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Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol.1 No.1, 2006 PRODUCTION OF FEMALE GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) THROUGH HORMONAL INDUCTION Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi, Ikhsan Khasani, Sularto, and Wahyu Pamungkas The objective of this experiment was to find out the appropriate dosage for producinghomogametic female of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man)by feminization. This experiment was carried out at Research Institute for FreshwaterFish Breeding and Aquaculture, Sukamandi. The giant freshwater prawn at PL-5 stagewas treated orally by estradiol-17ß. Estradiol-17ß was given orally. The dosage levelsare 0, 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg of feed. The hormonal feed was given for 30 days. Prawnswere reared in aquaria for 30 days and hapas for 60 days. The parameters observedare sex ratio, survival rate, total length, and body weight. The results showed thatestradiol-17ß increased production of female giant freshwater prawn. The best dosagewas 70 mg/kg of feed that could produce 65.33% ± 5.64% of female. Survival rate andgrowth of giant freshwater prawn were not affected by estradiol-17ß (P<0.05).
KEYWORDS: giant freshwater prawn, estradiol-17ß, sex ratio ity to produce female and male is 1:1 (Spenceret al. in Kusmini et al., 2001). But with homoga- One of the alternatives to increase produc- metic female that mated with normal male (ZZ) tivity of giant freshwater prawn is by using bio- will produce 100% of males.
logical character of its male that is growingfaster than female. In the same group of age, Sex can be reversed either naturally or ar- the size of male is bigger than female. The tificially (Yatim, 1986). Natural sex reversal is maximal weight that can be reached by male is caused by environmental factor with no three fold (42—102 g) heavier than female (19— change in genetic structure. Artificial sex re- 51 g) after three months of rearing (Hadie & versal is the effort of man to direct develop- Supriatna, 1998). Total length of male giant ment of reproduction organ by giving material freshwater prawn could reach 25 cm and just that can induce sex changing. According to 15 cm for female (Bardach et al., 1972). This Chan & Yeung (1983), artificial sex reversal aims biological potency can be applied to increase at producing organism that has sex phenotype production of giant freshwater prawn by different from its sex genotype. In fish, the monosex culture.
formation of steroid hormone is not yet hap-pened before sex differentiation, so gonad Sex can be reversed on giant freshwater formation can be directed by using synthe- prawn to produce male population has been sized steroid hormone (Yamazaki, 1983; Hunter done by 17α-methyltestosterone. But, there is & Donaldson, 1983).
still any contradictory, principally for foodsafety. Therefore, it is not recommended to Differentiation sex in fish depends on spe- use steroid hormone directly for fish consump- cies. Malecha et al. (1992) suggested that un- tion. To obtain 100% of males, one of its alter- differentiated gonadal tissue of giant freshwa- native is by produce homogametic female (ZZ) ter prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is la- by sex reversal. In mating of normal male and bile for short time but becomes determined female of giant freshwater prawn, the probabil- with age, as in vertebrates. Male determina- Research Institute for Freshwater Fish Breeding and Aquaculture, Sukamandi R.R.S.P.S. Dewi, Khasani, I., Sularto, and Pamungkas, W. tions genes do not function immediately dur- given orally on sex ratio. Four levels of estra- ing the larval to post larval period, but act some- diol-17α dosage were applied as treatment. The time later in early juvenile development. How- hormone dosages are 0, 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg ever, in female, complete reversal of sexual of feed. Each treatment was replicated three function and near complete reversal of sec- ondary sexual morphology take place approxi-mately 30 days after metamorphosis to the post Estradiol-17α hormone were soluted in etha- larval stage.
nol 70%, with comparation 12,5 mg of hormoneper 50 mL of ethanol. Hormonal solution Estrogen could influence sex differentia- sprayed to feed. Hormonal feed were given tion directly. Carman et al. (1998) in Kusmini et for 30 days, four times a day. After treatment al. (2001) suggested that estradiol-17ß is the prawn were fed by juvenile feed, three times a most effective estrogen hormone that can day for 60 days.
determine sex differentiation in red tilapia to Giant freshwater prawns at PL-5 stage were be female by dipping (immersion) method. The treated in aquaria (60 x 40 x 50 cm3) for 30 immersion of red tilapia larval in 150 μg/L of days. Aquaria were completed by heater and estradiol-17ß for 18 days could produce 86.6% aeration. Water quality is controlled by siphon- of females (Durant et al., 1985 in Kusmini et al., ing and water changing. After treatment, 2001). In giant freshwater prawn, application prawns were reared in hapas (2 x 1 x 1 m3) for estradiol-17ß with dosage 40 mg/kg of feed could produce only 52.58% of female and withdosage 3 mg/L by immersion could produce Data were collected after three months of 60.66% of female. Based on this result, we need rearing. The main parameter is sex ratio and to improve feminization technique for giant the support parameter is survival rate and freshwater prawn.
growth. Data were analyzed statistically byANOVA and differences among treatment The objective of this research is to find means were examined by LSD test.
out the appropriate dosage for producing ho-mogametic female of giant freshwater prawn RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) by femi-nization. The kind of hormone that use for femi- nization is estradiol-17ß.
Estradiol-17ß that mixed with feed could MATERIALS AND METHODS increase percentage of female giant freshwa-ter prawn (P<0.05). Dosages at level 70 mg/kg This research was carried out at Research of feed gave the best response (65% ± 5.64%) Institute for Freshwater Fish Breeding and Aquaculture Sukamandi for five months, fromJuly-November 2004. During treatment, prawns Survival rate were reared in laboratory for 30 days. For grow-ing, prawns were reared in ponds for 60 days.
Survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at Sexing process was done in laboratory.
the end of experiment is between 38%—41%.
Survival rate for each treatment was not differ- Randomized design was applicator to de- ent statistically (P<0.05). It means that estra- termine the effect of estradiol-17ß that was diol-17ß did not affect survival rate. Table 2 Sex ratio of giant freshwater prawn treated by estradiol-17α orally at different dosages Dosage of est radiol-17ß *) Values followed by same letter are not significantly different (P<0.05) Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol.1 No.1, 2006 Survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at the end of experiment Dosage of est radiol-17ß Survival rat e (%) *) *) Values followed by same letter are not significantly different (P<0.05) diol-17ß. Effectivity of hormonal treatment insex reversal technique is affected by some After three months of rearing, total length factors like hormone delivery, dosage, envi- of giant freshwater prawn was between 6.53— ronment, treatment duration, hormone variety, 6.57 cm. Based on statistically analyzed, there and steroid endurance in body (Zairin, 2002).
was no differences between treatment According Piferrer (2001) that sensitivity of (P<0.05). It means that estradiol-17ß did not af- exogenous steroid hormone on sex differen- fect total length.
tiation depends on gonadogenesis. Before Body weight of giant freshwater prawn at gonadogenesis, its sensitivity is very low and the end of experiment is between 2.10—2.17 increase when formation and growth of gonad g. Body weight for each treatment was not dif- by cell development. The peak sensitivity is ferent statistically (P<0.05). It means that es- taken place when sex has been differentiated tradiol-17ß did not affect body weight.
physiologically and than decrease after differ-entiated of sex tissue.
Survival rate of giant freshwater prawn was Estradiol-17ß given orally to giant freshwa- between 38%—41% and it was not different for ter prawn at PL-5 stage could affect hormonal every treatment (P<0.05). Hunter & Donaldson system in its body. Hormonal treatment in la- (1983) said that if hormonal dosage is too over bile period, could determine organism to be it can cause gonadal formation pressure, male or female (Yamazaki, 1983; Hunter & paradoxial effect and mortality. In this experi- Donaldson, 1983). Sumantadinata & Carman ment, hormonal dosage is still safe for survival (1983) in Kusmini et al. (2001) said that the purpose of hormonal application is for disturb-ing hormonal balancing in blood that in sex Estrogen treatment could increase growth differentiation period is very ascertain to de- of fish (Zairin, 2002). According Piferrer (2001) termine organism to be male or female.
that addition of synthetic hormone with opti-mal dosage could induce growth. But, if hor- The results from this experiment showed monal dosage is too over it can pressure that percentage of female still could be in- growth. In this experiment, total length and creased by increasing level dosage of estra- body weight of giant freshwater prawn was not Total length and body weight of giant freshwater prawn at the end of experiment Dosage of est radiol-17ß Tot al lengt h *) *) Values followed by same letter are not significantly different (P<0.05) R.R.S.P.S. Dewi, Khasani, I., Sularto, and Pamungkas, W. affected by estradiol-17ß treatment. It is sug- Randall. Fish Physiology. New York: Aca- gested, that estradiol-17ß dosage was not demic Press., IXB: 223—291.
Kusmini, I.I., L.E. Hadie, dan N. Rukminasari.
2001. Pengaruh dosis 17 alpha- Metiltestosteron dalam pakan terhadap Estradiol-17ß increased percentage of fe- peningkatan proporsi kelamin jantan larva male giant freshwater prawn. The best dosage udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).
70 mg/kg of feed, producing 65.33% ± 5.64% Prosiding Workshop Penelitian Budidaya of females. Survival rate and growth were not Udang Galah. Pusat Riset Perikanan affected by estradiol-17 ß (P<0.05) application.
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Malecha, S.R. 1992. Sex ration and sex deter- Bardach, J.E., J.H. Ryther, and W.O. Mc Larney.
mination in progeny from crosses of surgi- 1972. Aquaculture: The Farming and Hus- cally sex reversed prawn, Macrobrachium bandry of Freshwater and Marine Organ- rosenbergii. Aquaculture, 105 : 201—218.
ism. John Willey and Sons, Inc. New York, p.
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trol and sex reversal in fish under natural Sumantadinata, K. dan O. Carman. 1995.
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5834 • The Journal of Neuroscience, March 27, 2013 • 33(13):5834 –5842 Central Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Growth-Hormone-Dependent Body Growth and Pheromone Signaling toConspecific Males Daniela Noaín,1* M. Ine´s Pe´rez-Milla´n,2* Estefanía P. Bello,1 Guillermina M. Luque,2 Rodrigo Casas Cordero,1Diego M. Gelman,1 Marcela Peper,1 Isabel García Tornadu,2 Malcolm J. Low,3 Damasia Becu´-Villalobos,2and Marcelo Rubinstein1,41Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Gene´tica y Biología Molecular, and 2Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, Consejo Nacional deInvestigaciones Científicas y Te´cnicas, C1428ADN Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of MichiganMedical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, and 4Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428EGA Buenos Aires,Argentina