Marys Medicine


African Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 2 (1-2): 25-29, 2010 IDOSI Publications, 2010 Synergistic Effect of Salvadora persica Extracts,
Tetracycline and Penicillin Against Staphylococcus aureus
1Zafar Ahmed, S 1 haukat Saeed Khan, M ahnaaz Khan, 1Arshiya Tanveer and Zah oor Ahmad Lone 1Department of Microbiology, Saifia Science College, Bhopal - 462001 India 2Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce Benazeer College, Near M.V.M College, Bhopal - 462008 India Abstract: In the present investigation inhibitory effect of two antibiotics viz., Penicillin and Tetracycline against
Staphylococcus aureus was observed separately and in combination (synergistic). It was found that the zone of inhibition was 23mm for tetracycline and 18 mm for penicillin. However, their synergistic effect was much more effective and caused an inhibition that measured 27 mm in diameter. Apart from this these antibiotics were also applied in combination with various extracts (ethanolic) of Salvadora persica, a medicinal plant of repute.
The highest inhibition was noticed (31.5 mm) when S.aureus was exposed to tetracycline + Salvadora stem extract. It was followed by tetracycline + leaf extract combination of Salvadora persica with a zone of inhibition of 30.0 mm. The combination of stem and leaf extract with penicillin could not produce the same inhibitory effect as that of tetracycline and Salvadora stem and leaf extracts. However, penicillin and stem extract of Salvadora combination resulted in a ZOI which was 21.0 mm, which surpassed 18 mm ZOI recorded for both penicillin and stem extract of S.persica applied separately.
Ket words: Missing
commercially for the treatment of various infections [1].
The in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract Different antibiotics exercise their inhibitory activity of Vangueria spinosa alone and in combination with on various pathogenic organisms either by killing them antibiotics (doxycycline and ofloxacin) by means of outright (microbicidal action) or by arresting the growth fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) as of the causal organism (microbistatic action). The impact well as by the use of time-kill assays against one of antibiotic on a pathogen is specific which differs from Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogen to pathogen and vice-versa. Some studies in three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella recent years have suggested the use of combination of pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was studied antibiotics, the synergistic effect of which often by him. MIC/MBC values for ethanolic leaf extract of surpasses their individual inhibitory activity. It was V. spinosa against all the tested bacteria ranged therefore thought imperative to use an antibiotic in between 25.5 - 52.6/22.4 - 60.5 µg/ml, for doxycycline combination with stem and leaf extracts of Salvadora 4.0/4.0 - 4.5 µg/ml and for ofloxacin 0.625 - 2.5/1.
persica, a common toothbrush plant with a number of 25 - 5.0 µg/ml respectively. The average log reduction in therapeutic attributes to it. The synergistic effect from the viable cell count in time-kil assay ranged between combination of antibiotics with plant extracts against 2.4 log10 - 4.5 log10 cfu/ml after 1 h of interaction and resistant bacteria leads to new ways for the treatment between 3.9 log10 -5.0 log10 cfu/ml after 3 h interaction in of infectious diseases. The increasing and indiscriminate 1 × MIC to 4 × MIC. When leaf extract and antibiotics use of antibiotics has led to the development of were combined, the average log reduction in viable cell bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The use of synergistic count for doxycycline from 1.5 log10 - 5.18 log10 cfu/ml combinations in antimicrobial chemotherapy is often used and for ofloxacin 3.06 log10- 5.39 log10 cfu/ml. Synergistic Corresponding Author: Zahoor Ahmad Lone, Department of Botany, Govt. Science and Commerce Benazeer College,
Near M.V.M College, Bhopal - 462008 India African J. of Basic & Appl. Sci., 2 (1-2): 25-29, 2010 actions were observed in all the cases except against between tea extracts and penicillin G against P. aeruginosa which showed an additive effect for Staphylococcus aureus. Few studies have found that the ofloxacin and plant extract combination.
efficacy of antimicrobial agents can be improved by Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity combining them with crude plant extracts against different are frequent and medicinal plants have been considered pathogens including S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, interesting by some researchers since they are frequently Extended Spectrum $-lactamases-producing multidrug- used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious resistant E. coli and vancomycin-resistant enterococci diseases. Synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and (Enterococus fecalis) [7]. This study has been done to 8 plant extracts - "guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava evaluate the interaction between water extracts of (Psidium guajava), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), fruticosa, Majorana syriaca, Ocimum basilicum, ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis Syzygium aromaticum, Laurus nobilis and Rosa trimera) and mint (Mentha piperata) against damascena alone and then synergy testing of these Staphylococcus aureus strains was studied by extracts with known antimicrobial agents of different Betoni et al. [2]. The results showed that clove, guava mechanisms (oxytetracycline HCl and gentamicin sulfate; and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with penicillin G and cephalexin; Sulfadimethoxine and antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed enrofloxacin) using both well-diffusion and microdilution limited synergistic activity.
method. The results of the conducted experiments using To control clinical bacterial isolates implicated in well-diffusion method demonstrated that these plants urinary tract infections, Ghaly et al. [3] carried out their showed in vitro interactions between antimicrobial agents study to investigate the synergistic effect of antibiotics and plant extracts and were additive against the five and plant extract. Antibiotic sensitivity test for strains of S. aureus, while using micro dilution method Gram-positive and negative bacteria showed that the showed synergistic effects between combination of antibiotic ofloxacin is more effective against clinical antibiotics and plant extracts with significant reduction in bacterial isolates (58%) followed by amikacin (54%), the MICs of the test antibiotics against these strains of chloramphenicol (52%), norfloxacin (51%) and S. aureus. Also the results showed that synergism effect azithromycin (48%). The effect of medicinal plant extracts between antimicrobial agent and plant extract occurred in against highly resistant bacterial isolates showed that, both sensitive and resistant strains but the magnitude of the clove, rosemary, peppermint, hibisicus, thyme and minimum fold inhibition in resistant strains especially cinnamon showed strong inhibitory action against tested MRSA strain was higher than the sensitive strains.
isolates. The combination between ofloxacin and amikacin Therefore, the present study was undertaken to with clove plant extract clearly showed synergistic effect investigate synergistic activity of Salvadora persica with against tested clinical bacterial isolates.
tetracycline and penicillin against Staphylococcus aureus.
In the same year Kumar et al. [4] investigated Salvadora persica contains a number of medicinally synergistic activity of methanolic extract of Thespesia beneficial properties including abrasives, antiseptics, populnea (Malvaceae) flowers with oxytetracycline.
astringent, detergents, enzyme inhibitors and fluoride [8].
The MIC values were found to be less with Penicillin is usually effective against G +ve bacteria and oxytetracycline alone and it was found to be still lesser tetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic.
with the methanolic extract of T. populnea. However, theMIC was found to be the least with combination of MATERIALS AND METHODS
oxytetracycline and methanolic extract of T. populnea.
Moreover, the therapeutic efficacy was found to be higher Preparation of Plant Extracts: Fresh and healthy
even in low concentration.
leaves and stems of Salvadora persica were collected, The synergistic antimicrobial activity of tea and sun-dried and powdered in a grinder and later subjected various antibiotics against enteropathogens was studied to extraction in a Soxhlet. The solvent used was ethanol.
by Tiwari et al. [5]. Tea extract showed synergistic The extracts were then subjected to solvent recovery with activity with chloramphenicol and other antibiotics like the help of Soxhlet and reflux condenser. After a thick gentamycin, methicillin and nalidixic acid against test extract was left in the flask, it was transferred to small strains. Esimone et al. [6] also evaluated the interaction specimen tubes [9].
African J. of Basic & Appl. Sci., 2 (1-2): 25-29, 2010 Antibiotics: Solutions of known concentrations
Table 1: Antibacterial efficacy of antibiotics and plant extracts alone and in (50000 ppm and 40000 ppm) of tetracycline and penicillin combinations against Staphylococcus aureus respectively were prepared.
S.No. Antibiotic/ Plant Extract Zone of Inhibition (mm) The above known volumes of antibiotic solutions and plant extracts (leaf and stem extract of S. persica) Stem extract of Salvadora were prepared alone and in combination. Filter paper discs were impregnated in each solution for about 6 h and then Leaf extract of Salvadora Penicillin + Tetracycline air dried. Pure culture of Staphylococcus aureus was Tetracycline + Stem extract of Salvadora sub-cultured on nutrient agar media in pre-sterilized Petri Tetracycline + Leaf extract of Salvadora plates. The filter paper discs were then transferred to Penicillin + Stem extract of Salvadora freshly inoculated Petri plates carefully. The plates were Penicillin + Leaf extract of Salvadora then incubated at 35°±2°C for 24 h to test efficacy of antibiotics and Salvadora persica extracts alone and in In the present investigation the inhibitory effect of combination against Staphylococcus aureus. After 24 h tetracycline, a broad spectrum antibiotic; penicillin, an of incubation the plates were then examined for zone of antibiotic that acts against G +ve bacteria and a medicinal inhibition, if any [10].
plant, Salvadora persica, was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. In the experiment Kirby Bauer RESULT AND DISCUSSION
disc diffusion test was applied. After 24 h of incubation at a temperature of 35°± 2°C it was found that all the Many plants have been used for the purpose antibiotics and the plant extracts as well as their of food, shelter, clothing, medicine, cosmetics, combination proved inhibitory against S.aureus but to manufacturing useful products like papers for printing varying degrees the zone of inhibition ranged from media, environmental improvement, etc. This has 10.5 mm to 31.5 mm respectively under the influence of helped in the betterment of our life quality. Synergistic effects resulting from the combination of antibiotics leaf extract of Salvadora persica and the combination of with various plant extracts has been studied and tetracycline with stem extract of S.persica. It was closely experimented by a number of scientists. Ibezim et al. [11] followed by tetracycline + leaf extract of this plant with studied the interaction between some flouroquinolones the zone of inhibition of 30.0 mm. The third highest and extracts of Kola nitida seed. Esimone et al. [12] inhibition was recorded for the combination of penicillin evaluated the in vitro interaction of some penicillins and tetracycline, the synergistic effect of these antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin and benzylpenicillin) and caffeine produced a ZOI of 27.0 mm.
against Staphylococcus aureus. He found that at 5 and Sometimes the use of single antibiotic does not 10 mg/ml, caffeine decreased the MIC of amoxicillin by produce the desired or the effective inhibitory effects and 22 and 25 times respectively, while that of ampicillin to overcome this, combination of drugs often exercise was decreased by 6 and 8 times. The MIC of their synergistic effect which surpasses their individual benzylpenicillin against Staphylococcus aureus was, performance. A perusal of Table 1 clearly indicates that however, increased by 59 and 40 times at caffeine penicillin alone could cause the inhibition which was concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/ml respectively. The 18 mm, whereas tetracycline alone resulted in the inhibition zone diameter increment above 19 % (index of formation of 23 mm inhibition zone. But when combined, synergism in OLISD method) was recorded only for these two antibiotics surpassed both these values of amoxicil in at amoxicil in concentrations of 7.81, 15.3, 31.25 inhibitory zone and synergistically resulted in the and 62.5 mg/ml.
formation of 27 mm inhibition zone. Similar was the case Cai et al. [13] determined the antibacterial activity of with the combination of tetracycline with stem (31.5 mm) Allicin with -Lactams against Staphylococcus spp. and and leaf extracts (30.0 mm) which exhibited synergistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Allicin is one of the most effect. Penicillin alone produced 18 mm zone of inhibition effective compounds isolated from garlic showing but in combination with stem extract of S.persica the ZOI antibacterial activity. The results showed that allicin alone was 21 mm. However, the combination of the penicillin did not have good antibacterial activity (MIC90 > 512m and leaf extract of S.persica resulted in the formation of g/ml) but it facilitated antibacterial activity of all three 16 mm ZOI which is more than the leaf extract used alone -lactams (cefazolin/oxacil in and cefoperazone) tested at (10.5 mm) but less than when penicillin was used African J. of Basic & Appl. Sci., 2 (1-2): 25-29, 2010 The synergistic effect may be due to certain complex 3. Ghaly, M.F., M.A. Shalaby, S.M.S. Shash, formation which becomes more effective in the inhibition M.N. Snehata and A.A. Ayad, 2009. Synergistic of a particular species of microorganisms either by effect of antibiotics and plant extract to control inhibiting the cell wall synthesis or by causing its lyses or clinical bacterial isolates implicated in urinary tract death. Thus it is concluded that to control a particular infections. J. Applied Sci. Res., 5(10): 1298-1306.
disease in vitro experiments should be carried out with 4. Kumar, Arthanari Saravana, K. Venkateshwaran, various antibiotics and their combination as well as J. Vanitha, V.S. Saravanan, M. Ganesh, antibiotics and plant extracts. So that a right combination M. Vasudevan and T. Sivakumar, 2009. Synergistic may be administered to the patient for early and safe activity of methanolic extract of Thespesia populnea recovery from a specific ailment. All the combinations do not produce synergistic effect and therefore a number of Bangladesh J. Pharmacol., 4: 13-16.
combinations are required to be tested. Example - the 5. Tiwari, R.P., S.K. Bharti, H.D. Kaur, R.P. Dikshit penicillin and leaf extract of S.persica exhibited lesser and G.S. Hoondal, 2005. Synergistic antimicrobial zone of inhibition and therefore less degree of affectivity activity of tea and antibiotics. Indian J. Med. Res., than the effect of penicillin used alone (Table 1).
The effect of combinations of the crude methanolic 6. Esimone, C.O., I.R. Iroha, F.C. Ibezim, C.O. Okeh and extract of the leaves of Helichrysum pedunculatum and E.M. Okpana, 2006. In vitro evaluation of the eight first-line antibiotics were investigated by interaction between tea extracts and penicillin G Aiyegoro et al. [14] by time kill assays against a panel of against Staphylococcus aureus. Afr. J. Biotechnol., bacterial strains that have been implicated in wound 5: 1082-1086.
infections. The plant extract showed appreciable 7. Adwan, Ghaleb and Mohammad Mhanna, 2008.
antibacterial activities against the test bacteria with zones Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics of inhibition ranging between 18 and 27 mm and on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varying clinical specimens. Middle-East J. Sci. Res., between 0.1 and 5.0 mg/ml. The MICs of the test 3(3): 134-139.
antibiotics ranged between 0.001 and 0.412 mg/ml and 8. Almas, Khalid, 2002. The effect of Salvadora persica combination of the plant extract and the antibiotics extract (Miswak) and chlorahexidine gluconate on resulted in reduction of bacterial counts by between 0 and Human Dentin: A SEM Study. J. Contemporary 6.63 Log10 cfu/ml. At V MIC, 5 6.81% synergy; 43.19% Dental Practice, 3(3): 27-35.
indifference and no antagonism were observed and at 9. Khan, Shaukat Saeed, A.H. Ansari, Dolly Malhotra, MIC levels, 55.68% synergy; 44.32% indifference and no Mahnaaz Khan and Arshiya Tanveer, 2008. In vitro antagonism were observed when the extracts were antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa L. against combined with eight different antibiotics.
and Pseodomonas aeruginosa. Ultra Chemistry, 4(2): 307-310.
10. Bauer, A.W., W.M. Kirby, J.C. Sherris and M. Truck, 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a 1. Chatterjee, Saroj Kumar, Indranil Bhattacharjee and standardized single disk method. Am J. Clin. Pathol., Gautam Chandra, 2009. In vitro synergistic effect of 45: 493-496.
doxycycline and ofloxacin in combination with 11. Ibezim, E.C., C.O. Esimone, P.O. Nnamani, ethanolic leaf extract of Vangueria spinosa against I.V. Onyishi, S.A. Brown and C.E. Obodo, 2006.
four pathogenic bacteria. Indian J. Med. Res., In vitro study of the interaction between some 130: 475-478.
flouroquinolones and extracts of Kola nitida seed.
2. Betoni, Joyce Elaine Cristina, Rebeca Passarelli Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5(19): 1781-1784.
Mantovani, Lidiane Nunes Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Di 12. Esimone, C.O., F.B.C. Okoye, C.S. Nworu and Stasi and Ary Fernandes Junior, 2006. Synergism C.O. Agubata, 2008. In vitro interaction between between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used caffeine and some penicillin antibiotics against on Staphylococcus aureus diseases. Mem Inst Staphylococcus aureus. Trop J. Parm. Res., Oswaldo Croz, Rio de Janeiro, 101(4): 387-390.
7(2): 969-974.
African J. of Basic & Appl. Sci., 2 (1-2): 25-29, 2010 13. Cai Yun, Rui Wang, Fei Pei and Bei-Bei Liang, 2007, 14. Aiyegoro layinka, A., J. Afolayan Anthony and Antibacterial activity of Allicin alone and in I. Okoh Anthony, 2009. Synergistic interaction of combination with - lactams against Staphylococcus Helichrysum pedunculatum leaf extracts with spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, J. Antibiot., antibiotics against wound infection associated 60(5): 335-338.
bacteria. Biol. Res., 42(3): 327-338.


Microsoft word - 2.04.03_bovine_brucell.doc

Bovine brucellosis is usually caused by Brucella abortus, less frequently by B. melitensis, and occasionally by B. suis. Infection is widespread globally. Several countries in Northern and Central Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand are believed to be free from the agent. Clinically, the disease is characterised by one or more of the following signs: abortion, retained placenta, orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk. Diagnosis depends on the isolation of Brucella from abortion material, udder secretions or from tissues removed at post-mortem. Presumptive diagnosis can be made by assessing specific cell-mediated or serological responses to Brucella antigens.

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