Effectiveness social skills training on addiction potential reduction in male high school students
American Journal of Life Science
2014, DIILI Publication
Am. J. Life. Sci. Res.
Vol. 3, Issue 1, 91-99, 2015
REWIEV ARTICLE Received 14 Oct. 2014 Accepted 24 Dec. 2014
Traditional Phytotherapy and FOLK LORE REMEDIES Used TO
Satyaendra K. Shrivastava*1, Dr. P.K. Dubey1, Dr. B. Shrivastava2, Dr. Pankaj
1 .Swami Vivekanand College of Pharmacy, Khandwa Road, Indore (M.P), India 2. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur (Rajasthan). Abstract: Use of plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is an important
component of the health care system in India. The World Health Organization Expert Committee
on diabetes has recommended that traditional medicinal herbs be further investigated. Thus,
plants are a potential source of anti-diabetic drugs but this fact has not gained enough
momentum in the scientific community. Plants used to treat diabetes are of considerable
interest as they are recognizing to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the
plant species with desire properties. Several species of plant are used in the treatment of
diabetes, a disease affecting large number of people worldwide. The present paper enumerates
several species used in the treatment of diabetes.
Key words: Diabetes Mellitus, Herbs, Traditional Phytotherapy
India has a rich history of using various potent herbs and herbal components for treating diabetes. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance' is
happening al over the globe. Many Indian plants have been investigated for their
beneficial use in different types of diabetes. Despite tremendous advances in
medicine during the past century, there is still no cure, which means that effective
prevention and treatment is of paramount importance to prevent future increase
in disease burden. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and
many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly
from them. The herbal products today symbolize safety in contrast to the
synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. Although
herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavoring and aromatic qualities for
centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their
importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and
people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security1- .2
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of Satyaendra et al., 2015
metabolic diseases in which there are highlevels over a prolonged
period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include and If left untreated, diabetes can cause many
complications.complications includeand Serious long-term complications includeand
Diabetes is due to either thenot producing enoughor theof the body not responding properly to the insulin produced3- .
are three main types of diabetes mellitus: results from the body's failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown. begins with a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise. is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. Prevention and treatment involves a not usingand being acontrol and
proper foot care are also important for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes
must be managed withinjections. Type 2 diabetes may be treated with
medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause
in those withis an effective measure
in those with type 2 DM.usually resolves after the birth of
the baby6- .
Diabetes disease information has already been recorded to some extent by the earlier workers8-11. The present paper deals with traditional phytotherapy and
folklore remedies for diabetes. The method of preparation and doses of
administration of plant medicinal as suggested by the herbalists are recorded
and reported in the present study.
The present study revealed the following herbs used in the treatment of
diabetes. For proper and order study the botanical name, common name, part used, modes of use along with some description of the each species were present below: Abelmoschus esculentus well (Malvaceae), Bhindi, Fruit, Two vertically
dissected fresh fruit are soaked overnight in ½ glass cold water and that leech ate water is taken every morning. It is also known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers, bhindi, bamia, ochro or gumbo, is ain the It is valued for its The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of andorigins. The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate Traditional Phytotherapy and FOLK LORE REMEDIES Used TO Cure Diabetes
regions around the world1 .
Abrus precatorius L.(Fabaceae), Ratti, Leaves, Juice twice a 25 day. It is
awith long, pinnate-leafleted The plant is best known for
its which are used asand in percussion instruments, and which
aredue to the presence of The plant is native toand grows in
tropical and subtropical areas of the world where it has been introduced. It has a
tendency to becomeand invasive where it has been introduced13- .
Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae), Beal, Leaves, One gram gum is eaten along
with betleafe once daily. It is commonly known as bael, bengal quince, golden apple, stone apple, wood apple, bili, is a species of tree native to It is present throughoutas a The tree is considered to be sacred by Its fruits are used in traditional medicine and as a food throughout its range .
Allium cepa (L.) (Liliaceae), Pyaz, Bulb, Use of raw vegetable along with rice.
The onion also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is used as aand is the most widely cultivated species of the genus This genus also contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the(A. fistulosum), the(A. proliferum), and the(A. canadense). The name is applied to a number of Al ium species but A. cepa is exclusively known from cultivation and its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions. The onion is most frequently a or a but is usually treated as anand harvested in its first growing season .
Allium satvium (L.) (Liliaceae), Garlic, Bulb, A raw bulbet are eaten once daily. It
is commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Its close
relatives include the and With a history of
human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia and has long been a
staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent seasoning in Asia, Africa,
and Europe. It was known to and has been used for both
culinary and medicinal purpose17- .
Annona squmosa L. Sita (Annonaceae), Sitaphal, Fruits and Leaves, Powder
with water daily in the morning. It is a small, well-branchedorfrom the familythat bears edible fruits called It tolerates a tropical lowland climate better than its relativesand(whose fruits often share the same name) helping make it the most widely cultivated of these species .
Argyeia nervosa (Burm. F.) Boj. (Convolvulaceae), Samdar kapat, Leaves, Pills
made from the leaf past is given to diabetes patients for a long times. It is aclimbingthat is native to theand introduced to numerous areas worldwide, includingand theThough it can be invasive, it is often prized for its aesthetic value. There are two botanical varieties: Argyrea nervosa var. nervosa described here, and Argyrea nervosa var. speciosa, a species used in but with little to Satyaendra et al., 2015
Butea monosperma (Lamk) Taub (Fabaceae), Palas, Leaves, Aqueous extract of
leaves and fruit is given 2 tea spoon full once day for diabetes for a long times. It is a species ofnative to tropical and sub-tropical parts of theand ranging across western Common names include Palash, Dhak, Palah, Flame of the Forest, Bastard Teak, Parrot Tree, Keshu (Punjabi) and Kesudo (Gujurati). It is a medium sized growing to 15 m tall. It is a slow growing tree, young trees have a growth rate of a few feet per year. Theare pinnate, with an 8–16 cm petiole and three leaflets, each leaflet 10–20 cm long. Theare 2.5 cm long, bright orange-red, and produced inup to 15 cm long. Theis a15–20 cm long and 4–5 cm broad .
Bougain villea spectabilis (Willd) (Nyctaginaceae), Bogainvilla, Leaves, Paste
made into pills twice per day for 25 days. It is grows as a woody vine or shrub, reaching 15 to 40 feet (4.6 to 12.2 m) with heart-shaped leaves and thorny, pubescent stems, it's flowers vary in color, ranging from white, red, mauve, purple-red, or orange. Its fruit is a small, inconspicuous, dry, elongated achene - Cassia fistula (L.) (Caesalpiniaceae), Amaltas, Bark, Fruit pulp is given for
diabetes. It is known as the golden shower tree and by other is ain the family The species is native to theand adjacent regions of It ranges from southerneastward throughouttoandand south to In literature, it is closely associated with the Mullai (forest) region of It is the national tree of and its flower is Thailand's national flower. It is also the state flower ofin India and of immense popularand is also used in.
Cassia tora L. (Caesalpiniaceae), Chakora, Leaves, Leaf juice for 20 days. It is a
dicot legume known as sickle senna, sickle pod, tora, coffee pod, tovara, chakvad and foetid cassia. It is mostly found in South-East Asia and the South West Pacific as an important weed. It is considered a wild weed, wild peanut or pistache that has many healing benefits. The plant is an herbaceous annual foetid herb. The plant can grow 30-90 centimeters high and consists of alternative pinnate leaves with leaflets mostly with three opposite pairs that are obovate in shape with a rounded tip. The leaves grow up to 3 to 4.5 cm long. The stems have distinct smelling foliage when young. The flowers are in pairs in axils of leaves with five petals and pale yellow in colour. Cassia tora yellow flowers occur in pairs with stamens of unequal length producing pods that are somewhat flattened or four angled, 10–15 cm long and sickle shaped, hence the common name sickle pod. There are 30-50 seeds within a pod. The seed, roots and leaves from this plant has been shown to be very beneficial to the modern system of herbal Traditional Phytotherapy and FOLK LORE REMEDIES Used TO Cure Diabetes
Clitoria ternatea (L.) (Fabaceae), Aparajita, Flower, The flower juice is given for
controlling diabetes. Its common names including butterfly pea, blue
pea, Cordofan pea and Asian pigeonwings, is a plant species belonging to
thefamily. The flowers of this vine have the shape of human hence thename of the, from
(Synonyms: Clitoris principissae.). It is a perennial herbaceous plant, with elliptic,
obtuse leaves. It grows as a vine or creeper, doing well in moist, neutral soil. The
most striking feature about this plant are its vivid deep blue flowers; solitary, with
light yellow markings. They are about 4 cm long by 3 cm wide. There are some
varieties that yield white flowers. The fruits are 5 – 7 cm long, flat pods with 6 to
10 seeds in each pod26- .
Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), Amla, Dry fruits, Powder on tea spoon ful
with milk twice per day. It is known for its edibleof the same name. The tree
is small to medium in size, reaching 8 to 18 m in height, with a crooked trunk and
spreading branches. The branchlets are glabrous or finely pubescent, 10–20 cm
long, usually deciduous; the leaves are simple, subsessile and closely set along
branchlets, light green, resembling pinnate leaves. The flowers are greenish-
yellow. The fruit is nearly spherical, light greenish yellow, quite smooth and hard
on appearance, with six vertical stripes or furrows29- .
Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) schult (Asclepidaceae), Gudmar, Leaves, Climer,
Leaves juice and powder is taken orally. It is annative to theof thesuppresses the sensation of This effect is attributed to the
eponymous G. sylvestre has been used inas a
treatment forfor nearly two millennia, and though there is insufficient
scientific evidence to draw definitive conclusions about itstwo small
clinical trials have shown gymnema to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels31- .
Himidesmus indica (L.) R. Br. (Asclepiasaceae), Anantmul, Roots, Aqueous
extract of the roots one table spoon full is given for 9 day for the treatment of diabetes. It is aof plant that is found in It is a slender, twining, sometimesor semi-erect Roots are woody and aromatic. The stem is numerous, slender, terete, thickened at the nodes. The leaves are opposite, short-petioled, very variable, elliptic-oblong to linear-lanceolate. Theare greenish outside, purplish inside, crowded in sub-sessile axillary It is occurs over the greater part of India, from the uppereastwards toand in some places in central, western and South India .
Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvalaceae), Bhuikumra, Roots, About ½ cup
fresh root extract is taken once daily. The giant potato (Ipomoea mauritiana) is a type ofplant. Like the it belongs to thegenus. It grows as a vine. Its origins are uncertain, but it has been recorded in including inand theof as well as Australia's.
Satyaendra et al., 2015
Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Karela, Fruits, Bitter gourd if eaten
daily there will be no choice of diabetes. It is aandof the
family widely grown in and thefor its
edible which is extremely bitter. Its many varieties differ substantially in the
shape and bitterness of the fruit. Bitter melon originated on the Indian
subcontinent, and was introduced into China in the 14th century35-3 .
Syzgium cumini L. (Myrtaceae), Jamun, Seed, One tea spoon full of seed
powder is given twice daily. It is native to the andThe name of the fruit is sometimes mistranslated as which is a different fruit in an unrelated family. The tree was introduced toin 1911 by the and is also now commonly grown inand In where it was introduced from India during Portuguese colonization, it has dispersed spontaneously in the wild in some places, as its fruits are eagerly sought by various native birds such asand the This species is considered an invasive in It is also illegal to grow plant or transplant in.
Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex. DC.), Arjun, Stem bark, Extract is used in
biosweets for reducing blood slugger. It is a tree of the It is
commonly known as arjuna or arjun tree in English, Thella Maddi in Telugu
and Marudha Maram in Tamil. The arjuna is about 20–25 metres tall; usually has
atrunk, and forms a wide canopy at the crown, from which branches
drop downwards. It has oblong, conical leaves which are green on the top and
brown below; smooth, grey bark; it has pale yellow flowers which appear
between March and June; its glabrous, 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit, divided
into five wings, appears between September and November3 .
Trigonella-foenum-graceum (L.) (Papilioaceae), Methi, Seeds, Soaked the 5 gm.
Seed overnight drunk ½ cup water once daily. It is an annual plant in the family with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets. It is cultivated worldwide as a semiarid crop, and its seeds are a common ingredient in dishes from the Fenugreek is believed to have been brought into cultivation in the.
Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused
due to insufficient production of insulin or due to its inhibitory action, which can be considered as a major cause of high economic loss which can in turn impede the development of nations. Before there were drugs from drug companies, natural cures were used and they can still be used today. There are many herbs with strong anti-diabetic properties. Herbal treatments for diabetes have been used in patients with insulin dependent and non-insulin dependent diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy etc. As a result of extensive literature study total 21 species as enumerated above belonging to different genera and families, which are used in diabetes disease, were recorded and the plant part Traditional Phytotherapy and FOLK LORE REMEDIES Used TO Cure Diabetes
used in diabetes in different species were also listed. For more ordered report the mode of usage were along given in the present communications. In this review many plants are included which have shown antidiabetic action through release of insulin and some extra pancreatic mechanisms. Plants such as Al ium cepa, Emblica officinalis, Momordica charantia, Gymnema sylvestre and Syzygium cumini have a great antidiabetic potential, which have already been subjected to the clinical trial are included in the list, whereas some marketed herbal formulations (diasulin, pancreatic tonic 180 cp, chakrapani, diabecon, bitter gourd powder, dia-car, diabetes-daily care, gurmar powder, epinsulin, diabecure, syndrex, diabeta) which have been proved for its antidiabetic activity. In conclusion, this paper has presented a list of antidiabetic plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. It showed that these plants have hypoglycemic effects and can be used to treat various types of secondary complications of diabetes mellitus. Plants have been a good source of medicine for the treatment of various type of disease, still many plants and active compounds obtained from plants have not been well characterized. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the exact mechanism of action of medicinal plants with antidiabetic activity. REFERENCES
1. Haridasan, K. (2001). Ethnobotanical studies in Arunachal Pradesh - A Status
Report, In Ethnomedicine of North East India, NISCAIR, New Delhi: 54-169. 2. Jain, S.K. (1989). Medicinal Plants. National Book Trust, New Delhi. 3. Kitabchi, A.E., Umpierrez, G.E., Miles, J.M., Fisher, J.N. (2009). Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes, Diabetes Care 32 (7): 1335–43. 4. Shoback, edited by David, G., Gardner, D. (2011). "Chapter 17".Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 5. Rippe, edited by Richard, S. I., James, M. (2010). Manual of intensive care medicine (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 549. 6. Picot, J., Jones, J., Colquitt, J.L., Gospodarevskaya, E., Loveman, E., Baxter, L.,Clegg, A.J. (2009). The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric (weight loss) surgery for obesity: a systematic review and economic evaluation, Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 13 (41): 1–190, 215–357. 7. Cash, Jill. (2014). Family Practice Guidelines (3rd ed.). Springer: 396. 8. Balu, S., Alagesaboopathi, C. & Madhavan, S. (2000). Botanical Remedies for Diabetes from the Cauvery Delta of Tamilnadu; Journal of Economic & Taxonomic Botany, 23 (1&2): 359-262. 9. Kaul, S., Dwivedi, S. (2010). Indigeneous ayurvedic knowledge of some species in the treatment of human disease and disorders, International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1(1): 44-49 . Satyaendra et al., 2015
10. Dwivedi, S. (2009). Status survey of medicinal plants wealth of Malwa region of
Madhya Pradesh with special reference to conservation of vulnerable and endangered species, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., 33(2): 443-452. 11. Dwivedi, S., Tiwari V., Joshi, H. (2011). Medicinal utility of some plant used in the treatment of Diabetes by the rural people of Central India, Pharma Chem, 10 (7): 24-28. 12. National Research Council. (2006). Okra. Lost Crops of Africa: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa 2. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. Retrieved 2008-07-15(2). 13. Wagstaff, D. J. (2008). International Poisonous Plants Checklist: An Evidence- Based Reference. CRC Press: 1. 14. Bisby, F. (1994). Phytochemical Dictionary of the Leguminosae, CRC Press. 1(1). 15. Boning, C. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc: 35. 16. Fritsch, R.M., Friesen, N. (2002). Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy. In Rabinowitch, H.D.; Currah. L. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing: 9–10 . 17. Ensminger, A.H. (1994). Foods & nutrition encyclopediaCRC Press, 1:750. 18. Simonetti, G. (1990). Schuler, S., ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc . 19. Morton, J. (1987). "Annona squamosa". Fruits of warm climates. Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University: 69 . 20. Halpern, J.H. (2004). "Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States". Pharmacology & Therapeutics 102 (2): 131–138. 21. Huxley, A. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333- 22. Lim, T. K. (2014). Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants Flowers. Springer Science & Business, 8: 489–494 . 23. Amanda, J. (2003). Ornamental Tropical Shrubs. Pineapple Press Inc: 27. 24. Cassia Fistula (aburnum, Purging Fistula, Golden Shower, Amaltas)", Ayurveda 25. www.wikipedia.com 26. Mukherjee, P.K., Kumar, V., Kumar, N.S., Heinrich, M. (2008)."The Ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea-From traditional use to scientific assessment." J Ethnopharmacol. 20. 27. Fantz, P.R. (1991). "Ethnobotany of Clitoria (Leguminosae)". Economic Botany (New York Botanical Garden Press) 45 (4): 511–20 . 28. Jain, N., Ohal, C.C., Shroff, S.K., Bhutada, R.H., Somani, R.S., Kasture, V.S.,Kasture, S.B. (2003). "Clitoria ternatea and the CNS". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 75 (3): 529 . 29. Lim, T.K. (2012). "Phyllanthus emblica". Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants. Springer Netherlands: 258–296. Traditional Phytotherapy and FOLK LORE REMEDIES Used TO Cure Diabetes
30. Saeed, S., Tariq, P. (2007). "Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens". Pak J Pharm Sci, 20 (1): 32–35 . 31. Yeh, G.Y., Eisenberg, D.M., Kaptchuk, T.J., Phillips, R.S. (2003). "Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes". Diabetes Care 26 (4): 1277–94 . 32. Nahas, R.,Moher, M. (2009). "Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes". Can Fam Physicia, 55 (6): 591–596 . 33. Kottakkal, V.P.S Varier's Arya, V. S. (1996). Indian medicinal plants : a compendium of 500 species,3 (1). 34. Dressler, S., Schmidt, M., & Zizka, G. (2014). "Ipomoea mauritiana". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 35. Tritten, T. J. (2011). "State Dept. official in Japan fired over alleged derogatory remarks". Stars and Stripes . 36. Bagchi, I. (2005). "Food for thought: Green 'karela' for Red China".Times of 37. Syzygium, c. (2001) Skeels". The Plant List. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden . 38. Biswas, M., Biswas, K., Karan, T. K., Bhattacharya, S., Ghosh, A. K., Haldar, P. K. (2011). "Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Terminalia arjuna leaf". Journal of Phytology 3 (1): 33–38. 39. Daniel, Z., Maria, H. (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press: 122.
Università degli Studi di Firenze – Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Educazione Mapping of policies affecting female migrants and policy analysis: the Italian case Giovanna Campani, Tiziana Chiappelli, Ilundi Cabral, Alessandra Working Paper No. 6 – WP1 December 2006
TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES 67, 219 –231 (2002)Copyright © 2002 by the Society of Toxicology Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Chemical-Specific Profiles Hisham K. Hamadeh,* Pierre R. Bushel,* Supriya Jayadev,† Karla Martin,* Olimpia DiSorbo,† Stella Sieber,* Lee Bennett,* Raymond Tennant*,1 Raymond Stoll,† J. Carl Barrett,* Kerry Blanchard,† Richard S. Paules,* and Cynthia A. Afshari*,1