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acta SATECH 3(1): 25 - 28 (2009)
Comparative study of Albendazole and Papaya seed in the control of
Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats
*Anaeto, M., G. O. Tayo, G. O. Chioma & A. A. Afolabi
Department of Agriculture and Industrial Technology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state *Corresponding author <[email protected]> Abstract
Twelve West African goats (Capra hircus) with gastrointestinal helminthes were used to determine the efficacies of
Albendazole and pawpaw seeds (Carica papaya) solution in the treatment of gastro-intestinal nematodes. The
animals were allotted into three groups of four animals each. Group 1 was administered 2 ml/10 kg body weight
albendazole. Group 2 received 50 mg/10 kg body weight C. papaya seed solution twice a week and Group 3 was the
control without treatment. The Modified McMaster counting technique for the fecal egg count was employed to
determine the efficacy of the anthelmintic used. Albendazole achieved 100% efficacy while C. papaya seed solution
had 74% efficiency on the 14th day post-treatment. The nematode species identified in the larval culture were
(Strongyloides {60%} and Haemonchus contortus {40%}) in the goats.

Albendazole, fecal egg count, gastrointestinal nematode, goat, papaya seed.

percent higher weight gain in anthelmintic treated Goats as small ruminants have some advantages over goats than the control. larger animals such as cattle because of their low purchase price; fecundity and prolificacy. They have anthelmintics are widely used for the control of ability to survive on low quality feeds, in difficult nematodes infection in goats and other animals. conditions and are more readily available. (Rene Albendazole is one of the most commonly used Coste, 1996). In some parts of the world, goat dewormers for controlling gastro-intestinal nematode production is now becoming a profitable enterprise in livestock. The use of botanicals as anthelmintic by because of the high demand for dietary animal local farmers is a means of finding an alternative to protein. Inspite of their advantages, goats are easily the conventional drugs In addition, farmers should be infested with parasites. The disease caused by aware of the most effective anthelmintic agents to parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes is of economic which the endoparasites are not resistant to, so that importance and a common problem in small farmers will not waste their money when buying ruminants (Beriajaya and Stevenson, 1985; Karki, dewormers that are not effective (Anaeto, 2001). 1987). The disease can limit growth rates and if This is important because there is a need for a severe, can lead to death (Beriajaya et al., 1995). The cheaper and more easily available alternative form of effects of endoparasites on production are well anthelmintic compared to the more expensive conventional drugs (Chema and Ward, 1990). The unthriftness, reduced feed intake, anorexia, loss of commonly used indigenous plants as dewormers by blood, alterations on protein metabolism, depressed farmers are ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), level of minerals and diarrhea. All these contribute to pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds, bitter gourd depressed weight gain (Soulsby, 1982). The effect of (Momordica charantia) leaves in coconut milk, haemonchus infection recorded by Gray (1986) mimosa plant parts (Mimosa pudica) and Panyawan showed that the live weight gain of lambs and kids (Tinosphara rumphii) (Cerbito, 1998). C. papaya were reduced by 38% on the average, over a period of fruits are used for fruit salad and desserts by humans two months. Shrestha et al., (1990) reported 60 and are considered to have a mild laxative effect, while its seeds are used medicinally for animals Anaeto et al., - Comparative study of Albendazole against worms (Samson, 1986). The powdered form pellets were then broken using a spatula. Saturated of C. papaya seeds, are used as vermifuge, the same salt solution of 45ml was added to each of the 12 with the latex. Papain the active constituent of the samples and thoroughly mixed. A Pasteur pipette fruit is used effectively as an anthelmintic. with teat was used to withdraw the mixture which The objectives of the study were to compare the was quickly used to fill each chamber of a McMaster anthelminthic efficacies of Albendazole and C. slide. The slide was then viewed under the papaya seeds against the gastrointestinal nematodes microscope with magnification of 10. The total of goats and to identify the nematodes present in the number of eggs counted, multiplied by 100, indicated goats kept on Babcock University Farm using larval the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces (Thienpont, et al., 1979; Hansen and Perry, 1994) Material and methods
Fecal egg count reduction test
This study was conducted at the goat unit, Babcock Feces were collected directly from the rectum of each University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. goat on days 7 and 14 post treatment and processed Twelve goats were used for the experiment. The 12 for the fecal egg count using the modified McMaster animals were divided into 3 groups and identified Counting Technique. The fecal egg count reduction with plastic tags, after the pre-treatment fecal egg (FECR) test was used to evaluate the efficacy of the dewormers. Percentage efficacy was calculated using Pre – treatment examination
%FECR = 100(Xc – Xt)/Xc Three days before dosing the animals with the Where Xt is the number of parasites or EPG in treated anthelmintics, fresh fecal samples were collected goats and Xc is the number of parasites or EPG in the from the rectum of each individual goat by hand control goats. (Coynes et al., 1991) using a plastic glove in other to determine the degree of parasitism and for grouping of the animals. The Identification of the species of nematode using the
mean pre-treatment fecal egg count for Group 1 larval culture
(Albendazole) was 800 eggs/gram, Group 2 C. Bulked fecal samples were cultured at room papaya was 800 eggs/gram while the control, Group temperature for seven days to provide larvae for 3 was 900 eggs/gram. identification (Aken et al., 1994). The fecal sample was mixed with a little amount of water in a jar and Anthelmintic treatment of experimental animals
covered with paraffin paper. On day 7, the cover was Each animal was dozed by mouth on day zero removed and the jar was filled with water. A petridish according to body weight as recommended by the was used to cover the jar. The jar was inverted and 20 manufacturers. The drug was administered orally – 40 ml of water was placed on the petridish. The using the barrel of syringe (Garbin and Gonzaga, setup was allowed to stand for one hour with one side 1999). Group 1 composed of 4 goats was treated with slightly elevated and a pipette was used to draw the Albendazole at a dose of 2ml/10kg body weight. The water from the petri dish into a test tube. Two drops C. papaya seeds obtained from ripe pawpaw fruits of Clorox (Sodium hypochlorite 3.5%) and iodine were dried and ground into powder. The ground seed was added into the test tube to kill the larvae and also was then mixed with water and was used as treatment to remove the sheath for easy identification of the for animals in Group 2 at a rate of 50mg/10kg body larvae under the microscope. The morphological weight (eight seeds), twice a week. Group 3 served characteristics of the third stage larvae based on the as the control and was left untreated. description of (Soulsby 1982; Hansen and Perry, 1994) were used as guide to identify the larvae. Faecal examination using the McMaster method
Fresh fecal samples were collected individually from Results and Discussion
the rectum of the 12 animals. The fecal samples were Results of the fecal egg count reduction test using placed in individual polyethylene bags, labeled, Albendazole and C. papaya on days 7 and 14 post- placed in an ice-box and taken to the Veterinary treatment is presented in Table 1 and Figure 1. Parasitology Laboratory of the University of Ibadan The drop in the fecal egg per gram count in the group for faecalysis using the McMaster Egg Counting treated with Albendazole clearly indicates the technique. Three grams of feces was weighed for anthelmintic effectiveness in goats. While C. papaya each sample. The samples were placed in individual is slightly effective because it had 74% using the jar and 5 ml of water was added and then left for 20 criteria for evaluating the degree of efficacy of an minutes so that the pellets can be softened. The Anaeto et al., - Comparative study of Albendazole being highly effective against adult, immature and anthelmintic, according to Manuel, (1983), and larval stages of important nematodes. according to the recommendation of the World The undifferentiated eggs in the feces provide little Association for the advancement of Veterinary information as to the identity or relative abundance of Parasitology, antihelmintic resistance is present if the worm genera present. Except for nematodirus, the percentage of the reduction in egg count is less than eggs of the various strongyle species that infect goats 95% and the 95% confidence level is less than 90% are indistinguishable. Hence pre-treatment larval (Coles et al., 1992). These criteria were fulfilled by culture should be performed to identify the parasites. Albendazole which had an efficacy of 71% and 100% (McKenna, 1996). Two nematode species were on days 7 and 14 respectively. identified based on the morphological description of the infective third stage Larvae (L3) by Soulsby Table 1 Least Significant Difference (LSD) for the (1982). The Strongyloides species was 60% and 7th and 14th day post-treatment Haemonchus contortus 40%. Okon, et al., (1977), reported that strongyloides papillosus was found to be Gp. 1 -albendazole one of the commonest helminthes treated at the Gp. 2 - C. papaya Veterinary Clinic University of Ibadan. In coclusion, Carica papaya can be a substitute for abc: Means followed by the same letters are not significant albendazole since it reduced the nematode population. (P>0.05) Although, it is not as effective when compared with the conventional dewormers, it is readily available. Fig 1: Efficacy of Albendazole and Carica papaya on For goat owners who cannot afford to treat their the 7th and 14th day post-treatment in goats animals with modern antihelmintics, the use of Carica papaya (pawpaw) in conjunction with good management practices should be considered in the control of gastrointestinal parasites. References
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