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THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING USING GLOBAL APPEAL VS CHINA-
SPECIFIC APPEALS: A STUDY OF CHINESE CONSUMERS
IN HONG KONG AND CHINA
Fung Sze Man
A Project
Submitted
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of
Master of Arts in Communication
Supervisor: Dr. Vivian Sheer
School of Communication
Hong Kong Baptist University
Hong Kong
August 2006
It is with pleasure and gratitude that I offer my acknowledgement to my supervisor, Dr Vivian Sheer for an inspiring guidance throughout this enterprise by generously sharing both her deep insight and unique spirit. I would also like give a special thank to my brother Matthew Fung for helping me to arrange the interviews. Also I am also grateful for the time and valuable sharing of those who participated in the interviews. Finally, profound gratitude goes to my parents and other family members whose love, understanding, and encouragement have helped sustain me and cheer me on. School of Communication Hong Kong Baptist University Abstract
The conventional view in marketing is that localized marketing and advertising is most effective because consumers in each local market have distinct needs. In recent years, much attention has focused on the concept of global marketing, wherein a company employs a common marketing plan in all the countries in which it operates. While globalism has become an important issue in a variety of disciplines, within the field of advertising, initial attention to this phenomenon largely claimed that the world is becoming a common marketplace in which people – no matter where they live – desire the same products and lifestyles. Some have argued that this belief is itself a cause of globalism, and that it results in a loss of culture and A reader-response research is employed in this study to understand the effects of global and local advertising to consumers in China and Hong Kong. The result showed that global advertising appeal is a successful tool as a sign for cosmopolitanism, status and technology, while the local appeal embraced Chinese values and nationalistic appeal are still important desire for Chinese consumers. These opposing advertising preferences have important implications for understanding how international advertising affects Chinese culture. Table of Contents
Acknowledgements Literature Review Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies A. Interview Questions B. Table of comparison between global and local ads Authorization placement Plagiarism Declaration The world economy globalization has been emerging for over 20 years, when Levitt (1983) called for global marketing strategies. After that, there was an enormous growth in global advertising, which is used in an attempt to influence largely middle-class global consumer segments across cultures. Global advertising can create consistent brand images worldwide, spend less marketing resources in producing unified appeals, and use only one or a few international agencies to handle the company's entire advertising (Haris 1994, Mueller 1991). However, critics have been raised on such unified nature of advertising. Global advertising appeals cannot take into account of cultural differences in different markets adequately. The localized approach, in which local managers conduct advertising research, and select and execute the appropriate creative theme that in favour of the local culture. Some companies gained in global advertising, while some others lost. A successful story of global advertising of a company in one country does not mean it can result the same in another. To succeed in the international market, it is vital for marketing and advertising professionals to have a clear understanding of which appeals are more effective in selling products within a culture. The advertising end is on consumers. It is important to communicate effectively with those target consumers. What are the effects of global appeals and local appeals in advertising? Which appeal is more preferable by consumers? Is their preference conditional? If their preference is conditional, under what conditions do they favour global appeals or local appeals? Can the appeals transferable among people with similar cultural background? Are there any similarities and differences on the preferences of global and local advertising appeals with the same culture? The discussions on whether go for global or local advertising appeals attracted both scholars and practitioners to study. It is found that the growing homogenous of cross-cultural groups with similar needs can be approached in the same way. In previous research, Javalgi et al. (1994), in their content analysis of print advertisements from Japan, Taiwan and Korea, found that advertising appeals that are effective in Japan would also be effective in Taiwan. The rapid expansions of Asian markets attract many multinational companies for business opportunities. They view Asian countries as a single regional market and transfer of international advertising strategies to the Asian market is becoming popular under the assumptions of the rising living standards and the growing similarity of consumer tastes in the region (Tai, 1997). Hong Kong and China share the same root of Chinese culture, also they have their own unique aspects of history, economic growth and consumption patterns including variations in consumer tastes and requirements that could differentially affect advertising content (Tai, 1997). The different pattern of growth during the past few decades may result struggle with how to reconcile conflict between traditional cultural values and new values within a culture. Therefore, it should be noted how and to what extent the changing nature of cultural values affects advertising effectiveness. On December 11th 2001, China became the 143rd member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) after more than fifteen years of preparatory work. This recent accession of China into the WTO has created excellent business opportunities for companies to enter or expand in China. In international marketing and advertising practices, understanding the cultural values of China and its consumers are important. The purpose of this research is to study the perceptions on global and local appeals of both Hong Kong and China and to investigate if these two countries which share the same cultural root, would have the same perception on global or local advertising appeals. Literature Review
Cultural Values and Advertising Appeals
Understanding cultural differences is often considered a prerequisite for successful international advertising (Keegan 1989). The reason is that consumers grow up in a particular culture and become accustomed to that culture's value systems, beliefs, and perception processes. Consequently, they respond to advertising messages that are congruent with their culture, rewarding advertisers who understand that culture and tailor ads to reflect its values. Culture, according to the definition by Hofstede (1980, p.19), is "the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influences a group's response to its environment," and it also referred as the "collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from those of another" (1991, p.5). Some researchers suggested that the fundamental cultural differences can be identified by examining the culturally generalizable aspects of values (e.g., Munson and McIntyre 1979). Advertisers heed such differences because values are of central concern in understanding consumer behavior (Carman 1978; Rosenberg 1956; Vinson, Scott, and Lamont 1977). Although culture is a complex, multifaceted construct, one of its most basic dimensions is the value placed on individualism versus collectivism, an aspect of culture employed in many studies (see Kim et al. 1994). The individualism-collectivism dichotomy essentially reflects basic value emphases at the cultural level -- the priorities or preferences, present in cultures or expressed by individuals, for particular goals rather than for others. The collectivism relationship of Chinese people, which people have an interdependent relationship with one another within a collectivity and group goals take precedence over individual goals is the dominant value in Chinese culture (Kluckhohn 1951; Rokeach 1973; Schwartz 1990). Researchers have argued that the difference in the individualism-collectivism dimension represents a prime distinction between Chinese and Western cultures (e.g., Chan 1986; Ho 1979). In Chinese collectivistic culture, it historically emphasized family, social interests, and collective actions, and deemphasized personal goals and accomplishments (Li 1978; Oh 1976). Compared to the Western individualistic lifestyle and resentment of conformity, the Chinese way of life has traditionally stressed interdependence and conformity. Despite the recent emergence of some consumer enclaves that have embraced such values as conspicuous consumption, conformity still tends to govern interpersonal relationships in Chinese society, and continues to have social and cultural approval (Hsu 1981). In contrast to the "rugged individualism" belief in Western counties, which advocated that each person is an entity separate from others and the group and, as such, is endowed with natural rights (Spence 1985). Individualism emphasized not only the concept that one is self- sufficient as a matter of fact, but also that one must strive toward self-sufficiency as an ideal: each individual controls his or her own destiny without help from others (Hsu 1983). Thus, individualism is considered central to the Western character (Spence 1985), and it values and encourages individual achievement and the attainment of material prosperity are rooted in that concept. It is also evidenced in theories of ego and moral development postulating that the highest stage a person can attain is one of autonomy, which is above acceptance of and conformity to society's standards (e.g., Loevinger 1976). Previous research has demonstrated that this individualism and collectivism framework has important implications for the content of advertisement. Such cultural values, norms, and characteristics are embedded in advertising appeals, the specific approaches advertisers use to communicate how their products will satisfy customer needs (Arens and Bovee 1994). The appeals are typically carried in the illustration and headlines of the ad and are supported and reinforced by the ad copy. Researchers have argued that cultural values are the core of advertising messages and typical advertisements endorse, glamorize, and inevitably reinforce cultural values (Pollay and Gallagher 1990). Evidence indicates that different cultures seem to emphasize different advertising appeals. For example, Japanese ads have been found to contain more emotional and fewer comparative appeals than American ads (Hong, Muderrisoglu, and Zinkhan 1987). Ads in China have been found to contain more utilitarian appeals that focus on state of being and promise a better life (Tse, Belk, and Zhou 1989). In summary, cultural values in ads tend to reflect the dominant cultural orientation of the country in which the ads are run. China is considered to be a typical collectivistic culture. However, it has 56 nationalities. It is hardly found a culturally homogeneous society. Multiculturalism means that many with their own distinctive cultural values and belief systems may be the cultural characteristic of multi- nationalities in China. Han is the largest nationality in China, which constitutes more than 90% of the total population, most of whom share Confucian values and virtues that emphasize family and collectivity. Although disparity in economic development across the different regions of China may have resulted in a multicultural environment even within the Han nationality, ample evidence shows that culture has great inertia and cultural change is slow (Triandis et al. 1988). In societies with long traditions, emphasis on collectivism changes very slowly, as evidenced by the traditional Chinese cultures found today in Taiwan and Hong Kong despite their economic divergence from China. Cultural Values in Hong Kong Advertisings
Hong Kong was under British rule for more than 150 years. The long years of British presence left remarkably little impression on the Chinese population of Hong Kong who never identified with the colonial rulers. Although living under a colonial regime and experiencing low social and political participation, the majority of Hong Kong Chinese people are proud of their Hong Kong identity. However, the colonial rule and their refusal to identify with the rulers made Hong Kong Chinese people feel they were living on borrowed time, and in a borrowed place. And developed a short-term orientation, focusing on quick profit, self- reliance and risk-taking behaviours have been the key to survival as well as to success in Hong Kong. Since 1997, Hong Kong returned to Mainland China, the one-country-two- systems model means that there has been little direct interference from the central government in Beijing. Therefore, Hong Kong Chinese are expected to carry a different set of values with that of Mainland China, although they share the deep-rooted of traditional values with them. The advertising industry in Hong Kong is dominated by American multinational advertising agencies. Among its top 10 advertising agencies in 1995, nine were the subsidiaries of American multinational agencies (Agency Report 1995). Most of the copywriters of these agencies are local Hong Kong Chinese who have studied abroad. Usually they are under the supervision of American or English-speaking executive creative directors. Many multinational advertisers require a high degree of standardization so that the ads are either a total transfer, or a local translation of the ads that their headquarters create. Even when the local copywriters are allowed to produce their own ads, with their background and training in the West, advertisements produced by these agencies are likely to have a western look, or at least a western graphic design style. In addition, the state-of-art in advertising is defined from a western perspective. Advertising awards used to be judged mainly by English-speaking advertising professionals. It was only until recently that Chinese-language ads won major prizes in Hong Kong's annual advertising awards (Huang). Because of strong Western influence, Hong Kong's advertising seems to be dominated by the Western appeal in the past years. Being an East-West meeting point and under British colonial rule for over a decade, Hong Kong has a culture that can be characterized by a blend of Western (largely British and American) and Chinese culture. After returned to China since 1997, will Hong Kong consumers have stronger tendency to uphold Chinese culture? Or will the political change foster Hong Kong consumers' escapist attitude of seeking immediate materialistic gratifications, which are consider as Western? Cultural Values in China Advertising
Globalism was started in China since 1920s and 1930s, at that time, Shanghai was the 6th largest city in the world and had a thriving advertising industry promoting both foreign and domestic brands, from high-end consumer products, like cars, cosmetics, electrical appliances, to low-end one, like soaps, cigarettes, etc. The large colonial influence of British, American, and French expatriates in the city enhanced the swirl of cosmopolitan elements evident in Shanghai streets, shops, media, entertainments, architecture, and advertising. Until the end of the Chinese civil war and the formation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the reaction against international corporations and the humiliation of the foreign presence in Shanghai and other "treaty port cities" in China (Lee 1999). After the founding of the PRC, in the first few years, foreign participation in advertising was stopped by the government. With the economic reform and Open Door policy in 1978, China has had the fastest growth in both economy and advertising industry in the world. Shanghai and other cities of China are awash in a mix of foreign and local goods (Davis 2000). The global and the local are both evident in Chinese marketing. It is common that a local Chinese brand might portray itself as foreign, through advertising and packaging. At the same time, a global or foreign brand might portray itself as Chinese as to hit the taste and need of Chinese consumers. There is also a strong interest to include Western flavour in branding and advertising in China. In 1992, over 12% of the advertising models in a sample of 130 nationally distributed Chinese consumer magazines were non-Chinese (Zhou and Meng 1998). The influx of Western values has been evidenced in China with the changing of economic and political factors. While advertisers' main concern is whether using global or local appeals is more effective in selling products, there is a need to learn the view of Chinese consumers. To understand consumer perceptions and reactions should be the hot topic for further discussion. Divergent factors of Cultural Values in Advertising
It is argued that, advertising appeal and culture may not match for several reasons and in certain situations. That means, an individualistic appeal may be used in a collectivistic culture vice versa. An advertiser may follow a global, standardized approach, and the advertising appeals employed may not reflect the prevailing cultural values of a particular country. Some researchers hold that for the individualism-collectivism dimension of culture, the difference between two cultures' orientation is a matter of degree rather than bipolar and dichotomous (e.g., Schwartz 1990). Also, although the terms "individualism" and "collectivism" are used to characterize cultures and societies, not everyone within a particular culture conforms to the cultural norms (Triandis et al. 1985); there are idiocentric individuals in collectivistic cultures and allocentric individuals in individualistic cultures (Triandis 1989). Beyond these psychological tendencies, there are also many ingroups in individualistic cultures (e.g., family, coworkers, clubs, etc.) and much of the behavior of individuals belonging to such groups is consistent with the groups' norms, although the relationship between the individuals and the group is less stable than that in a collectivistic culture (Triandis 1989). Similarly, individualistic values may be present within collectivistic cultures. The discussion here offers a contradictory explanation: an appeal that does not match a culture may not necessarily produce inferior results at all times. Other factors, such as product characteristics may act as a moderate towards advertising effectiveness. In previous study in the United States (Weinberger and Campbell 1990/1991), it found that certain products (such as feeling versus thinking products according to the FCB Grid) are particularly suited for certain advertising appeals such as humor. In other study of the effectiveness of different advertising appeals, Johar and Sirgy (1991) pointed out that the effectiveness of value expressive as opposed to utilitarian appeals is a function of such product-related factors as product differentiation, life cycle, scarcity, and conspicuousness and of such consumer-related factors as involvement, prior knowledge, and self-monitoring. Hence, the effectiveness of a culturally incongruent advertising appeal may be moderated by a variety of factors. This view is consistent with theories on the object based function of attitude. According to Shavitt (1990), the purpose an object serves may substantially influence the functions of attitudes toward the object. Some objects (such as a toothbrush) mainly serve a personal purpose because they are used mostly in private and do not have social meaning (i.e., the social projection of self through the display of the object). Other objects, such as a car or camera, often serve a social purpose of self-projection and status communication although they can also serve a personal purpose such as providing transportation or taking pictures. The purpose of an object is closely related to how it perceived by the consumer. Researchers have argued that consumers own objects for the value they provide. Such a value of possession is rooted in the objects' meanings to the consumer, according to Richins (1994), which may be either public (i.e., meanings assigned to an object by members of society at large) or private (i.e., personal and subjective meanings of an object held by an individual). In a similar vein, other researchers have demonstrated that consumption visibility significantly influences consumers' expectations of social approval. Hence, we expect that a consumer's need to conform to cultural values and norms when evaluating products may depend on how the products are used (the product use condition). An appeal that emphasizes individual benefits (individualistic appeal) therefore may be effective in promoting the toothbrush in a predominantly collectivistic culture. In a parallel way, a socially visible product such as a camera need not reflect a society's level of individualism to the extent that would be expected for a product for private use. A toothbrush need not reflect the prevailing collectivist societal value the way a camera would in a collectivistic culture, given that the latter is used in public and serves a social purpose and the former does not. An appeal that highlights the social benefits of the product (collectivistic appeal) may work well for such a product in a predominantly individualistic culture. We expect this influence of product use condition to be more evident for a culturally incongruent advertising appeal than for a culturally congruent appeal. Stated differently, moderation by product use condition when a culturally congruent advertising appeal is used would be less obvious because of the predominance of the culturally congruent appeal, as argued previously. However, when a culturally incongruent appeal is used, product use condition would become more salient. Hence, when a culturally incongruent advertising appeal matches the product's use condition, the ad would be more effective than one in which a culturally incongruent advertising appeal matches neither the culture nor the product's use Moreover, there are few more ethnographic studies which conducted in multinational Asian advertising agencies, the conclusions are opposite to those suggestion of an inevitable Asian embrace of Westernism and globalism. Superficial elements of Western culture are used and interpreted in a more nuanced way of understanding. It suggests that there are definite associations of many things Western with modernity, high status, and cosmopolitan, these same objects can be used in ways that reinforce rather than overwhelm local cultural values (Zhou and Meng 1998). For instance, Japanese women's magazines often use Western models to portray sexual topics because the use of foreigners in broaching these topics does not violate Japanese norms, while the use of Japanese models would clearly do so (Rosenberger 1995). Similarly, Belk and Bryce (1986) found that a women, children, and comedians are used in Japanese advertising to humorously advocate buying a product while avoiding the superior-to-subordinate tone that such commands would otherwise convey. There have been a number of studies of global advertising and advertising in Asia or in China specifically, there are very few that focus on consumer perceptions and reactions to these ads. Instead, they are either tend to focus on content analyses of advertising techniques and themes, or, less often, on analyses of advertisers and the way they create advertising in an Asian or specifically Chinese context. Under the different cultural background and historical factors, the advertising appeals used among China local and Hong Kong are different with one another. Moreover, it is hardly conclude that people have a higher preference on those advertising appeals consistent with their culture, while there are many factors are perceived to be more important than purely cultural bound. The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding on how Chinese consumers interpret, think about, and respond to global and local advertising appeals. Before we examine how different the global and local advertising appeals affect on Chinese consumers, we have to know how fully can they understand the advertising meaning in global advertising creative. While domestic ads are often understood differently than advertisers may have intended (Mick and Polti 1989), these problems are compounded when advertisers and audiences have different cultural backgrounds. Hence, our research will examine how Chinese consumers' understandings, their responses and reactions to global and local advertising appeals. Methodology
The reader-response approach was used to study how Hong Kong and China consumers react to advertisements with varying emphases on the global, foreign, or Western, and the Chinese, local, or Asian in their appeals. Based on the Pasadeos and Chi's conceptualizations of traditional appeals versus Western appeals, the instrumental values and terminal values that emphasize materialistic satisfaction and individualism were classified as "Western appeals." The instrumental values and terminal values that emphasize respect for tradition, friendship, and collectivism were classified as "traditional appeals." The instrumental and terminal values used in this study were based on Rokeach's suggestions, with the addition of other common values found in advertising identified by the author. An advertisement may contain both traditional appeals and Western appeals. (Refer to Appendix B – table of comparison between global and local ads) Global Appeals (Western appeals) Fourteen value items were used to indicate Western appeals. Instrumental values such as individualistic, technology/ adventure, imaginative, informative, funny, modernity; terminal values such as perfection, convenience, status, effectiveness, pleasure, comfort, performance and freedom were indicators of Western appeals. Local Appeals (China-specific appeals) Fourteen value items were used to indicate local appeals. Instrumental values such as collectivity, familial, logical, emotional, traditional, friendly, courtesy; terminal values such as success/ sense of accomplishment, harmony, love, social approval, happiness, life and security were indicators of traditional appeals. Print ads promoting branded consumer products were collected. To minimize the confounding factors of television ads, such as the sound, music, the length of advertising, which can affect the validity of research results, only magazine ads were chosen for this study. To ensure the result collected in this research was purely based on the different of advertising appeals used in the ads, we controlled the factors such as product's country of origin, product function that might affect the choice of respondents, the ads chose in this study were promoting the same brand and product. Total 18 of print ads were chosen with 9 major product categories: banking services, computers, skin care, soft drinks, household appliances, toothpaste, mobile phones, shampoo, and sportswear. The ads were matched in pair with the same product or service, such that one used a global appeal and one used a local appeal, while being the same in other dimensions. But no attempt was made to prescribe which were global ads and which were local ads, as I want to let the participants make these determinations themselves. The elements that varied in the ads along global versus local dimensions included background setting, model or celebrity nationality, language style, and instrumental value of global or local element. To avoid the language barrier for understanding the ads, those ads with English texts were translated into Chinese. Participants from China were recruited through connection with an international company located in Shenzhen. Shenzhen is a new and thriving city on the south coast of China, just across the border from Hong Kong. Because the city is largely new and has literally grown from a small town to a large modern city within the past 20 years, we expected the upscale nature of our participants, their advertising exposure, readership skills, and cosmopolitanism are likely to be higher than average, even than would be the case for some other major Total 20 participants were selected equally from both Hong Kong (n 10) and Mainland 10). To avoid cultural contamination, we only choose those participants who are born, raised and now working in the focal country. Males and females were equal in number, and ages ranged from 25 to 40. In order to hold constant on the education level that may vary their understanding of advertising appeals. We will only select those with samples with secondary education level or above. Samples who met with the above mentioned criteria were included in this study. Procedures
The interview was conducted on one-to-one basis, so the interviewer can better control the interviews, and asked follow-up questions to interviewees' answers, thus to assure a deeper understanding of the subject of investigation. Each interview lasted between forty-five to one hour, and was conducted in Mandarin (putonghua) with China interviewees; Cantonese with Hong Kong respondents. Each interview was recorded with the permission of the interviewees and there were no objections to this. The print ads were shown in pairs where one was thought to be more global and one more local. The particular ads to which a person was exposed are generally those in which they are interested (e.g. cosmetic ads were shown to people who used cosmetics, computer ads were shown to those who brought or were considering buying a computer). Each interviewee was shown with at least 4 sets of print ads. They were encouraged to examine the print ads for as long as they wished. Prior to the interview, a summary of the research objectives was submitted to the interviewees and the informants were asked to choose along with a list of 9 product categories to make sure the ads shown were their particular interests. During the interview, I sought to let our respondents told us about the ads as they understood them. And began by asking them to tell what they thought of the ad and what they took it to mean. Follow-up probes also sought to learn there were any particular aspects they found confusing, whether they liked or disliked the ad, and any moral messages they thought these ads conveyed. Key Questions Included in the Questionnaire
The questions asked in the interviews were based on a semi-structured interview format that sought to ensure a complete coverage of understandings towards both global and local appeal ads to our respondents. With the different in cultural between Western and Chinese, the global ads which designed for Westerners may not be the same level of understanding and favored by Chinese. To investigate the advertising effects of global and local ads to Chinese consumers, I will focus on the two main areas, first, how clearly is the global advertising idea understood by Chinese? Second, what is the consumer response towards global and local advertising appeal? (Refer to Appendix A for details) Analysis
Each interview was fully transcribed in English on the same day as the interview and was conducted by the researcher's own. The analysis involved independent readings, viewings, and analysis by researcher. The researcher paid close attention to any differences in original and translated interview meanings. The focus of the research analysis was first on participant understandings of the ads, and then on their reactions to global versus local appeals. Findings
Concern that understanding towards the ad is the basic requirement for further derive meaning and interpretation of the ads effects. Our study begins with respondents understanding first and followed by their interpretations and reactions to global and local advertising appeals will be discussed next. Both respondents of China and Hong Kong can understood reasonably well on most of global advertisings, however, it is found that most of them have difficulty on interpreting of some ads that carries implicit Western cultural values. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 2a & 2b Consider the ad of Samsung refrigerator (see Ad 2a), no doubt is the least understood one among the nine global ads. Those who are not familiar with the Western culture felt difficult to understand the implicit meaning. To clarify a clear understanding, the meaning was consulted with a friend of the researcher from Australian, he interpreted that "… what the ad is saying is that ordinary people keep their grapes in a bowl, but sophisticated people, who like wine, know that grapes / wine needs to be stored properly, i.e. in the Samsung fridge." The ad is trying to associate the Samsung fridge with professional and reliable image to All of respondents from China and Hong Kong showed struggled to understand the implicit meaning of "grapes", as well as the value of professionalism, were less evident to Chinese respondents, as shown in below comments: Researcher: What do you think this ad is about?
Informant (male engineer, age 28): Um. [Read the ad again.] It's an ad of
Samsung refrigerator. R: How can you get this answer?
I: Actually it is hard to understand this ad until I read the words carefully and found
that it mentions something about food storage. Then, I noticed a picture of refrigerator showing at the corner. I can't understand the creative too. What is the thing inside the R: You guess…
I: Is it a grape?
R: Can you see the connection between grapes and refrigerator?
I: This ad makes me confused. I think it wants to say that the grapes or the fruits can
stay good fresh in this Samsung refrigerator. I don't know why it used such indirect approach. It made the ad more complicated… The confusion here was shared by other Chinese respondents. One respondent thought the color tone in this ad is quite awful. She felt uncomfortable with the horrible color expression of the grape and the lips. She would prefer if the color can be more representing to real. A male respondent from Hong Kong, who had studied in France as exchanged student, can understood the association between wine and grape mentioned in this ad, but he questioned that if this refrigerator can control the temperature for storage of good wine. Another respondent also questioned if the wine can maintain a better taste by storing in refrigerator. The core element to understand this ad is on the Grape and wine. However, Grape was not thought as related to wine in Chinese mind, even grape wines are growing popular. Grape wine is also associated with sophisticated people which represented high-class and high standard of lifestyle. These values were used to represent the professional and extra-ordinary performance of the refrigerator. Without this understanding of Western culture, it was hard for the respondents to address the implicit meaning and even its aim of delivering a professional and high-tech image in this ad was not evident to our Chinese respondents. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 7a & 7b The variance on interpretation also happened in the ad of the Diet Coke ad (see Ad 7a). In the global ad of Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, a clean background with a glass of iced coke with the name "Diet Coke" was used. Above the glass, it showed some bubbles coming up. In the middle of the ad, it has a headline "Live it up. Drink it down". The name "Diet Coke" was translated to "Jian Yee Kei Le", which parallel to the one used in China local market. Hong Kong respondents were shown a pretty good understanding towards the ad, as they all know the Diet Coke well, they can associate with the variables, like cheer of releasing burden of getting fat, relaxed and freedom of drinking, that implicit in the ad. Also they were mostly able to recognize the visual metaphor of bubbles with fun, happy, and freedom, although the interviewer guidance certainly helped this interpretation as well. However, most of the respondents from China were failed to comprehend what it promotes. Even the interviewer tried to give them some directions for understanding, the values of worship freedom and enjoyment were unable to address by the China respondents, as shown in these comments: Informant (female purchasing manager, age 32): Diet Coke?
Researcher: Can you see any elements in the ad that make up what this coke is?
I: I believe this coke contents more gas, the bubbles mean the gas are coming up. Is it
R: Diet coke is designed for those who are more health conscious. It contents no sugar
and low calorie. This coke is also selling in China. Have you heard it before? I: I'm not aware of it. Maybe comparatively China people are less health conscious.
R: Okay, let's go back to this ad again. What message can you see in this ad associate
I: There is nothing I can see the association of the value as you mentioned about this
coke. I think the ad is too hard sell. The design is too simple, only has a glass of coke, I can't feel the heart of making this ad… I don't like it… The interpretations of this ad to most of the China respondents seem quite varied. One of the female respondents asked if Coca-Cola changed the name of the coke by adding a word related to healthy as to attract people to drink more. She thought it was a tricky ad to the consumers. A male respondent, who drinks coke everyday, although he knows what diet coke is, he still cannot understand the meanings in this ad. He said that the ad is exaggerating the gas contained in the coke, he thought it was impossible to believe based on his experience of drinking coke. Another respondent said diet coke was designed for kids and this ad is trying to use the bubbles to appeal kids. The local Coca-Cola ad was shown to the respondents, right after the global one, for comparison after the first part of questions had finished. The local ad shows a bottle of Diet Coke on a beach, the headline message is "expose your good figure" and also mentioned the elements "no sugar" and "lesser calorie content" besides the coke. This ad was more widely understood and this ad also acts as guidance to those who felt confused with the global ad. However, they were still unable to relate with the values, like freedom, relaxed and personal enjoyment delivered in the first ad. Their rewards of drinking Diet Coke were directly associated with slim body for getting social approval and confidence, that were supported in the China-appealing ad. The emphasis on group consensus made those individualistic values on freedom expression, personal satisfaction meaningless to the Chinese society. The emphasis on collectivistic value was found in both China and Hong Kong respondents and supported by their comments: (Project supervisor, China, age 25): I can clearly differentiate Diet Coke with
normal coke when I read the second ad. Having a slim body is what I think the most important reason for drinking the diet coke. It is a good news if I have no worried to show my bikini in the beach during summer. (Sales executive, Hong Kong, age 26): The ad gives me the reason for drinking Diet
Coke directly. The social pressure forced the gals to stay slim. It is a trend in the society and the standard of beauty, all the gals are struggled to follow. (Assistant marketing manager, Hong Kong, age 30): Getting fat is not only the
worry of gals, it is also a threat to males nowadays. There are many bad words linked with fat people. If this coke contents lesser calorie, it is a good news for me as I am a (Senior engineer, Hong Kong, age 33): I think no gals will have brave to wear bikini
if they are not slim enough. Stay slim is a life long project for gals. You can get a lot of praised if you have a good figure. These results showed that culture is a very important factor for someone to understand the meaning of an ad. For those who are unfamiliar with the origin culture of the ad, they can hardly understand and give a similar interpretation as the advertiser wants to deliver. Moreover, it is easy to get the reader's direct understanding and create positive feeling if the ad can address the culture characteristics. Response towards Global appeals
Despite occasional confusion and misunderstanding on some global appeal elements, our respondents found positive connection between global appeals and the advertised products in most of the print ads. Given an adequate level of understanding of the ad, the next critical feature in audience reaction is the emotion and overall feeling it evokes. For most of the respondents, they claimed that products related to technology and status were seen to be more high-tech and higher status when they were associated with Western appeals. The global advertising techniques were effectively associated with modernity, technology advanced and Refer to Appendix C - Ad 1a & 1b In responding to the ad of Dell computer, the global ad successfully gained a better response of most Chinese respondents than the local one. In the global ad of Dell computer, the ad is using motorcycle to associate with the computer, while the local ad is using Chinese printing of eagle. One of the Hong Kong respondents (Assistant marketing manager, age 30) said:
The global ad of Dell computer is better than the local one. Although I have the knowledge that Dell is an American-made computer, the China ad here made me feel that it is a product of China. [What do you think about China-made product?] I
don't mean that China products are all bad, comparatively speaking, people like me have the perception that Western product is more advanced in technology and reliability. It is better to use the global ad and maintain its Western product image. Another respondent from Hong Kong said: Of course people perceive foreign technology is better. I'm not worshipping foreign things and fawning on foreign power, but people are fond of foreign technology. If the ad is performed in a Western style, it will be more convincing in terms of quality. (Sales supervisor, Hong Kong, age 27):
A respondent from China who supports China-made products, also thought that it seems more appropriate to use the global ad as Western brand is regarded as technological expertise than I can't deny that Western countries are perceived to be more technology advanced. Maybe it is a matter of rooted perception. China is progressing and development and I don't think there is a big distance of technology advancement between China and West. Many electrical products, from Japan for example, are actually made in China. Sony products are also made by our company. (Engineer, China, age 27)
Besides the considerations that the global ad is more able to associate with technology products, other respondents who preferred the global ad suggested that the global advertising techniques itself are more professional and modern that would be more representing when associating to high-technology products, they said: Chinese culture are seems better in presenting civilization, relationship, harmony, family. For presenting modern and innovative products, I think Western culture would be more able to achieve this aim. (PR executive, Hong Kong, age 28)
I think both of the ads here want to associate with power and energy, but comparatively, I feel a stronger association for the global ad using motorcycle than the local arrangement. [Is that because the local ad makes you think it is a China-
made product?) I think it is a matter of expression and the advertising angle used in
global ad is more professional which can present the technology products in a better way. (Product manager, Hong Kong, age 32)
The way the China ads doing is too local and old-fashioned and sometimes less able to represent something modern and high-tech. (Accountant, China, age 30)
Western culture is perceived to portray better than Chinese culture in technology advancement. Western countries are regarded as modern, trendy, innovative and technological advanced countries, when global appeals are used in the ads, these values are reflected as part of the advertising product. It made our participants had positive reactions in reading ads with global appeals because they potentially give a product a high-quality image and are associated with high-tech image. Also the professional and innovative advertising technique of the West can approach the technology advertisement in a better way. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 4a & 4b Besides, global appeals are considered as better when associating to high status and stylish image. Referring to the Samsung mobile phone ad, it evoked the comments like these: I like the global ad. It looks stylish and modern. [How about the local one, don't you
like it?] It (local one) brings me harmony and joyful feeling, but I think mobile phone
is a personal product for personal use, rather than for fun sharing. I prefer having a phone for representing superior status. (Programmer, China, age 35)
The global ad is attractive. The phone in global ad looks more high-class, and it makes me feel that the ringing tone would be more grand and classic. While for the local ad, I am afraid the music will be too loud and noisy. I feel proud if I have the mobile phone like the one in global ad. (Marketing manager, Hong Kong, age 39)
We found most Chinese respondents prefer the global ad for its association of luxury and high status. This reaction is driven by the desire for global cosmopolitanism and status goods for the sake of face. Besides the practical value, mobile phone also has an instrumental value for representing the owner's status. In the Samsung mobile phone ad, the global ad associated to luxury and cosmopolitan sophisticated style, which successfully attract the Chinese readers by showing as a prestige of owning the product. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 5a & 5b In responding to the Crest toothpaste print ads, most of the reasons supporting the global ad were because it provides more functional claims to differentiate the products, there were no particular strong global appeal reasons for their choice, but three of them added with the I believe the global ad because it is more professional compared to the local ad. I have more confidence on Western countries for its scientific advancement. Their claims in global ad seem to be more reliable. (Accountant, China, age 30)
I believe more on health products by Western countries. When it is put on the market, it is safe and reliable. Unlike those counterfeit and shoddy products. Health standard in China is comparatively poor. I lost confidence even on it ads. (Product manager,
Hong Kong, age 33)
Usually I rely on professionals when they choose health concerning products. Actually both the ads here are not convincing. [If a dentist recommends is entitled in the ad,
what do you think?] I still hesitate if it done by Chinese dentists, I'm afraid they are
not globally recognized and not objective. The health standard in China is a little bit less advanced. It will be definitely better if it is presented in a global ad. A Western dentist must be more convincing than Chinese. (Marketing manager, Hong Kong,
Foreign ad seems to be perceived as more professional and reliable when it related to health concerning topic for its scientific advancement and reputation. The respondents here show more confidence on Western claims and their products. The second man here identifies an additional concern. He fears that many local Chinese products are either counterfeit or low in quality and he believes that foreign brand are more likely to be authentic and effective. For the third man, he believes that Western countries are more professional for its technology and he has more confidence as if it is presented by expertise of the West. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 8a & 8b A pair of Nike ad shows here is presented by Marion Jones, the sprint Olympic champion, in the global ad and a Chinese model represent the local ad. Model ethnicity and celebrity are the key issue for discussion. Celebrity endorser may be perceived as possessing richer images based on their roles in their field of celebrity. Besides the visible attributes of gender, age, and perceived physical attractiveness are part of a celebrity image, whether the spokesperson's celebrity comes from entertainment, sports, or from some other area of endeavor made a different in how their messages were interpreted. Thus, it is important to distinguish between unknown models and known celebrates in considering ethnicity issue. When we show the Nike's global and local ad, some of our respondents cannot identify the model in global ad is Marion Jones, the discussions were purely based on the ethnicity of the model. While for those who can identify Marion Jones, it raised their discussion about the celebrity concerned issue. In this case, we distinguish the two elements of unknown model and celebrity into the discussion and found the below reply. The effect of unknown models who appear to be Chinese or non-Chinese partly carries over from the model's physical attributes, they said: The ad performed by the American black model is much better because she presents better on energy and power from her action than the Chinese model. The Chinese model looks unnatural and not energetic enough. Her black skin color and muscular body are more attractive and more suitable to perform a sportswear ad. (Sales
Executive, China, 28)
I think that foreigners' body structures and figures are quite different from Chinese. They are usually taller and muscular, which make them perform better when the ad wants to associate with power and strength. (Account Executive, Hong Kong, 27)
Responding to the same ad, another woman said, The foreigner in global ad did quite well in representing Nike through her physical attributes is quite matched in representing the energy. [How about if it is a local
sports brand, do you think we should use the foreigners for their physical
representative?] It would be quite strange. It seems that we are worshipping
foreigners and fawning after the foreign power. I think we can endorse the Chinese athletics. They can also be good representatives. In general, I think where the product is from, the ad should be performed by a model in that place, otherwise, it seems eroding our own nation. (Engineer, China, 31)
It is clear from our data that matching a foreign model to a foreign brand is most acceptable when the product is a global brand. There is also an advantage in matching the perceived characteristics of the model's ethnicity or nationality to the desire image of the brand and the product. However, when a foreign model is put in a local brand, it will evoke strong opposition since it touches the nationalistic feeling. Especially, it results in recent years, propaganda denouncing the West and warning people against fawning after and worshiping On the other hand, for those respondents who found that the global ad is using a sport star as spokesperson, it tended to evoke more nationalistic feelings. Nationalistic sentiments seem to be an important factor, in this case. None of the respondents discuss the physical attraction of Marion Jones, but they believe the Chinese ad can perform the same result if it is presented by Chinese sport stars. They said: The global ad is better in this case because it is presented by an athletic, Marion Jones. Also her dressing is sportier than the Chinese model and her posture is better in relating to running. (Program Executive, China, 27)
I know she is Marion Jones. She is famous and she won many metals in international competitions. People will be influenced as they believe Nike is also her recommended brand. However, as the product is marketed in Chinese society, it will be good if it is performed by local athletes. China also has many champions in Olympic Games and they are also well-known, like Fu Mingxia, Liu Cheung. They make me feel amiable. I think older people may not know the foreign athletic stars, but they know the Chinese. (Marketing Officer, Hong Kong, 29)
There is no way for comparison in these two ads, since the local ad is not presented by using a Chinese athlete. I believe the impact will be greater and more friendly if the local ad is performed by Chinese athletes. (Product Manager, Hong Kong, 31)
The reluctance here to say negative about Chinese or say positive things about Westerners when they found that the models in these two ads are not parallel in position and sharing same status, as one is an athletic while the other is just a local model. The reactions flavouring the local athletes are reflection of nationalistic pride. Response towards Local appeals
There were also many instances that the local and Chinese elements of ads were seen as good. Further to the above discussion on the model's ethnicity issue. The effect of unknown models who appear to be Chinese or Westerners partly carries over from product country of origin effects, and partly it is found that matching the perceived characteristics of someone's ethnicity or nationality to the desired image of the brand or the product. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 3a & 3b In responding to a commercial by Olay Total Effects skincare lotion featuring a Caucasian model, paired with another commercial by a Chinese model. The effect of the local ad has a stronger impact than the global one. The respondents said, I prefer Chinese because it targets the China market. It's more friendly to be performed by Chinese. Foreigners are less attractive. (Sales manager, China, 39)
To promote skincare products, it is important for me to see the result on model's face. The one presented by Chinese is more convincing. Since skincare requirements are different varied against different skin types and the climate reason, the result show good on Europeans may not be the same good as on Chinese. (Project supervisor,
China, 33)
Both ads look good. As Olay is an international brand, I think it is appropriate to present by a foreigner. But I feel more impressive and have more confidence on buying the product when the ad shows by a Chinese model. It is an important concern on the application result when choosing a skincare products, which are vary for different skin needs. (Assistant trading manager, Hong Kong, 31)
Similarly, to the Nike ad, a key differentiating factor in the relation to foreign or local model is concerned if the perceived characteristics of someone's ethnicity or nationality are the desired image of the brand or the product. Independent to the celebrity issue concerned, the preference on the model's ethnicity is depended on the matching between the model's ethnicity characteristics and the brand image itself. The physical characteristics of American black chosen in the ad are more consistent to Nike in terms of product origin and image. While for skincare products, the concern is demonstrating the product effects, based on this, it is easier to gain resonant for using a model with same ethnic. Several local ads in present study were uniformly well received when it emphasized the Chinese values, like family, concern of human. Although the result did not show that whether global ad or local ad did better in presenting such values, the influence is that the response towards those ads presence with these appeals are positive and they are all Chinese ads in this Refer to Appendix C - Ad 2a & 2b Responding to an ad of Samsung refrigerator, the local ad was well received because of its appeal of family and harmony relationship. While the global ad emphasized purely on the utility value of the refrigerator cannot evoke a positive reaction to the respondents. The respondents are: I like this ad particular on its showing of the joyful event of a family. They are happy together. [Any association do you have?] I associate it with myself. It is what the
scenery I look for. The theme is that the refrigerator can bring healthy to a family for happy and love. It demonstrated the model of an idea family life. (Sales manager,
Hong Kong, 32)
I'm satisfied with this ad because the feeling is warm and harmony. It is a better arrangement than the global ad. Since refrigerator is home appliance, it should be related to family care. [Don't you think that the practical value that mentioned in
global ad is important to you?] Maybe we are Chinese, we love family and such
harmony relation is more important than anything else. (Senior engineer, China, 37)
It is quite a common appeal used in China ads. Although it is not as creative as the global ad, which can draw my attention with its creativity, the feeling of local ad is stronger and more impressive to me because it concerns the Chinese culture of family care. (Secretary, China, 35)
Chinese people are connected collectively. They appeal to ads as it can evoke them the sense of consonance to their ideal family life. The pragmatic appeal in global ad was not as appealing to the familial values of local China ad. However we are not sure if global ads can invoke the Chinese values the same successful as the Chinese ads did, since there are no global ads included in this study were perceived to do so. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 6a & 6b Similarly, the ad of Principal insurance, the local ad attempts to attract the consumers by advocating the Chinese value. It develops the feeling of trust through linking a "relation" with client. It said that their company valued people, and they use heart to listen and they precious the needs of each client. While the global ad attracts people by telling that their insurance is able to maintain your edge towards uncertainty. The local ad links the consumers with the emphasized of "relationship" which successfully bring positive reaction. The respondents said: I like the local ad which is more human, and I have the feeling of being respected. I think buying insurance is like buying a service, I can imagine someone taking care of me as mentioned in local ad. (Secretary, China, 35)
I think both ads cannot attract me to buy its insurance, because there are many things to consider rather than what being told by an ad. But I feel warm and secure towards the local ad because it said Principal used patient and heart to listen and response to my needs. (Marketing officer, Hong Kong, 29)
Chinese are very collectivistic, particularly with people whom they are connected by certain types of guanxi (relatedness or connections among individuals). According to Confucianism, renqing is an internalized moral virtue that is more powerful than laws. The Chinese values that associated in the local ad successfully bring a stronger feeling to Chinese. Refer to Appendix C - Ad 9a & 9b The exaggeration advertising style is commonly used among global ads. When it is used in local ads, it is regarded as funny and refreshing to most Chinese respondents. In the local ad of Nizoral anti-dandruff shampoo, it shows a man sitting on a bench inside a park, his dandruff is so much that cover all his shoulder and it looks like bread-crumbs that attracts many pigeons to come and eat it. Although some respondents are hesitate in accepting such overstating style of expression, most of respondents found it can successfully in drawing attention by creating humor and fun to the readers. While the Hong Kong respondents showed a higher acceptance on such tactic and appreciated much on its humor. I like the funny style used in this ad. [What association do you have?] It is really an
embarrassment if my dandruff is so much that attracts so many pigeon to eat. Although I think it won't happen in reality as the taste of dandruff is different from bread-crumb, it is a good imagination. (Secretary, China, 35)
Compared to the implicit way of expression used in the global ad, the exaggeration used in local one is more successful to capture my attention and leave me a stronger memory. It is not a common way used in China ad, I believe its impression will be much greater in China. (Marketing manager, Hong Kong, 34)
Other respondents from China mentioned that they should discount the message and appreciated its humor rather than take it as literally factual in the way most associated with Chinese ad. They said: At the beginning, I have some hesitation on accepting the exaggeration used in the ad, but when I treat it as humor, it is really a refreshing ad that I ever read in local ad. (Engineer, China, 28)
This ad is creative and successful bring a funny topic to be discussed among friends. If this shampoo presents the idea in factual way, it cannot create the same effect as now. [Do you like the exaggeration way it used?] I think it is acceptable, because it
exaggerates the impact and problem of dandruff on this man to draw our attention. It is not exaggerating the result and to mislead people. (Product manager, China, 32)
From the response of our respondents, we found that Chinese are quite open in accepting different appealing tactics used on the ads. When they saw the exaggeration ad, they are able to adjust their thinking and understand it as a humor rather than believing it as reflecting factual. In the ad of Nizoral anti-dandruff shampoo, Chinese respondents are all appreciated and felt impressed on the refreshing style that the local ad can do. Discussion
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of global and local advertising appeals in China and Hong Kong. With the globalization in economy, the influx of Western brands, Western cultural values, as well as its advertising appeals are ubiquitous and unavoidable for international economy. These results in the phenomenon of the worshipping of Western things in Chinese society, from our analysis, we found that most of our Chinese respondents are allure of global advertising appeals, but the global is not valued for its own sake. As shown in our reader-response analysis, global advertising elements are valued as sign for modernity, quality, cosmopolitanism, technology and status. These are associated towards the dimension of a materialistic world. However, it does not mean that the key to success in China and Hong Kong is to make the advertising as "global" as possible. There is a substantial risk of miscommunication and confusion if the Western advertising directly applied in China and Hong Kong without carefully examines the cultural differences. In the study, the global ad of Samsung refrigerator and Coca-Cola created the confusion among the audience because of different cultural understanding on the same object and issue of topic. The concern on misinterpretation of meaning is especially happened among China respondents. Although Hong Kong people are frequent to Western culture, still they have difficulty on understanding the implicit Western cultural value in the Samsung refrigerator ad. When applying advertising techniques, advertisers should take into the differences between different cultures in a careful way. They cannot assume that Western culture is the best, nor apply the strategy directly to the Chinese society. The techniques work well in West may not work in the same way in China. The valued of global advertising appeals of Chinese participants does not mean that the China-appeal is losing its appealing to them. The emphasized on traditional Chinese cultural values of care for family members, maintain harmony relationship, concern on human are still effective on creating strong positive image to the local brand. The example of Samsung refrigerator ad was liked by every respondent by emphasizing the value of family love and warm, and harmony relationship. These values gain better response than the global Samsung ad which emphasize on high-tech and luxury values. China appeals are successful in creating strongly positive emotional image, while lack the high tech scientific image which was most successful for Western brand. And thus, it would be a difficult for a local product to employ a high tech scientific appeal. We suspect that this situation is changing with the technology advancement in China. Some respondents were proud of the technology success of their country in recent years. The rising knowledge of Chinese consumers enables them to be more critical in evaluating the advertisements. They were able to judge the brand by their own experience, rather than largely trust on the ads. We now consider that the further economic and social development in China will develop a stronger national pride among Chinese people. The phenomenon of allure of the Western things and the comparative edge of Western appeal on its value of modernity, technology and quality will be diminishing its importance. However, whether the China style ads can successfully appeal to consumers depend on the strength between individualistic and collectivistic dimension. One interpretation is that the desire for foreign culture, brands and appeals for its luxury and superficial image is for the sake of face (mianzhi) that emphasized among Chinese consumers. Western appeals can be a sign for personal reputation and success of luxury, contrary to the collective identity on national pride for protecting the local products and brands, the sake of face is contrast to each other on the individualistic and collectivistic When scientific products and luxury brands are concerned, foreign appeals are considered as an important appeal on its value of modernity, cosmopolitism, and status, but for other products, like non-luxury one, it is an advantage to include the Chinese cultural values. Our respondents prefer Chinese sports stars and an emphasis on distinctly Chinese values and appeals like those widely used among leading domestic brands. Although the different on physical attributes between Chinese and Western models make them more or less representative for certain products. In terms of physical character, American black is considered to be a better presenter of power and strength. When the consideration is more than only the physical characteristics, like the sport stars, they represent also China's national image, and its collective identity raises the patriotism feeling among the respondents. With local athletes as spokespersons, there is an appeal to Chinese nationalism. Successful Chinese athletes also acquire mianzi through their victories. This is not only a personal face, but the face of China. It is a face that is shared by Chinese consumers and is transferred in part through the products these athletes endorse. It is quite common to use models for promoting skincare products as to demonstrate the product results. Skincare product is concerned as luxury product, based on the finding above, Western appeal and foreign model should be more successful in associating such kind of value. However, in the study of Olay ads, the local model was more appealing to our respondents and believed that she is more able to reflect their own character than the foreigners. This result also reflected that our respondents are now more confident on themselves as Chinese to represent the global brands. Moreover, respondents have strong opposed if a foreigner is endorsed for their local brands. They feel hurt of their national identity as it seems that Chinese are not capable enough to represent even for their own products. Also they feel inferior on worshipping the Western culture if they include the Western appeal into local brands. Both global and local advertising are appealing to our Chinese respondents, but for different reasons and purposes. We should aware that global advertising appeals might also threaten feelings of national pride, patriotism and Chinese values. It is important for advertisers to pretest the global advertising techniques before used. Western culture and Chinese culture has their own pros and cons as advertising appeal to Chinese consumer, the important role of Chinese advertising appeal on its national pride, and advocate of traditional Chinese virtual should be neglected. China and Hong Kong are geographically closed to each other; culturally shared the same Chinese values of Confucianism; historically belonged to the same nation. Due to political and economic reasons, they resulted in divergent patterns of growth in the past decades. It is expected that they have developed their culture with own characteristics, and hence their consumers' understanding and response towards advertising appeals are. From the reveal of this study, the reactions of Mainland China and Hong Kong consumers on global and local advertising appeals are quite similar to each other. When our Hong Kong respondents are exposed to the ads between advocating Western materialistic culture and upholding traditional Chinese virtual, they showed a higher preference on those values emphasized on family, harmony relation and concern on human. In contemporary society, high divorce rate, social instability are commonly found, people emphasized only on the individualistic value. The traditional Chinese cultural value in advertising demonstrates as virtue and ideal life to pursuit. Moreover, being a British colonial rule for 150 years, many Hong Kong people refused to call themselves as Chinese, they named themselves as Hong Kong Chinese as to separate their identity with China. However, in this study, we found that strong patriotic feeling is shared among Hong Kong Chinese. They prefer Chinese sports stars and feel proud on the athletic success of China in international competitions. The identical reaction between Hong Kong and China respondents on global and local advertising appeal does not imply that they can be as standardized as possible. There are other elements in advertising, like the execution and message strategy, which are also important that need to be considered for a successful ad. In our study, some Hong Kong respondents consider that the local China ads are quite old fashioned and not trendy enough for Hong Kong market. When we showed the Nizoral anti-dandruff shampoo ad, the last ad of this study, most of the Hong Kong respondents are impressed and feel refreshing with this advertising approach in China, while this ad was considered to be too exaggerating among some of the China respondents. Conclusion
This study addresses the significant role of advertising in China. Under the globalization trend, globalized advertising is expected to be the heart of discussion in China. Although there are certain similarities are found among Asian countries as they shared the same cultural root, with different in political and economy growth, we should find what difference between them, rather than purely treat them as a single term Asia. Western countries are more advanced, for example in its technology and scientific advancement, advertisers cannot assume that Western culture is the best in all ways, and assume that Chinese are conservative and traditional. Or that seemingly straightforward Western advertising technique will work the same way in China. Limitations and Suggestions for future research
While this study revealed the effects of global and local advertising in China and Hong Kong, it had some limitations. This study only examined the print advertisements and the findings may not be applicable to the advertising in other media. Moreover, it is important to remember that the present research study was carried out among the educated Chinese consumers with secondary or above education, and also the respondents are recruited from one China urban city. Although, those respondents from China were came from elsewhere in the country but working in the same place, China is still a diverse nation and we expected that there is a strong urban and rural differences. Future research should keep these caveats in mind. The purpose of the present study hopes to provide a general idea for advertiser to consider for applying their global or local appeal VIII. References
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The semi-structured interview was conducted based on the below questions. Part A – Questions on ad understandings What message can you get from the ad? Which part of the ad can you get this message? What association you find between the creative and the message? Is it easy for you to understand the ad? Why or Why not? Part B – Questions on consumer response (rational) What new information does the ad give you? Is the information enough? What do you think about the product in this ad? Can this ad draw your attention? Why or Why not? Do you believe the points made in the ad? Why or Why not? Part C – Questions on consumer response (emotional) Do you like the ad? Why or Why not? What kind of feeling or atmosphere do you find in this ad? Is the ad appealing to you? Why or why not? Part D – Compare the pair of global and local ad Which ad is more appealing to you? Why? Which ad is more convincing? Why? What kind of elements do you think are important for this kind of ad? Are the element(s) included in the ad you like? Appendix B – Table of comparison between global and local ads

Global (Western) appeal ad
Local (China-specific) appeal ad
Associating the motorcycle's speedy and Associate the flying eagle with the business mobility with the computer to show the success with the computer. applicability of the computer Instrumental value: imaginative, traditional computer
Instrumental value: logical, technology Terminal value: success, sense of Terminal value: convenience Associating the refrigerator with fine food, like Telling the familial function of the refrigerator grape wine and premium chocolate to in achieving harmony and warm family demonstrate the high performance of the Instrumental value: familial, emotional Instrumental value: imaginative, technology Terminal value: harmony, love Terminal value: perfection, status Demonstrating the perfect skin by using a Telling the logical association by listing out Chinese girl with a message "betray your age the product functions of the Olay cream with will not be your face" to tell you her story its total effect performance. Olay facial
behind of using the Olay cream. Instrumental value: logical, informative Instrumental value: imaginative Terminal value: perfection Terminal value: social approval Associating a trumpet to show the high music Using an enjoyable feeling among a group of Set Ad 4 –
performance and status of owing the mobile teenagers to show the happiness from music sharing of the Samsung mobile. Instrumental value: modernity, imaginative Instrumental value: collectivity, friendly Terminal value: status, uniqueness Terminal value: happiness, harmony Listing out all the functional benefits to show Showing a group of photo with one man head's Set Ad 5 –
the breakthrough of Crest toothpaste in giving down showing the embarrassment of smile "complete" dental care. without using the Crest toothpaste toothpaste
Instrumental value: informative, adventure Instrumental value: imaginative, traditional Terminal value: effectiveness, convenience Terminal value: social approval Listing out the benefits of Principal insurance Telling the courtesy and respect that Principal Set Ad 6 –
in bringing an edge of whatever happens in gives their client in bringing a secure retirement life. Principal
insurance
Instrumental value: logical, informative Instrumental value: friendly, courtesy Terminal value: uniqueness, status, comfort Terminal value: security Giving the logical association of the benefit Associating the happiness of freedom from from low sugar and calorie in achieving fitness Set Ad 7 –
drinking Diet Coke by visual elements. body figure for getting social recognition. Diet Coke
Instrumental value: funny, imaginative Instrumental value: logical Terminal value: freedom, pleasure Terminal value: social approval Endorse the athletic in the Nike ad to show the Using a model to appeal the audience in status and high performance of the Nike Set Ad 8 –
Instrumental value: Chinese model, emotional Instrumental value: American black model Terminal value: life Terminal value: status, performance Telling the fear of graduates in throwing caps Exaggerating a man's embarrassment of Set Ad 9 –
because of dandruff problem and show the dandruff problem in a humor way to tell the performance of Head&Shoulder shampoo. function of Nizoral shampoo. dandruff
Instrumental value: imaginative, funny Instrumental value: funny Terminal value: performance Terminal value: social approval



Appendix C – Nine pairs of advertisements
Ad 1a – The global ad of DELL computer ad using a motorcycle to tell the mobility of its notebook computer Ad 1b – The China ad of DELL computer using the eagle Chinese printing to associate the success result from using its notebook computer



Ad 2a – The global ad of Samsung refrigerator linking grape (wine) with refrigerator to tell its high performance. Ad 2b – The China ad of Samsung refrigerator telling the benefits of its refrigerator in bringing happiness and health to a family.



Ad 3a – A global ad of Olay telling the complete anti-aging benefits of its Total Effect facial cream by listing all product features. Ad 3b – A China ad of Olay demonstrating a perfect skin by using a Chinese girl and with message "betray your age will not be your skin".


Ad 4a – A Samsung mobile phone ad using a trumpet to show the high quality music performance of the mobile phone. Ad 4b – A China ad of Samsung mobile phone showing the happiness of music sharing among group of people.


Ad 5a- A global ad of Crest toothpaste list out all its functional benefits to show how "complete" performance it can achieve. Ad 5b – A China ad of Crest toothpaste showing a man who hasn't use Crest toothpaste feel shame of smiling in taking a group photo. Ad 6a – A global ad of Principal insurance telling all benefits of its insurance in bringing one's stable and secure life. Ad 6b –A China ad of Principal insurance telling us they use courteous on helping their client to achieve a desirable retirement life. Ad 7a – A global ad of Coca-Cola telling the feeling after drinking Diet Coke. Ad 7b – A China ad of Coca-Cola telling the benefits from drinking Diet Coke. Ad 8a - A global ad of Nike using the sport star, Marion Jones as model in its ad. Ad 8b – A China ad of Nike using a Chinese model to demonstrate its sportswear, Ad 9a – A global ad of Head & Shoulder shampoo telling the fear of the graduates in throwing caps during the graduation ceremony. Ad 9b – A China ad of Nizoral shampoo showing the embarrassment of dandruff.
Authorization of library placement

Authorization Form
This is to authorize the School of Communication at Hong Kong Baptist University to place my project titled "The Effects of Advertising using Global Appeals versus China-Specific Appeals: A Study of Chinese Consumers" in the HKBU library for general public reference and inspection. Name in block letters Fung Sze Man . Student ID 04407202 . Plagiarism Declaration Form
MA Graduation Project
PLAGIARISM DELCARATION FORM

This form must be completed, signed, dated and included with the Project submitted to
the University for marking
Student Name:

Student Number: 04407202
Name of Project:
THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING USING GLOBAL APPEAL VS CHINA-SPECIFIC APPEALS: A STUDY OF CHINESE CONSUMERS IN HONG KONG AND CHINA Submission Date: 3 July 2006

Declaration:

I have read the relevant sections on Plagiarism provided in the Handbook for Graduation Project and observed the standards of conduct. I am fully aware of the consequences in the event of plagiarism. I declare that, to the best of my knowledge, this project represents my own work and all sources have been properly acknowledged, and the Project contains no elements of plagiarism. I further declare that the Project has not been previously included in a thesis, dissertation or report submitted to this University or to any other institution for a degree, diploma or other qualification. Student's Signature: Date: _

Source: http://comd.hkbu.edu.hk/macomm/maproject/image/projects/2006_pt_project/04407202_fung.pdf

3mpl.univ-angers.fr

Effect of Particle Morphology and Interaction on the Stabilization of Water/Water Emulsions by Protein Particles Alberto GONZALEZ-JORDAN, Taco NICOLAI, Lazhar BENYAHIA alberto.gonzalez_jordan.etu@univ-lemans.fr Université du Maine, IMMM UMR CNRS 6283, PCI, 72085 Le Mans Cedex Category : ฀ Molécules ฀ Matériaux Water/water (W/W) emulsions have a promising potential for many applications, especially in the food and cosmetics industries. These emulsions cannot be stabilized by surfactants, but in recent years it was found that they can be stabilized by adding solid particles in a manner similar to so-called Pickering oil/water emulsions. Protein particles in the form of microgels, fractal aggregates or fibrils were made from the same protein, ß-lactoglobulin by heating at different conditions. The effect of the morphology on the stability and structure of W/W emulsions made by mixing aqueous solutions of PEO and dextran was investigated at different pH. Interestingly, excess proteins partioned to the dextran phase at pH>4 and to the PEO at pH<3.0. Fibrils were found to be most effective stabilizers at pH 7, whereas fractals were most effective at pH 3. At pH values between 5.5 and 3.5 the protein particles aggregated leading to cold gelation. If excess proteins were in the continuous phase W/W emulsion formed gels that were very weak, but strong enough to prevent creaming of sedimentation of the dispersed droplets. If excess proteins were in the dispersed phase, the droplets were transformed into stable microscopic protein particles.

sul.cc

Componenti pregiate, fragranze esoti- che: Prija è una linea di cortesia calda e terrestre, prodotta da GFL nel rispetto di standard qualitativi molto elevati e rivolta a clienti attenti alla qualità cosmetica e al design degli articoli del settore cortesia. Fine ingredients and exotic fragrances: Prija is a warm and earthly complimentary line. Produced by GFL according to very high qualitative standards, it appeals to customers who are sensitive to the quality of cosmetics, and to the design of compli-mentary items.