AAN Guideline Summary for PATIENTS and THEIR FAMILIES
The American Academy of Neurology developed guidelines that summarize the best research on recognizing, diagnosing,and providing treatment options for people with Alzheimer's disease and their families. These guidelines will helpprovide the best care possible. You can use this summary version to learn more about: • How you can recognize Alzheimer's disease
• How your doctor will diagnose Alzheimer's disease
• What treatment and care options are available today
• Where you can find more resources
How Can You Recognize Alzheimer's Disease?
What Are The Treatment And Care Options
Alzheimer's disease is different from normal aging. The
symptoms of Alzheimer's disease involve more than simple
Medications are available that help certain symptoms.
lapses in memory. People with Alzheimer's experience These are called "cholinesterase inhibitors." They may difficulties in communicating, learning, thinking, and improve quality of life and cognitive functions including reasoning that can have an impact on a person's work memory, thought, and reasoning. Medication works most and social and family life. Alzheimer's is a disease that effectively for people who are mildly to moderately destroys brain cells — which is not a normal part of aging.
affected by the disease. Therefore, the early recognitionand diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is very important.
The 10 most common warning signs of Alzheimer's
However, medications do not reverse or change the disease are included in this summary. If you or someone
progression of the disease.
you know has these symptoms, you should see a doctorfor a complete examination.
Research shows that Vitamin E is also an option to helpwith some symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Vitamin E isan antioxidant, and it may aid in the breakdown of free How Does A Doctor Diagnose Alzheimer's
radicals that may be damaging brain cells in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Selegiline is another antioxi-dant that may help with some symptoms of the disease.
Alzheimer's disease can be reliably diagnosed with a
complete examination that includes:
While a cure for Alzheimer's disease is not yet available, • A complete medical and psychiatric history
research continues for new treatment options.
• A neurological exam
Changes in activities and medications improve behavior.
• Lab tests to rule out anemia, vitamin deficiencies, and
A person with Alzheimer's disease may display behavior problems such as paranoia, suspiciousness, combativeness, • A mental status exam to evaluate the person's thinking
or resistance to maintaining personal hygiene. These behavioral problems can seem overwhelming to families • Talking with family members or caregivers
and caregivers. Your physician may suggest various strategiesto assist in daily caregiving tasks including: You can help your physician by being prepared for the
• Walking or other light exercise that helps reduce
appointment. Bring a list of current medications, a log problem behaviors of symptoms or behavior changes and a list of your • Playing music, particularly during meals and bathing
questions or concerns. It is also helpful to provide an • Providing a predictable routine for daily activities,
accurate history of the person's medical conditions and including toileting any previous treatment.
• Practicing various skills and positive reinforcement that
Where Can You Find More Resources?
increase independence More information is available through your local • Considering the medications available to help
Alzheimer's Association or your physician.
depression, agitation and psychosis Find Local Patient Information
Caregiver educational programs can delay the time to
Alzheimer's Association nursing home placement for the person with Alzheimer's.
Phone: 1-800-272-3900 Caregivers can find out more about educational programs by contacting their local Alzheimer's Association.
Support groups are also available which help improve the Find A Neurologist
well-being of the caregiver, as well as the person with American Academy of Neurology THE 10 WARNING SIGNS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
The Alzheimer's Association has developed a list of warning 6. Problems with abstract thinking. Balancing a checkbook
signs that include common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
can be challenging for many people, but for someone Individuals who exhibit several of these symptoms should see with Alzheimer's, recognizing numbers or performing a physician for a complete examination.
basic calculation may be impossible. 1. Memory loss that affects job skills. It's normal to
7. Misplacing things. Everyone temporarily misplaces a wallet
occasionally forget an assignment, deadline, or colleague's or keys from time to time. A person with Alzheimer's name, but frequent forgetfulness or unexplainable disease may put these and other items in inappropriate confusion at home or in the workplace may signal that places — such as an iron in the freezer or a wristwatch in something's wrong. the sugar bowl — and then not recall how they got there. 2. Difficulty performing familiar tasks. Busy people get
8. Changes in mood or behavior. Everyone experiences a
distracted from time to time. For example, you might leave broad range of emotions — it's part of being human. something on the stove too long or not remember to serve People with Alzheimer's tend to exhibit more rapid mood part of a meal. People with Alzheimer's might prepare a swings for no apparent reason. meal and not only forget to serve it but also forget they made it. 9. Changes in personality. People's personalities may change
somewhat as they age. But a person with Alzheimer's can 3. Problems with language. Everyone has trouble finding the
change dramatically, either suddenly or over a period of right word sometimes, but a person with Alzheimer's disease time. Someone who is generally easygoing may become may forget simple words or substitute inappropriate words, angry, suspicious, or fearful. making his or her sentences difficult to understand. 10. Loss of initiative. It's normal to tire of housework, business
4. Disorientation to time and place. It's normal to momentarily
activities, or social obligations, but most people retain or forget the day of the week or what you need from the store.
eventually regain their interest. The person with Alzheimer's But people with Alzheimer's disease can become lost on disease may remain uninterested and uninvolved in many their own street, not knowing where they are, how they got or all of his usual pursuits. there, or how to get back home. 5. Poor or decreased judgment. Choosing not to bring a
Reprinted with permission from the Alzheimer's Association. For more sweater or coat along on a chilly night is a common information, call the Alzheimer's Association at 1-800-272-3900, email mistake. A person with Alzheimer's, however, may dress at email@example.com or visit the web site at www.alz.org inappropriately in more noticeable ways, wearing a bathrobe to the store or several blouses on a hot day. This is an evidence-based educational service of the American Academy of Neurology. It is designed to provide members with evidence-basedguideline recommendations to assist with decision-making in patient care. It is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information,and is not intended to exclude any reasonable alternative methodologies. The AAN recognizes that specific patient care decisions are the prerogativeof the patient and the physician caring for the patient, based on the circumstances involved. Physicians are encouraged to carefully review thefull AAN guidelines so they understand all recommendations associated with care of these patients.
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Coumarin: The Real Story (Updated Jan. 2008). Copyright © Tony Burfield 2006-2008 What is it? Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) CAS No 91-64-5, is a crystalline white solid when seen pure, with a hay-like, sweet aromatic creamy odour with certain nutty shadings, much used in synthetic form as a fragrance chemical for perfumes and for fragranced soaps and detergents. Coumarin has a widespread occurrence in natural products too (see separate section below), and is a representative of the lactones (where a lactone is an ester group integrated into a carbon ring system).
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Upregulates the Expression of LPS-Induced IL-8/CXCL8 mRNA in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cel s from Spontaneously Hypertensive RatsJung Hae Kim and Hee Sun Kim*Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, and Aging-associated Vascular Disease Research Center, Yeungnam University, Background: 15d-PGJ2 has been known to act as an anti-in-