast on Board (Metric tonnes): Last PORT and DATE: Total Bal ast Capacity (Metric tonnes): 2nd Last PORT and DATE: Total Number of Bal ast Tanks: 3rd Last PORT and DATE: 5. BALLAST WATER HISTORY ON PAGE 2: RECORD ALL TANKS THAT WILL BE DISCHARGED IN AUSTRALIAN PORTS FOR CURRENT VOYAGE ON PAGE 2 (ATTACHED) - PLEASE SEND BOTH PAGES TOGETHER 6. IF EXCHANGES WERE NOT CONDUCTED OR NOT EXCHANGED FULLY IN ANY OF THE TANKS/HOLDS LISTED IN QUESTION FIVE, PLEASE STATE REASON WHY NOT 7. IS THERE A PLAN FOR BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT ON BOARD? TICK THE BOX YES NO HAS THIS BEEN IMPLEMENTED? TICK THE BOX YES NO 8. OFFICER'S DECLARATION: NAME (PRINT) RANK: _ OFFICER'S SIGNATURE: DATE: _/ _/ _ IF YOU HAVE VISITED IN THE LAST THREE (3) MONTHS, REPORT DATE BALLAST WATER LEVY LAST PAID: _ Note: Masters (or Delegated Officer) who wilfully make a false statement, may be liable to a significant fine and/or imprisonment under Australian Law BALLAST WATER REPORTING FORM (Page 2) ♦ THIS COMPLETED FORM MUST BE ATTACHED TO PAGE 1 AUSTRALIAN QUARANTINE Commonwealth of Australia Quarantine Act 1908 (DATE OF EFFECT: 1 MAY 1999) BEFORE SUBMISSION AND INSPECTION SERVICE (QUESTION 5. CONT'D) VESSEL INFORMATION: Name: IMO/(Lloyds) No.: BW SOURCE
Method used (tick the box): Empty/Refill OR Flow Through BEST ESTIMATE OF BW
If estimate changes, please submit amended form to AQIS – mark it Last Location of Port name or if not at Port, Lat and Long BALLAST WATER TANK CODES: Forepeak = FP; Aftpeak = AP; Bottom = B; Double Bottom = DB; Wing = WT; Topside = TS; Cargo Hold = CH; Other (specify) = O OFFICER'S DECLARATION: NAME (PRINT) RANK: _ OFFICER'S SIGNATURE: _ DATE: / / _ Note: Masters (or Delegated Officer) who wilfully make a false statement, may be liable to a significant fine and/or imprisonment under Australian Law RETURN TO PAGE 1
AUSTRALIAN QUARANTINE AND INSPECTION SERVICE
Department of AGRICULTURE, FISHERIES AND FORESTRY - AUSTRALIA
Instructions for completing the AQIS ballast water reporting form
The AQIS Ballast Water Reporting Form must be completed by all international ships
before visiting their first Australian port of call, and must be sent to AQIS with the AQIS
Quarantine Declaration for Vessels form. The Quarantine Declaration must be completed
no more than 24 hours and no less than 12 hours before a ship enters its first Australian
port of call. Instructions are provided below for each request on the Ballast Form.
Please provide the date you last paid the Ballast Water Levy if you have visited an
Australian Port in the last three months.
1. Ballast Water Intentions - THIS MUST BE ANSWERED
Do you intend discharging any ballast water in any Australian port?
Tick YES if the ship intends discharging ballast water in any Australian port, otherwise tick
If the answer to this question is YES, then comprehensive information on each ballast tank
that will be discharged in any Australian port should be provided in accordance with the
requests under section 5, Ballast Water History. If ballast water exchange has not been
fully undertaken in any of the tanks listed for discharge in an Australian port, then Question
6 MUST be completed, giving reasons for not exchanging, and/or not exchanging fully.
If the answer to this question is NO, then there is no need to complete the requests for
information at Section 5 or 6. Please fill out sections 2, 3, 4, 7 and 8.
Fresh Water: If all tanks intended for discharge are carrying water from freshwater
environments, write ‘FRESH WATER ONLY".
2. Vessel Information
This section requires standard ship information.
Name: Print the name of the ship clearly.
Type: List specific ship type, i.e. bulk, roro, container, tanker, passenger, oil/bulk ore,
general cargo, reefer, etc.
Manager: Print the name of the ship's Manager.
IMO/(Lloyd's) No.: Fill in the ship's unique identification number, as used by the IMO.
Gross Tonnage: Provide the gross tonnage of the ship.
Agent: List the agent used for this voyage. If your ship is visiting more than one
Australian port and you propose using different agents in each Australian port, please list
all agents in order of Australian first and last port visits.
Arrival Date: Fill in the arrival date for the first Australian port of call. Please use the
Arrival Port: Write in the name of the intended first Australian port of call.
Next Port/s in Australia: Write in any other ports in Australia that the ship intends visiting
after leaving its first Australian port of call. Please list in sequential order of visit.
3. Ballast Water
This section requires information on the expected total ballast carried on board when
entering Australian waters, the ship's ballast capacity, and the total number of ballast
tanks on the ship including any cargo holds used for ballast on the voyage to Australia.
Total Ballast on Board (in metric tonnes): What is the total volume of ballast water on
board upon arrival at the ship's first Australian port of call.
Total Ballast Capacity (in metric tonnes): What is the maximum volume of ballast water
that can be carried by this ship.
Total Number of Ballast Tanks: List the total number of ballast tanks on the ship.
Include any holds that are used for ballast water.
4. Last Three (3) Ports, Dates and Countries of Ballast
This section requires information on the last three ports and dates of ballast uptake before
a ship enters its first Australian port of call. The ports and countries should be listed by
name. The dates should be expressed in DD/MM/YY.
List the ports as most recent port of ballast water uptake at (i), the second most recent at
(ii), and the third most recent at (iii).
Where there has been no uptake of ballast in a port or nearby coastal waters, state "MID-
OCEAN UPTAKE ONLY" in each box.
On the telex version of the Ballast Water Reporting Form, list the ports as most recent port
of ballast water uptake at (4Ai), the second most recent at (4Bii), and the third most recent
5. Ballast Water History
This section MUST be completed if you intend discharging ballast water in an Australian
port, or ports. It will allow AQIS to determine whether sufficient ballast water exchange
has occurred. As the Form is to be forwarded before a ship's arrival in port, the volume of
discharge should be estimated. If this estimation changes once a ship has reached port,
AQIS should be notified as volumes discharged may be verified by an AQIS officer.
Tanks/Holds: Please list all ballast tanks and holds that will be discharged in Australian
waters. Complete the questions across the page for each tank (see further down for
instructions). List each tank on a separate line (unless two tanks, i.e. opposing wing
tanks, are precisely identical in every detail, e.g. WT 2 & 4). Use the tank abbreviations
listed at the bottom of Section 5 on the form. If there is insufficient space to complete
information for each tank in relation to each port of discharge, the Form can be copied and
another sheet used for the additional information. In this case it is only necessary to
provide the Ship Name and IMO/Lloyd's No. on a third sheet, as well as continuing the
completion of information under 5. Ballast Water History.
Date of Uptake DDMMYY: Write the date of ballast water uptake. Please use the format
Last Port of Uptake: List the port where ballast water was last taken up for the voyage.
If ballast water was not taken up at a port, please list the coordinates of uptake using
degrees only (DO NOT USE MINUTES).
Vol. Taken Up (in metric tonnes): Record the volume of ballast water uptake.
THIS MUST BE COMPLETED. Tick method of exchange i.e. empty/refill AND/OR
flow-through for three times flow through method (see Australian Ballast Water
Guidelines for details).
Date/s of Exchange DDMMYY: Write in date of ballast water exchange, using the format
DD/MM/YY. If exchanges occurred over multiple days, list the range of days over which
exchange occurred, using the format DD1∏DD2/MM/YY, where DD1 is the starting date for
exchange and DD2 is the finishing date of exchange.
Start Point Lat. Long.: Report location where ballast water exchange began using
degrees only (DO NOT USE MINUTES).
End Point Lat. Long.: Report location where ballast water exchange ended using
degrees only (DO NOT USE MINUTES).
Volume Exchanged (in metric tonnes): Record the volume of ballast water exchanged.
Use the formula: % Exchange =
Total volume of refill or flow - through water X 100 Original volume of ballast water List the volume of ballast water that, in the case of empty/refill, should be as close to 100% as possible. For flow through exchange the volume flowed through the tanks should be three times the volume originally held in the tanks, i.e. this figure should be at least 300%. BW Discharge
If a ship intends discharging at more than one Australian port, then all ports of discharge
must be noted, and best estimates of volumes to be discharged at each port should be
entered. This will require repeat listings of those tanks intended for discharge at more
than one Australian Port. If best estimate changes, please submit amended Ballast Water
Reporting Form to AQIS. Mark it "AMENDED".
Australian Port/s of Discharge: Report intended location, using port name of ballast
water discharge. Do not abbreviate port names.
Date/s of Discharge DDMMYY: Write in intended date of ballast water discharge, using
the format DD/MM/YY. If discharge will occur over multiple days, list the range of days
over which discharge is intended to occur, using the format DD1∏DD2/MM/YY, where DD1
is the starting date for discharge and DD2 is the finishing date of discharge.
Vol. Of Discharge (in metric tonnes): Record the volume of ballast water intended for
discharge (in metric tonnes). This should be as accurate an estimation as possible.
6. Reason for Failure to Exchange
This section seeks an explanation for the failure to fully exchange ballast water in mid-ocean of any or all of its tanks intended for discharge in an Australian port. Reasons for failure to exchange may be that exchange was unsafe due to weather, or the structural capacity of the ship. If weather is proposed as a reason for failure to exchange, this may
be verified by AQIS using the mid-ocean coordinates travelled by the ship and weather
reports. If structural safety is proposed, an AQIS officer may ask to see the ship's ballast
water management plan, ISM Plan, or other documentation to verify this.
If exchanges were not conducted in any of the tanks/holds listed above, please
state reasons why not: List specific reasons why ballast water exchange was not
performed. This applies to all tanks being discharged in Australian waters.
7. Ballast Water Management Plans
The Guidelines for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water to Minimize the
Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens adopted by the IMO in November
1997, ask that ships carry ballast water management plans on board. This will mean that
ballasting processes are well documented and the structural capacity of the ship to
exchange ballast in mid-ocean will be verified. The Plan was developed by the
International Chamber of Shipping and Intertanko and a model is available from fax: + 44
171 417 8877, or e-mail: email@example.com.
Ballast water management plan on board. Is there a plan for ballast water
management on board this ship as defined under the IMO Ballast Water Guidelinesγ and
the Australian Ballast Water Management Guidelines? YOU MUST tick Yes or No. This
Plan was only recently developed by the IMO, and although not a mandatory requirement
by Australia, ships are encouraged to develop and maintain on board a ballast water
Has this been implemented? Was the plan implemented on the voyage to Australian
waters? Tick Yes or No.
8. Officer's Declaration
Responsible officer's name and title (printed) and signature: Print name, rank and
include signature. Date the form DDMMYY.
Note: Masters or Delegated Officers who wilfully make a false statement may be
liable to a significant fine and/or imprisonment under Australian law.
By accessing the information presented through this media, each user waives and
releases the Commonwealth of Australia to the full extent permitted by law from
any and all claims relating to the usage of material or information made available
through the system. In no event shall the Commonwealth of Australia be liable for
any incidental or consequential damages resulting from use of the material. In
particular and without limit to the generality of the above, information provided in
publications of the Commonwealth Government is considered to be true and
correct at the time of publication. Changes in circumstances after time of
publication may impact on the accuracy of this information and the
Commonwealth Government gives no assurance as to the accuracy of any
information or advice contained.
γ‘Guidelines for the control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water to Minimise the Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organism and Pathogens', Res. A. 868(20). APPENDIX D :
LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION – ANNEX I SUBSTANCES
Heavy metals (ppm dry weight) Territory Organohalogen compounds Organochlorine - 0,05 Hexachlorobenzene Persistent plastics Canada: 4% by volume, suitably comminuted. Oils Canada: Any quantity that yields less than or equal to 10 ppm of n-hexane-soluble substances. Quebec: 1000 ppm (dry weight) Ontario: 1500 ppm. 11 Sediments containing Appendix D substances in quantities higher than the lower level, special care techniques must be applied. For those containing levels higher than the upper level, there must be effective isolation from the environment. 12 Sediments with Appendix D substances higher than the levels indicated in the table are prohibited from dumping. 13 Sediments with Appendix D substances higher than the levels indicated are prohibited from dumping. 14Sediments containing substances higher than the lower level given in the Table require Special Permits, while those with levels above the upper limit require an Environmental Impact Assessment. 15 Sediments with levels of substances above the lower levels shown in the Table require "special care" procedures, while those with levels above the upper limits are prohibited from dumping. 16 For Schedule I substances under the Ocean Dumping Control Act (1975 source - may be out of date). APPENDIX E :
LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION – ANNEX II SUBSTANCES
Heavy metals (ppm dry weight) APPENDIX F :
INTERPRETATION OF LONDON DUMPING CONVENTION
TERMINOLOGY (FROM: GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT
OF DREDGE SPOIL IN SOUTH AFRICAN COASTAL WATERS)
"Rapidly rendered harmless"
In terms of Interim Guidelines adopted and amended at various Consultative Meetings of the
contracting parties to the London Convention, "rapidly rendered harmless" is taken to mean:
"if tests of the waste or other matter proposed for dumping, including tests on the persistence of the material, show that the substances can be dumped so as not to cause acute or chronic effects or bioaccumulation in sensitive marine organisms typical of the marine ecosystem at the disposal site. A persistent substance should not be regarded as "harmless" except when it is present as a "trace contaminant".
The Interim Guidelines also outline test procedures to be used in making such assessments.
While the Interim Guidelines do not give any recommendations on what levels of contaminants
should be regarded as "trace amounts", they do give a list of what should not be considered as
trace contaminants. These include:
"If they are present in otherwise acceptable wastes or other materials to which they have been added for the purpose of being dumped; "If they occur in such amounts that the dumping of the wastes or other materials could cause undesirable effects, especially the possibility of chronic or acute toxic effects on marine organisms or human health whether or not arising from their bioaccumulation in marine organisms and especially in food species; and "If they are present in such amounts that it is practical to reduce their concentration further by technical means."
The 8th Consultative Meeting of the London Convention agreed on the following
Pesticides (other than those covered by 0.05% or more by weight in the waste
Appendix D) and their by-products, and lead or other matter
and lead compounds
Arsenic, copper and its compounds, zinc and 0.1% or more by weight
its compounds, organosilicon compounds,
cyanides, and fluorides
"De minimus" levels
The concept of "de minimis" levels for radioactive materials was introduced after the Resolution
by Contracting Parties at the Consultative Meeting in November 1993 to permanently phase
out the dumping of radioactive waste at sea - except for waste in which radioactive material
was present only at "de minimis" levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency is currently
working on producing recommendations as to what these levels should be.
The interpretations outlined above do little to provide concrete criteria against which sediments
can be assessed for permitting purposes - at least for Appendix I substances - and essentially
allow national authorities total discretion over what is acceptable or not. Their application is also
dependent to a large extent on complex assessment procedures involving both chemical
analysis and bioassays. For many contracting parties such testing is simply impracticable, and,
especially since the general acceptance of the Waste Assessment Framework17, there has
been a move to establish "Action Levels" which would streamline assessment procedures. It is
proposed that such "Action Levels" form an integral part of the assessment of dredged spoil in
South Africa. Appendix G reviews "Action Levels" as adopted by other contracting parties,
together with proposals for "Action Levels" for South Africa.
APPENDIX G :
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES/MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
AS DEFINED BY THE NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF
ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS AND TOURISM FOR THE
MANAGEMENT OF DREDGE SPOIL IN SOUTH AFRICAN
A: Preliminary assessment of dredging site for new development
The first step is to evaluate the status of the site to be dredged on the basis of existing
i) If so, do they suggest that the area is contaminated or uncontaminated. If contaminated, then
a full chemical assessment must be undertaken.
ii) If the reports indicate no contamination, then it must be determined whether the position
might have changed since the publication of the report/s?
17 The WAF is a practical procedure, which has been provisionally adopted by the Contracting Parties to the London Convention for the purposes of managing wastes in compliance with the terms of the Convention by providing a set of technical protocols for the evaluation of wastes and associated circumstances.
Other potential sources include rivers, which may be carrying pollution loads from sources
upstream. If so, then a full chemical assessment must be undertaken. If not, then the site can
be assumed to be uncontaminated.
iii) If there are no reports, then information must be obtained as to whether there is any
industrial development or other potential source of pollutants in the vicinity of the site. Other
potential sources include rivers, which may be carrying pollution loads from sources upstream.
If so, then a full chemical assessment must be undertaken. If not, then the site can be assumed
to be uncontaminated.
B: Assessment of maintenance dredging operation
The first step again should be an evaluation of existing information.
i) If the sediments in the area have been tested and demonstrated to be clean (against the
criteria outlined in Section E below) within the last 5 years, and no new potential sources of
contaminants have been established, then the sediments can be considered to be
ii) If the sediments in the area have either never been tested, or they have previously been
shown to be contaminated, then they must be tested using the procedures outlined in Section
C: Beneficial Uses
Dredged spoil - particularly if it is uncontaminated - can be used for a variety of purposes,
i) Engineering purposes:
- Land creation
- Land improvement
- Offshore berms
- Replacement fill
- Beach nourishment (currently accounts for some 70% of dredged spoil in South Africa,
primarily in Durban and Richards Bay).
ii) Agricultural/ Product uses
- Construction materials
iii) Environmental enhancement
- Wetland creation
- Upland habitat
- Fisheries improvement
The harbour authorities should actively investigate opportunities to make constructive use of
D: Dumpsite selection
The number of dumpsites used should be limited as far as possible. In selecting dumpsites, the
following issues should be taken into consideration:
i. Dumping should not lead to interference with other beneficial uses including shipping, fishing, recreation, mariculture etc. ii. Dumping should not impact on ecologically important sites such as spawning grounds, feeding grounds, or habitats of vulnerable or endangered species. iii. Dumping should not take place in areas where the physical characteristics make it vulnerable to the build-up of pollutants that could lead to eutrophication, oxygen depletion, blanketing of the seafloor etc. iv. Where wave and current movement at the dumpsite is limited, there should be a dispersive style of disposal to facilitate the spread of dumped materials. v. Sediments in the dredged material and the receiving area should be similar as far as
E: Chemical Characterisation of Sediments
This process should provide a general description of the sediments, as well as an indication of
the level of contamination by Annex I and Annex II substances. The results can then be
compared to the "Action Levels" to categorise the sediments into one of three groups as
i) Trace or insignificant contamination
ii) Moderately contaminated
iii) Highly contaminated
The steps to be followed are:
Sampling of sediments from the proposed dredging site should represent the vertical and
horizontal distribution and variability of the material to be dredged. Samples should be spaced
to identify between non-contaminated and contaminated locations. For further details of
sampling procedures, see Section A.
b) General description
total volume to be dredged, as well as a breakdown of estimated volumes from each area of the harbour. visual determination of sediment characteristics (clay-silt/sand/gravel/boulder) (for contaminated sites a proper grain-size analysis might be required).
c) Chemical Analysis: List of contaminants to be measured.
At the time of a first application for dumping from a specific harbour area - or at the time of the
first application after the introduction of these guidelines - the sediments should, as a minimum,
be analysed for the Appendix H and I substances:
Should the initial survey indicate the presence of only a limited number of these contaminants,
then the list could be limited accordingly in discussion with MCM, and on a case-by-case basis.
d) Comparison with Action Levels
Sediments will be considered to be uncontaminated (trace or insignificant contamination) if they
contain levels of Appendix H and I substances less than the lower of those levels summarised
in Table G.1.
F: Biological testing
While chemical analysis may reveal the presence of various contaminants in sediments, this
does not necessarily mean that the sediments will result in biological harm. The contaminants
may, for example, be present in a form in which they are not "available" to organisms i.e. they
are biochemically inert. The next step for moderately contaminated sediments, therefore, would
be to test for such bioavailability. Such tests should measure for acute and chronic toxicity to
selected marine organisms, as well as the potential for bioaccumulation.
G: "Special Care" Techniques (Numbering system?)
Some of the "special care" techniques reportedly used by other countries include: • careful selection of dump sites, especially for highly polluted sediments silt screens to avoid the spread of fine particulate matter for moderately polluted sediments effective isolation from the environment for highly polluted sediments by dumping into specialised marine disposal pits and capping with clean sediment.
Table G.1. Suggested Action/Prohibition levels for various substances (based on values from
the international literature as shown in the Tables below). Ranges are in parts per million
Appendix H substances Cadmium or for a combined level of these two Persistent plastics: 4% by volume, suitably comminuted. Radioactive materials: to be determined by the Appendix I substances Special care
or a combined level of these substances: Organosilicon compounds * According to the agreement at the 8th Consultative Meeting, significant amounts of these
substances were >= 0,1% by weight, or 0,5% by weight for lead and pesticides.
Sampling Procedures and Analytical Techniques
General: Laboratories that perform the analyses should be "accredited". The accreditation
procedure would take the form of an inter-calibration exercise to be set up by the Pollution
Division of Marine and Coastal Management, with MCM supplying a set of reference
sediments. This would be repeated every 3 years.
A: Sediment sampling
Sampling of sediments from the proposed dredging site should represent the vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of the material to be dredged. Samples should be spaced to identify between non-contaminated and contaminated locations. Sampling should be done, by using a barrel core as described in Loring and Rantala18.
B: Analytical techniques (chemical)
Sample preparation: Teflon bomb acid digestion13.
Mercury: Cold vapour atomic absorption13. Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Zinc, Beryllium, Chromium, Nickel, Vanadium: Flame and graphite furnace Atomic Absorption13. Arsenic: Hydride generation Atomic Absorption Hydrocarbons Two tests should be conducted: one for total hydrocarbons, and one for polycyclic aromatics (PAHs). Extraction: One phase CHCL3-MeOH Bligh and Dyer method19. Separation: Aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAH by silicic acid column chromatography20 Total hydrocarbons: Gas chromatography21. PAH analysis: Gas chromatography - Mass Spectrometry using 2,3 benzfluorine as an internal standard15. 18 Loring, D.H. & Rantala, R.T.T. (1992). Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. Earth Science Reviews 32: 235 - 283. 19 White, D.C., Bobbie, R.J., Herron, J.S., King, J.D. and Morrison, S.J. (1979) Biochemical measurements of microbial biomass and activity from environmental samples. IN Native Aquatic Bacteria: Enumeration, Activity and Ecology. (Eds) J.W. Costerton and R.R. Colwell. pp. 69 - 81. (ASTM STP 695). 20 Leeming, R. & Nichols, P.D. (1991). An integrated scheme to analyse naturally occurring and pollutant organic constituents in urban sewage. Proceedings Bioaccumulation Workshop. Sydney. 21 Nichols, P.D., Volkman, J.K., Palmisano, A.C., Smith, G.A. and White, D.C. (1988) Occurrence of an isoprenoid C25 diunsaturated alkene and high neutral lipid content in Antarctic sea-ice diatom communities. J.Phycology 24: 90 - 96. LIST OF CONTAMINATS TO BE MEASURED
ANNEX I SUBSTANCES
- organohalogen compounds:
hexachlorobenzene mercury and mercury compounds cadmium and cadmium compounds persistent plastics petroleum hydrocarbons radioactive materials materials produced for biological or chemical warfare.
ANNEX II SUBSTANCES
copper and its compounds organosilicon compounds zinc and its compounds In addition, where there are known sources of particular pollutants not listed here, such pollutants should be included in the analyses. APPENDIX H :
NON-QUANTITATIVE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLY LIST FOR AN
EMERGENCY FACILITY FOR THE REHABILITATION OF OILED
All supplies should be properly planned for, prepared, stored within easy reach and regularly maintained. Medical supplies with a limited life span need special attention in this regard. Equipment
welded mesh strips (app. 20 m X 0.8m)
assorted fittings for gas and water
plastic drums (full height)
plastic drums (3/4 height)
plastic drums (1/2 height)
lights and electrical fittings
high pressure spray cleaners
assorted hose fittings
assorted plastic crates
electrical cables and fittings
infra red lamps
material for pool access steps
material for pool access ramps
first aid kit
cutlery & crockery
hand held radios
Pre-packaged medical supplies (to be finalized in discussion with a veterinarian)
Stabilization packs for use during capture and in the centre, each pack catering for 50 birds:
Terramycin eye ointment
plastic flipper bands
Medical pack for use at emergency facility, each pack catering for 50 birds:
Savlon foot cream
Dermatex eye ointment
Tears Naturale Ringers Lactate Advanced medical pack for ICU: capacity 20 birds (includes euthanasia and vaccination): to be prepared in consultation with a qualified veterinarian
Risk versus benefit of raw milk consumption Dominique Angèle VUITTON WHO Collaborating Centre; University of Franche-Comté; 25030 Besançon, France Background: the contradiction between "food safety" and biodiversity, high quality of products, sustainable development, and healthy life style. Dairy farmers and cheese producers are in the continuing process of answering the somewhat contradictory requirements of consumers for safe, high quality and diversified foods produced in sustainable conditions… at the lowest price. It has turned out that the legitimate requirements of safety from the consumer have eventually evolved in a burden of threats upon producers' activities, once they began being translated in tentative safety regulations. Within the past 10 years, the main concern of numerous producers, with little link with big dairy industry companies, has always been to provide food diversity through a traditional way of producing milk and cheese and to maintain biodiversity while reaching at the same time the very high quality and safety standards requested by the consumers. However, they now have the feeling that their way of doing is not supported in reality by the public policies and that the attitudes of experts and/or authorities may be sometimes quite contradictory.
Prairie Soils & Insects and Diseases Crops Journal Managing the Pea Leaf Weevil in Field Peas Héctor Cárcamo* and Meghan Vankosky H. A. Cárcamo, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB; M. Vankosky, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON *Corresponding author E-Mail: Summary The pea leaf weevil is one of the few insect pests of field peas in southern Alberta and southwest Saskatchewan. Adults cause distinctive notching on seedlings which generally does not affect yield. Larval feeding on nitrogen-fixing root nodules may reduce yield if soil is nitrogen deficient. Only field peas and faba beans are at risk of damage. Other crops in the bean family may be fed on by adults but do not suffer significant damage from larvae. The economic threshold during the second to fifth node stages in field peas is 30% of seedlings with damage to the terminal (clam) leaf. Seed treated with thiamethoxam has produced more consistent yield responses than application of foliar insecticides but additional farm-level trials are required. Trap cropping the pea leaf weevil can be done by planting a border in the fall with winter peas or adjacent, earlier planting of a spring cultivar. Close monitoring of the trap crop is needed to control the weevils in the trap crop area before they move to the rest of the field. Fields under no tillage regimes suffer less damage than those under conventional tillage. Biological control is a research area that should be pursued for sustainable management of this pest. Background The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Fig. 1), belongs to the most speciose insect order, the Coleoptera, and the most speciose beetle family, the Curculionidae. Although over 100 Sitona species occur worldwide, only 11 are found in North America and five of these were introduced1. The pea leaf weevil is a common pest of field peas, Pisum sativum L. and faba beans, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) in its native Europe2. It was first collected on Vancouver Island in 19363. Since then it has been reported in several states on both the east and west coast of the USA1,4, southern Alberta in 1997 (R. J. Byers, personal communication) and Saskatchewan in 20075. A detailed review of its history, biology and management has been described by Vankosky et al.6. In this review we focus on its local biology, summarize research on chemical and cultural management in the southern Canadian prairies and provide a short summary of key recent publications.