Hamilton o. smith - nobel lectureNUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE SPECIFICITY OF
Nobel Lecture, 8 December, 1978
HAMILTON O. SMITHDepartment of Microbiology, The Johns Hopkins University School ofMedicine Baltimore, Maryland, U. S. A.
In the past seven to eight years we have witnessed the development of anew DNA technology that has fundamentally altered our approach tomodern genetics. The basic ingredients of this new technology are the cleavage-site-specific restriction enzymes: a special class of bacterial endo- nucleases that can recognize specific nucleotide sequences in duplex DNAand produce double-stranded cleavages. Using a collection of these en-zymes, each with its own particular sequence specificity, DNA moleculesmay be cleaved into unique sets of fragments useful for DNA sequencing,chromosome analysis, gene isolation, and construction of recombinantDNA. The latter, combined with the concept of molecular cloning, hasgiven birth to the new field of genetic engineering, and from this are expected many new and exciting medical and research applications.
My own role in these developments occurred primarily in the period of 1968-1970 when my colleagues and I made the chance discovery of the first of the cleavage-site-specific restriction enzymes. I should like to brieflydescribe this work in historical context as it leads naturally into the mainpart of my lecture describing our present knowledge of restriction andmodification enzymes. I shall not go into the many applications as thesehave been reviewed elsewhere (1). However, I should like to describe insome detail the use of these enzymes as model systems for studyingsequence-specific protein-DNA interactions since this is one of our majorresearch interests.
Restriction and Modification in Bacteria: the Discovery of Restriction Enzymes The observations leading to the discovery of restriction enzymes span aperiod of nearly two decades and constitute a prime example of how basicresearch on an apparently insignificant bacteriological phenomenon hashad unexpectedly far-reaching implications. The story begins in the early 1950s with some observations by Luria and Human (la) and Bertani and Weigle (2) concerning the curious behavior of phage grown on two differ-ent strains of bacteria. Phage propagated on one strain were found to growpoorly (were "restricted") on the second, and vice-versa. However, a fewphage always escaped restriction and could then grow well on the newhost. They apparently had acquired some type of host-specific modifica-tion that then protected them from the restriction effects of the host. The Physiology or Medicine 1978 biochemical basis of this phenomenon remained a mystery until the early 1960s when Werner Arber and co-workers were able to show that host- specific modifications was carried on the phage DNA (3), and that restric-tion was associated with degradation of the phage DNA (4). In a remark-ably prophetic review in 1965, Arber postulated the existence of site-specific restriction enzymes and suggested that modification might beproduced by hostspecific DNA methylases (5). Thus, the notion becameestablished that each restriction and modification (R-M) system in bacte-ria was composed of two enzymes with identical specificity: a restrictionendonuclease that recognized short nucleotide sequences and cleavedDNA, and a modification enzyme that recognized the same sequence andmodified it to protect against cleavage. In this way, the host cell DNAwould be protected but foreign DNA entering from outside with improper modification would be cleaved and destroyed.
Although the existence of restriction enzymes was predicted with confi- dence by 1965, it was not until early 1968 that Linn and Arber (6) actuallyfound an activity in extracts of E. coli B with the expected properties ofsuch an enzyme. At the same time, Meselson and Yuan (‘7) reported moreextensive experiments with a highly purified restriction endonucleasefrom E. coli K. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the latter demon-strated that their enzyme cleaved unmodified phage λ DNA into large fragments while modified DNA remained undegraded. An unusual fea-ture of the enzyme was its requirement for the cofactors S-adenosylmeth-ionine, ATP, and Mg2+ Meselson and Yuan assumed from Arber's work that their enzyme was attacking the λ DNA at fixed sites, but were unableto confirm this by sucrose gradient analysis of the fragment species.
It is now known that restriction enzymes of E. coli B and K are examples of a class of restriction enzymes that do not cleave DNA at specific sites,although this fact was not appreciated for several years. Such Class Ienzymes are complex, multimeric proteins that generally require ATP, S-adenosylmethionine and Mg2+ as cofactors and function both as restrictionendonucleases and as modification methylases (8). Although they recog-nize specific sites in the DNA, they cleave randomly at a considerabledistance from the recognition site (9, 10, 11). Because of this property,they have not proven useful as enzymatic tools for DNA analysis.
Discovery of a Cleavage-Site-Specific Restriction Endonuclease in Haemophilus influenzae Rd In early Spring of 1968, I read the Meselson and Yuan paper with great interest. Their work imparted, in a very explicit way, a sense of biochemi-cal reality to Arber's observations. I had at that time recently joined thefaculty of the Department of Microbiology at Johns Hopkins and, with ayoung graduate student named Kent Wilcox, was just beginning to exploregenetic recombination in Haemophilus influenzae, strain Rd, an efficientlytransformable bacterium that we had been introduced to by Roger Her-riott of the School of Hygiene. Some of our experiments employed a Nucleotide Sequence Specificity of Restriction Endonucleases viscometer as a particularly sensitive measure of endonucleolytic cleavageof DNA by cell extracts. Other experiments involved recovery of donorDNA from cells after uptake. In one such experiment we happened to uselabeled DNA from phage P22, a bacterial virus I had worked with forseveral years before coming to Hopkins. To our surprise, we could notrecover the foreign DNA from the cells. With Meselson's recent report inour minds, we immediately suspected that it might be undergoing restric-tion, and our experience with viscometry told us that this would be a goodassay for such an activity. The following day, two viscometers were set up,one containing P22 DNA and the other, Haemophilus DNA. Cell extractwas added to each and we began quickly taking measurements. As theexperiment progressed, we became increasingly excited as the viscosity ofthe Haemophilus DNA held steady while the P22 DNA viscosity fell. Wewere confident that we had discovered a new and highly active restrictionenzyme. Furthermore, it appeared to require only Mg2+ as a cofactor,suggesting that it would prove to be a simpler enzyme than that from E . coli K or B. From that point on, other work in the laboratory was shelvedwhile we turned our full attention to the isolation and study of the newenzyme.
After several false starts and many tedious hours with our laborious, but sensitive viscometer assay, Wilcox and I (12) succeeded in obtaining apurified preparation of the restriction enzyme. We next used sucrosegradient centrifugation to show that the purified enzyme selectively de-graded duplex, but not single-stranded, P22 DNA to fragments averagingaround 100 base pairs in length, while Haemophilus DNA present in thesame reaction mixture was untouched. No free nucleotides were releasedduring the reaction, nor could we detect any nicks in the DNA products.
Thus, the enzyme was clearly an endonuclease that produced double-strand breaks and was specific for foreign DNA. Since the final (limit)digestion products of foreign DNA remained large, it seemed to us thatcleavage must be site-specific. This proved to be case and we were able todemonstrate it directly by sequencing the termini of the cleavage frag-ments.
Sequencing the Recognition Site We began our sequencing efforts in late 1968 using a method that had been worked out by Bernard Weiss and Charles C. Richardson at Har-vard. The method involved labeling the 5'-termini of DNA with radioactivephosphorus using T4 polynucleotide kinase and 32P gamma-labeled ATP,followed by digestion with pancreatic DNase and either venom phospho-diesterase to yield terminal nucleotides, or exonuclease I to yield terminaldinucleotides (13). These could then be separated by electrophoresis andidentified by comparison with known marker nucleotides.
Weiss had come to Hopkins in the Fall of 1967 and occupied a neighbor- ing laboratory in the Microbiology Department. He instructed us in theprocedure and supplied us with both the kinase and the 32P-gamma-labeled Physiology or Medicine 1978 ATP. We started our sequencing using restriction enzyme digests of phageT7 DNA, a fortuitous choice as we later learned. In our first experiment,we found it necessary to treat with alkaline phosphatase to remove aterminal 5'-phosphoryl group from the cleavage fragments in order toobtain labeling; thus cleavage of the DNA chain produced 3'-hydroxyl, 5'-phosphoryl termini. We next examined the terminal nucleotides andfound terminal 32P label appearing only in dGMP and dAMP. Thus, ourenzyme was specific! We were ready by early 1969 to proceed to the dinucleotide level.
Unfortunately, just at this most exciting stage of the work, Wilcox receivedhis draft notice from the Army and was forced to discontinue the work so that he could complete his formal requirements for the Master's degree.
Meanwhile, I began occupying myself, for the space of several months,with the laborious preparation of the dinucleotide standards that would benecessary for identification of the terminal dinucleotides. I also prepared asupply of exonuclease I from a side fraction of a large DNA polymerase preparation generously given to me by Paul Englund. Using the exonu-clease I and the standards, I proceeded to show by the Weiss and Richard- son method that the terminal dinucleotide was either (5')pGpA or(5')pApA, further confirming the remarkable cleavage specificity of ourrestriction enzyme. I believed that extension of the analysis beyond thispoint was possible, but standard oligonucleotides with which to identify thelonger terminal species were unavailable.
About this time, Thomas J. Kelly, Jr. joined my laboratory, and in a series of discussions we worked out an approach, using the newly availableisotope 3 3P that was to prove successful. In this approach, T7 DNA wasuniformly 33P-labeled, cleaved with the restriction endonuclease, 5'-termi- nally labeled with the second isotope, 32P and then digested to oligomers using pancreatic DNase. The products were fractionated according tolength by ion-exchange chromatography, and we then analyzed the oligo-nucleotides of each size class electrophoretically. Two 32P-terminal, 33P -uniformly labeled species were obtained at the dimer and trimer level, butat least six species out of a possible eight were identified at the tetramerlevel, so that specificity was lost at that point. The dimer and trimer specieswere eluted from the electrophoretic strip, digested with venom phospho-diesterase and the 33P-labeled nucleotides identified. In this way, the 5'-terminal dinucleotide was again confirmed as pPu-A and the trinucleotidewas found to be pPu-A-C.
Three possible sequence arrangements could account for our result depending on whether cleavage was "even" or "staggered." To resolve this,we used micrococcal nuclease to release the 3'-terminal dinucleoside mono-phosphate and this turned out to be unique and complementary to the 5'-terminal dinucleotide. Thus, our enzyme recognized the 2-fold rotationallysymmetrical six nucleotide sequence: . . (5') Pu-A-C (3') . .
and produced an even duplex cleavage as indi- cated by the arrows (14). Based on the expected occurrence of thissequence in random DNA, the enzyme would be expected to cut once every 1024 base pairs: a value in good accord with our previous observations. The most interesting feature of the sequence was its symmetry, and we specu-lated that this might have important implications for the restriction enzymestructure (see later sections).
In retrospect the proof of cleavage specificity was clearly our most important result. It had not been shown for the E. coli K and B enzymes, and, in fact, could not have been shown since these were randomly cleav-ing Class I enzymes. Our enzyme belonged to a different, and as we shallsee, a much larger class of restriction enzymes. Such Class II enzymes (8)are cleavage-site-specific and require only Mg2+ as cofactor. Later studieshave revealed that they are relatively simple proteins, existing typically asdimers or tetramers of a single polypeptide chain (15, 16, 17), and theircorresponding modification methylases are separate proteins that exist insome cases as monomers (18). However, in 1970 when we completed thesequence work, only Class I methylases had been studied in vitro (8), so weturned next to the isolation of a modification methylase from H. influenzae Modification Methylases in H. influenzae Rd While we did not hesitate to call our cleavage-site-specific endonuclease arestriction enzyme-after all it was specific for foreign DNA-formal objec-tions existed to that classification unless a modification enzyme of the samespecificity could be found. In the absence of such a modifying enzyme toprotect host sequences against cleavage, it would be necessary to postulatetotal absence of the sequence in the cell chromosome (a rather remotepossibility) or, alternatively, a compartmentalization of the activity. To allay these objections, and to satisfy our own curiosity, Paul Roy (a grad-uate student) and I undertook a survey of the DNA methylases in H .
influenzae Rd in late 1970 (19, 20).
We first established that H. influenzae Rd like many other strains of bacteria (21), contains a small percentage of methylated bases in its DNA: 5-methylcytosine occurs once per about 8 000 bases, and N-6-methylade-nine is found once per about 280 bases. We realized that much of thismethylation might be unrelated to R-M systems and that several methy-lases could be present. Arber had shown that in E. coli the majority of DNAmethylation was not associated with R-M systems; in E. coli B, as little as5% was so involved (22). With this in mind, we adopted a general ap-proach designed to reveal the total DNA methylases of the cells. Proteinsfrom a crude cell extract were chromatographed on phosphocellulose andassayed for ability to transfer [3H]methyl groups from labeled S-adenosylmethionine onto salmon sperm DNA or T7 DNA. In this way,four DNA adenine methylases were detected.
One of these methylases protected T7 DNA from cleavage by our restriction enzyme; and conversely, the sites for this enzyme in salmon Physiology or Medicine 1978 sperm DNA were destroyed by predigestion with our restriction enzymepreparation. These two results together indicated that both the restrictionenzyme and the methylase shared common DNA recognition sites. As afurther proof that we had isolated the modification methylase, we ana-lyzed 3' and 5' nearest neighbors to the 3H-methylated adenine residuesproduced by the enzyme. The results gave as the partial sequence for themethylase, the trinucleotide (5')Pu-A-C, in direct agreement with ourrestriction enzyme sequence.
One additional and unexpected observation came out of our methylase studies. In the salmon sperm DNA experiment in which we predigestedwith our restriction enzyme preparation, methyl acceptor ability was alsolost for one of the other DNA methylases. This particular methylase wasnot active on T7 DNA unlike our restriction enzyme. It appeared that asecond restriction enzyme, corresponding in specificity to this methylase,was contained in our endonuclease preparation. Our interpretation wasconfirmed by separation of these two restriction activities in Nathans'laboratory, and by a letter from Kenneth Murray of Edinburgh, Scotlandreporting that he had purified the new enzyme and determined its recog-nition site sequence as At this point it is interesting to recall our choice of T7 DNA for the sequencing work. Since,unbeknownst to us, we had worked with a mixture of two enzymes, it wasindeed fortuitous that only one was active on T7 DNA.
Search for New Restriction Enzymes Through the work of Nathans and colleagues (24), beginning in 1969, inwhich they applied cleavage-site-specific restriction endonucleases to theanalysis of the SV40 tumor virus genome, it became clear that theseenzymes were valuable tools for DNA analysis. Their work provided anearly stimulus to the search for new enzymes of differing specificities. Animportant consequence of our work with the Haemophilus restriction endo-nuclease was the realization that such enzymes could be readily detected inbacteria by purely biochemical procedures. This was especially true afterthe introduction of gel electrophoresis by Nathans for analysis of DNArestriction cleavage fragments (24) and the introduction of ethidium bro-mide as a fluorescent stain for DNA by Sharp et al. (25). Armed with easyand specific assays, other laboratories were soon reporting new restrictionendonucleases, first in E. coli (26) and other Haemophilus species (25, 27,28), and then in a variety of other bacteria. Richard J. Roberts of the ColdSpring Harbor Laboratories, who had a special interest in their possibleuse for DNA sequencing, spearheaded the drive to isolate new enzymes.
Bacteria available from the American Type Culture Collection were sys-tematically examined for cleavage-site-specific endonucleases that woulddigest phage lambda and other viral DNAs so as to produce discrete bandson electrophoretic gels. Many other laboratories joined in the effort, andtoday some 150 enzymes with nearly 50 different cleavage specificities are A Catalog of Restriction Enzymes and Their Specificities In Table I is a current list of known restriction endonuclease cleavage specificities grouped according to type of recognition sequence. The list istaken from Roberts (29) and includes for each sequence only the prototypeenzyme name*. In many cases, other enzymes recognizing the same se-quence are known. These have been called isoschizomers by Roberts andare given in his complete listing (29); e.g. isoschizomers of Hind II a r e Chu II, Hinc II, and Mnn I. It is important to note that among a group of isoschizomers, cleavage position within the site may vary; e.g., Sma I t Compiled from data published by R. J, Roberts (29). Names of host organisms and refer- ences for enzymes and sequences are listed in his article.
From Reiser, J., personal communication Sequences are 5' 3'. They should be visualized as duplexes although the sequence of only one strand is given. Vertical lines represent cleavage positions. Asterisks (*) indicate basesmodified by the corresponding modification enzymes. An "m" represents a methyl group.
Only the prototype enzyme name is given for each sequence specificity; isoschizomers exist for many sequences and are given in the Roberts reference. Bases in parenthesis indicate that either base may occupy the position; e.g., recognizes GT(A/C)(G/T)AC which signifies the following sequence possibilities: GTAGAC, GTATAC, GTCGAC, GTCTAC. (The first and last sequences are the same in duplex form.) Pu is purine and Py is pyrimidine.
Physiology or Medicine 1978 Nucleotide sequences of recognition sites have in most cases been deter- mined by analysis of oligonucleotides released from the 3' or 5' labeledtermini of cleavage fragments in a manner analogous to that first used for (14). Recently a simple method for palindromic sequences has been devised. It depends on comparing digest fragments of φX174 and SV40 DNA produced by a given restriction enzyme with a table of possiblefragments predicted by computer analysis of all tetra, penta, and hexanu-cleotide palindromes in these DNAs (31). Usually a unique sequenceassignment is possible. For enzymes that cleave outside of their recognitionsite, identification can be made by analysis of the location of mutations thatremove the site and by determining the position of bases, which whenmodified by a specific methylase or by certain chemical agents such asdimethylsulfate, inactivate the site (32).
Sites are classified according to whether they show P-fold rotational symmetry (palindromes) or are asymmetric. Among the symmetric sitesare 20 perfect hexanucleotide sites, 6 degenerate hexanucleotide sites, 5pentanucleotide sites with a central degeneracy, 7 perfect tetranucleotidesites, 1 hexanucleotide site with a central degeneracy, and 1 tetranucleo-tide site requiring a methylated adenine (see below). Each of the tetranu-cleotide sites can also be found as a central tetranucleotide in one or moreof the hexanucleotide sites. The degenerate hexanucleotide sites, whilelosing strict structural symmetry at the degenerate position, retain a basicoverall symmetry and are probably recognized as symmetrical by theenzymes (see below). When a complete degeneracy exists as in the sequence, G-A-N-T-C, symmetry is not lost since no discriminatingenzyme contacts are made with the degenerate base.
is unique in that it recognizes the sequence, G-Am-T-C, only when it contains the methylated adenine. It is difficult to rationalize this reversalof the normal role of methylation since other Diplococcus pneumoniae strainscarry the more conventional restriction enzyme, methylated G-A-T-C (33).
Among the 5 restriction enzymes recognizing asymmetric sites, 1 recog- nizes a tetranucleotide site and 4 recognize pentanucleotides. These en-zymes cleave asymmetrically at a distance of 5 to 10 nucleotides 3' to therecognition sequence. deserves special comment since it generates *Restriction endonucleases derive their names from an R-M system nomenclature (30)
that uses an italicized three-letter abbreviation for the host organism followed by a fourth
letter for strain where necessary and a roman numeral to indicate each R-M system in the
organism. For example,
is the name of the R-M system from which our original
restriction endonuclease comes. Restriction enzymes are indicated as endonuclease R
followed by the system name, and similarly, modification enzymes are designated methy-
lase M followed by the system name; endonuclease
Most often a shorter form
is used, and when only restriction
enzymes are being considered, they carry just the system name, i. e.,
DNA cleavage fragments with cohesive termini that have a high probabil-ity of specific reunion with the original complementary partner; thus asmall genome could be cut into several fragments that would religate onlyin original order (34).
Three main cleavage modes are observed by enzymes with symmetric recognition sites: even breaks (e.g. staggered breaks generating 3'- single-stranded cohesive termini (e.g. PstI), and staggered breaks generat-ing 5'-single-stranded cohesive termini (e.g. Each of these types of termini has found special uses in recombinant DNA work. So far, all theenzymes examined cleave so as to produce 3'-hydroxyl, 5'-phosphoryltermini.
Mechanism of Nucleotide Sequence Recognition Restriction and modification enzymes, because of their variety and relativestructural simplicity, provide excellent model systems for study of se-quence-specific DNA-protein interactions. We have had an interest in thisarea for some time, and I should like to present, in a general way, ourapproach to this problem as well as possible directions for future researchin the area.
The majority of R-M system recognition sites possess 2-fold rotational symmetry. Two basic recognition mechanisms are possible for these sites: symmetric recognition involving bilaterial symmetric contacts in a duplex site and asymmetric recognition involving a set of nonsymmetric contacts (Fig. 1). For single-stranded sites, only the asymmetric mechanism can apply. An important consideration then, is whether or not restrictionenzymes or their corresponding modification methylases can act on single-stranded sites.
Most restriction endonucleases appear to require duplex sites, as origi- nally demonstrated for Hind11 (14). A few enzymes, for example, act slowly on single-stranded DNAs (35, 36, 37), but this is now thought to be due to formation of transient duplexes(38). It is probable that most of the restriction enzymes employ a symmet-ric recognition mechanism. This is based on several arguments. First, sincehemimethylated sites are generated during replication, the recognitionprocess must be responsive to methylation on either strand. This is mosteasily achieved by bilaterial, symmetric protein-DNA contacts at the methy-lation positions within the duplex site. Second, from the standpoint ofgenetic economy it is less expensive to specify a protein monomer siterecognizing n/2 bases than one recognizing n bases (Fig. 1). Finally, the endonuclease exists as dimers and tetramers of a single 28,500 dalton subunit, and under physiological conditions, cleaves both strands ofa duplex site in one binding event (18). It seems likely from symmetryconsiderations that such a dimeric or tetrameric structure will prove to bethe rule for other enzymes.
Modification methylases may recognize sites in a fashion quite different from the restriction enzymes. Some of these enzymes appear capable of' Physiology or Medicine 1978 Fig. 1: Two different ways in which restriction and modification enzymes may interact with two-fold rotationally symmetrical nucleotide sequences in order to achieve recognition. In the symmetric recognition model, the protein possesses subunits arranged in two-fold rotationalsymmetry and each identical half interacts with a minimum of n/2 nucleotides. In theasymmetric model, the protein is assumed to have an asymmetric structure and must interact with at least one nucleotide at each base pair position for a total of n nucleotides. The simplestcase, where all the interactions are on one strand, is shown.
acting on purely single-stranded sites, implying an asymmetric recognition process (Fig.1). Michael B. Mann, in my laboratory (39), has shown that methylates C residues in the random copolymer, poly(dN-acetyl G, dC) which is unable to form any Watson-Crick base pairing (based onabsence of a thermal melting transition), and that methylate poly(dX, dC) which also shows no thermal melting transition.
also methylate denatured salmon sperm DNA to the same total extent as native DNA, although at half the rate. A lower rateand extent (30% ) was achieved with These observations support the notion that these methylases can act on single-stranded sites withpreservation of specificity. This implies that discriminatory interactionsneed involve only the bases on one strand. Rubin and Modrich (18) haveshown that the EcoRI methylase is a functional monomer of molecularweight 39,000 that transfers methyl groups to each strand of the EcoRI sitein individual catalytic events that are interrupted by dissociation from thesite. On theoretical grounds, an asymmetric recognition mechanism isreasonable for the modification methylases because, as pointed out by theabove authors, the usual in vivo hemimethylated duplex substrate is inher-ently asymmetric.
Turning again to the restriction endonucleases, it was early proposed that recognition of a symmetric site might depend on some unusual struc-ture of the site. Kelly and I (14) initially suggested the enzymes might interact with open (melted) sites (Fig. 2) because at that time we felt there was insufficient opportunity for base specific interactions in thehelical grooves. Meselson et al. (41) proposed that symmetric sites mighttransiently form cruciform structures with special features that wouldpromote enzyme recognition (Fig. 2). Both open and cruciform struc- Fig. 2: Representations of three possible structures of a recognition site that might facilitate specific protein-DNA interaction.
tures are energetically unfavorable, and there are no compelling theoreti-cal reasons to favor them. We now accept, as a result of the lac repressor-operator studies (42, 43) and recent structural analyses of base pairs (40),that the base groups exposed in the major and minor grooves of helicalDNA are sufficient for discriminatory interactions. Therefore, to simplifythe discussion, it will be assumed that sites are recognized while in thehelical configuration.
The restriction enzyme was chosen by Michael Mann and myself for initial studies because the site, (5')pG-C-GJC is particularly simple andcan easily be synthesized in alternating polymer form. We have chosenchemical modification of the bases as an approach to determining thosegroups in the major or minor grooves that play a role in recognition.
Effects on catalytic activity rather than binding are most easily measured and have been used in our studies, although we acknowledge that eachmay provide somewhat different information.
We have depended heavily on the analysis of Seeman et al. (40) for interpretation of our results. These authors compare the various potentialsites for discriminatory protein-DNA contacts in the major and minorgrooves of the different base pairs. A base pair, the only kind in the site, is shown in Fig. 3. The major and minor grooves may be visualized as divided into outer and central regions. In the central majorgroove, the 06 atom of guanine is hydrogen bonded to the amino N4 ofcytosine. The outer major groove contains the N7 atom of guanine and C5hydrogen atom of cytosine. The central minor groove contains the 2-amino (N2) group of guanine. The outer minor groove contains the N3atom of guanine and the 02 atom of cytosine. (The latter is hydrogenbonded to the 2-amino group of guanine). A top view of the major groove Physiology or Medicine 1978 Fig. 3: Potential major and minor groove discriminatory protein-DNA interaction positions in restriction endonuclease recognition site. A. A stereochemical drawing of a base pair in DNA (adapted from Seeman et al. (40). Potential atoms for interaction areindicated. B. A rough sketch of a section of helical DNA containing an site. Base pairs are indicated by horizontal bars. The view is from above the major groove, and approximate positions of interacting atoms are shown.
site is shown in Fig. 3 with potential atoms for interaction modification methylase transfers methyl groups from S-aden- osylmethionine onto the 5-position of the internal cytosines (situated be-tween the two guanines) in the site and protects against cleavage by endonuclease (39). Since the methyl groups probably interfere sterically, we infer that contacts between protein and DNA must take placeat these two outer major groove positions of the duplex site. Mann and Ihave also shown that methylation introduced on the 5-position of theexternal cytonsines inhibits cleavages by Therefore, it is likely that these are also closely fitted by the enzyme. In another experiment, we useddimethylsulfate to introduce methyl groups on the N7 positions of guan-ine in an positioned 20 bases from the 5' terminus of a DNA fragment of known sequence. After this treatment, the fragment wasdigested with endonuclease, and fractionated by gel electrophoresis into cleaved and uncleaved molecules. These were then treated by Maxamand Gilbert (44) sequencing methods so as to cleave at the methylatedposition and analyzed by electrophoretic gels. Bands representing G's in the site were greatly increased in intensity in the gel tract representinguncleaved molecules and absent from the gel tract representing cleavedmolecules. We concluded that methylation of the N7 position of any Gresidue in the site conferred protection against cleavage. Again, the effectis likely to be steric, and we infer that the enzyme closely fits these positionsin the outer major groove of the site (Fig. 2B). In summary, we have beenable to demonstrate that methylation at any of eight positions in the outerportions of the major groove inhibits cleavage. Study of the central majorgroove groups by this approach is more difficult because modifications oftendestroy helical pairing.
To examine minor groove interactions, we looked at activity on alternat- ing poly(dI-dC). Inosine contains a H-atom in place of the 2-amino groupof guanine in the central minor groove. A dI-dC base pair mimics a dA-dTbase pair when viewed from the minor groove. cleaves alternating efficiently, thus the 2-amino group is not essential for discrimi- nation, and more specifically, plays no role in discrimination of G.C base pairs. The central minor groove thus seems not to be occupied.
Interaction is still possible in the outer positions of the minor groove where the N3 atom of purines and the 02 atom of pyrimidines are exposed.
However, since these are both electron-rich hydrogen bond acceptors andoccupy strictly similar positions regardless of base pair type, they are not considered likely for discriminatory interactions (40). We have tentativelyconcluded then that endonuclease occupies the major groove and derives all discriminatory contacts from groups in the central and outermajor groove positions.
It is likely that and other restriction endonucleases also interact with the sugar-phosphate backbone within a site. We suggest that stabiliz-ing interactions of this sort, and also non-discriminatory outer minorgroove interactions, may extend to adjacent nucleotides to either side of asite. These interactions could explain two observations. First is the sizeeffect. Greene et al. (45) found that the affinity of endonuclease for the symmetric octanucleotide (5') containing a central recognition site is 200 times less than for the DNA. We found similarly that a symmetric decanucleotide containing sites is not detectably cleaved by endonuclease, but addition of nucleotides to the end restores the site (46). Second is thefinding that some sites are cut preferentially, depending on externalsequence context (47, 48), suggesting that weak contacts are made atneighboring nucleotides outside of the site.
Recognition of Degenerate Sites Degenerate sites are not strictly symmetrical by structural criteria. endonuclease recognizes the site four combinations of the degenerate nucleotides: G-T-A-G-A-C, G-T-A-T-A-C, G-T-C-G-A-C, and G-T-C-T-A-C. The first and last combinations areasymmetric. Yet it is very appealing to think of the enzyme as interacting with each of these sequences in a similar way so as to preserve symmetry.
The discrimination rules of Seeman et al. (40) allow for this possibility.
They describe several potential positions for major and minor grooveinteraction with each of the Watson-Crick base pairs. A protein-DNAinteraction, e.g. a single hydrogen-bond directed to one of the positions, isinsufficient to allow discrimination between all the base pairs, although two interactions can be sufficient. Thus, a restriction or modificationenzyme making only a single contact at symmetrically placed base pairscould allow a degeneracy, i.e., an ambiguity in recognition.
According to this scheme, four types of degeneracy appear to be possi- ble: (A/G)-(T/C) (Pu-Py type), (A/C)-(G/T), (A/T)-(T/A), and (G/C)-(C/G).
The Pu-Py type degeneracy could arise from outer major groove contactdirected toward the purine N7 atom. The (A/C)-(G/T) degeneracy couldresult from a single interaction directed to the central major groove amino N4 of cytosine and amino N6 of adenine position, or to the carbonyl oxygen of thymine or guanine, since these pairs of groups occupy similarpositions in the specified degeneracy. The (A/T)-(T/A) degeneracy couldresult from a central minor groove interaction since the C2 hydrogen atomof adenine occupies a sterically similar position in each orientation.
Finally, the (G/C)-(C/G) d egeneracy could result from interaction in the central minor groove with the 2-amino group of guanine which is in asterically similar position for each orientation of the pair. Inspection of the six degenerate hexanucleotide sequences in Table 1 reveals that, ofthe four predicted degeneracies, only (G/C)-(C/G) has not yet been found.
Among the symmetrical pentanucleotide sites, two are completely de- generate at the middle nucleotide position implying either absence ofprotein-DNA interaction or possibly non-discriminatory outer minorgroove contacts. Three of the pentanucleotide sites contain a middle (A/T)nucleotide degeneracy. This is compatible with a single interaction direct-ed to the C2 hydrogen atom of adenine, which is inherently symmetricalsince it falls almost directly on the dyad axis of the site. Other types ofdegeneracy in the middle nucleotide position of pentanucleotide sitesappear less likely.
The general agreement between the above predicted and observed degeneracies further reinforces the notion that restriction enzymes accom-plish nucleotide sequence recognition through major and minor grooveinteractions.
Relaxation of Sequence Specificity Several DNA enzymes, e.g., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (49)and pancreatic DNase (50), show changes in specificity according to speciesof divalent cation and ionic conditions in the reaction mixture. Somerestriction endonucleases appear to be similarly affected. clease cleaves the sequence (5')G-A-A-T-T-C in a reaction mixture contain-ing 100m M Tris-Cl (pH 7.3), 50 mM NaCl, and 5 mM MgC1 . When the conditions are changed to 25 mM Tris-Cl (pH 8.5), 2 mM MgCl , the specificity is lowered to the central tetranucleotide sequence (5')A-A-T-T(51). However, the enzyme retains a strong preference for the canonicalsite; extensive digestion is required to achieve cleavage at the new tetranu- cleotide sites, and there is great variability among them in regard to clea-vage rate. The latter presumably reflects the degree of relatedness to thecanonical site.
Hsu and Berg (52) obtained decreased specificity with tuting Mn 2 + for Mg2+. They also noted relaxed specificity with in the presence of Mn 2 +. This appears to be a promising area for more investigation.
Cloning R-M System Genes Detailed studies of restriction and modification enzymes require quantitiesof pure enzyme. However, enzymes are often obtained in poor yield fromsource bacteria. Because of this we have begun to explore the possibilitiesof cloning various R-M system genes as a means to achieve enzyme over-production. Using this approach, Michael Mann and Nagaraja Rao, in mylaboratory, have recently cloned system from Haemophi1us haemo- lyticus in the E. coli-pBR322 host-vector system using a "shotgun" approach (53). Total chromosomal DNA was cleaved with endonuclease and inserted into the cloning site of the plasmid, located in the ampicillin resistance gene, by means of a GC-extension procedure developed by Rougeon et al (54). After transfection into an E. coli host (HB 101), tetracycline-resistant recombinant clones were tested for acquisition of anew restriction phenotype using phage λ. A single such clone was found Fig. 5: Single-stranded DNA-agarose affinity chromatography of crude extract from about 10 gm of thermally induced KJ34 cells was processed to remove
nucleic acids and then chromatographed on a single-stranded DNA agarose column (2.5X20
cm) using a 1,000 ml gradient essentially as described by Mann et al. (53). Fractions (approxi- mately 12 ml) were collected and assayed for protein by absorbance at 280 nm and for activity by gel electrophoresis of lambda DNA digestion products. The endonuclease units represent estimates of the percent of complete digestion. Protein species in load and in peak endonuclease fractions were examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
among 1400 tested. The recombinant plasmid, pDIl0, recovered from thisclone contained a 3.0 kb DNA insert flanked by sites. A cleavage map is shown in Fig. 4. The HB101 clone carrying pDI10 exhibits classicalrestriction and modification behavior with phage λ (e.o.p. 10-7) andseveral other phages.
efficiently re-transfects new HB101 cells suggesting that methylation is expressed well in advance of restriction. To account forthis, we have suggested that the methylase might act as a positive regulatorfor expression of the restriction gene. By this scheme, methylase wouldinitially be occupied with methylation of host chromosomal sites, becoming free to induce restriction enzyme only after its job was complete. This isonly one possible scheme to explain the apparent sequential action of thesegenes. Study of the regulation should prove interesting.
To increase plasmid copy number and consequent enzyme overproduc- tion, the 3.0 kb DNA fragment was excised from pDI10 DNA and trans-ferred into a second plasmid vector, pKC16, a hybrid of pBR322 and phage λ containing a thermally-inducible h-replication region (55), to yielda new hybrid plasmid pDI21. Using a clone containing pDI21, a 20 minute 42"C treatment raises plasmid copy number and enzyme yield several foldover that obtainable with pDI10. The restriction endonuclease and modifi-cation methylase were purified from crude extracts of this clone by single-stranded DNA-agarose affinity chromatography. Typical results for the endonuclease are shown in Fig. 5. This essentially one-step procedure yielded an active fraction showing a single major protein band of about 24,000 daltons by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Fig. 5). The purified endonuclease gives a DNA cleavage pattern on with the sequence specificity (5')pGA-N-T-C. The DNA methylase from the clone protects against both We believe that future developments in the field of restriction and modification enzymes will depend heavily on gene cloning, both for en-zyme overproduction and for genetic studies. There is a great advantageto having the genes on a small segment of' DNA chat can be propagated and expressed in E. coli. The genes are easily accessible forgenetic studies in the new host, whereas this would be difficult or impossi-ble in the original Haemophilus strain. The DNA segment is small enoughto be readily sequenced, thus providing direct information on gene ar-rangement, regulatory sequences, and protein amino acid sequences. Thelatter will he valuable for future crystallographic studies of enzyme struc-ture, a goal which must he achieved if we are to fully understand thenature of' the protein-DNA interactions involved in nucleotide sequence 1. Nathans, D. and Smith, H.O. (1975) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44, 273-293.
la. Luria, S.E. and Human, S.L. (1952) J. Bacterial. 64, 557-569.
2. Bertani, G. and Weigle, J.J. (1953) J. Bacterial. 65, 113-121.
3. Arber, W. and Dussoix, D. (1962) J. Mol. Biol. 5, 18-36.
4. Dussoix, D. and Arber, W. (1962) J. Mol. Biol. 5, 37-49.
5. Arber, W. (1965) Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 19, 365-378. 6. Linn, S. and Arber, W. (1968) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 39, 1300-1306.
7. Meselson, M. and Yuan, R. (1968) Nature 217, 1110 - 1114.
8. Boyer, H.W. (1971) Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 25, 153- 176.
9. Horiuchi, K. and Zinder, N.D. (1972) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 3220-3224.
10. Adler, S.P. and Nathans, D. (I 973) Biochem. Biophys. Acta 299, 177- 188.
11. Murray, N.E., Batten, P.L., and Murray, K. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81, 395-407. 12. Smith, H.O. and Wilcox, K.W. (1970) J. Mol. Biol.51, 379-391.
13. Weiss, B. and Richardson, C.C. (1967) J. Mol. Biol. 23, 405-417.
14. Kelly, T.J. Jr. and Smith, H.O. (1970) J. Mol. Biol. 51, 393-409.
15. Modrich, P. and Zabel. D. (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 5866-5874.
16. Greene, P.J., Betlach, M.C., Goodman, H.M., and Boyer, H.W. (1974) Methods Mol.
Biol. 7, 87-111.
17. Smith, L.A. and Chirlkjian, J.C., personal communication.
18. Rubin, R.A. and Modrich, P. (1977).J. Biol. Chem. 252, 7265-7272.
19. Roy, P. H. and Smith, H. 0. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81, 427-444.
20. Roy, P.H. and Smith, H.O. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81, 445-459. 21. Vanyushin, B.F., Belozersky, A.N., Kokurina, N.A., and Kadirova, D.X. (1968) Nature 218, 1066-1067.
22. Arber, W. and Linn, S. (1969) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 38, 467-500.
23. Old, R., Murray, K., and Roizes, G. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 92, 331-339.
24. Danna, K. and Nathans, D. (1971) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 68, 2913-2917.
25. Sharp, P.A., Sugden, B. and Sambrook, J. (1973) Biochemistry 12, 3055-3063.
26. Yoshimori, R. (197 1) Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Calif., San Francisco.
27. Middleton, J.H., Edgell, M.H., and Hutchison, C.A.111. (1972) J. Virol. IO, 42-50.
28. Gromkova, R. and Goodgal, S.H. (1972) J. Bacterial. 109, 987-992.
29. Roberts, R.J. (1978) Gene, 4, 183- 193.
30. Smith, H.O. and Nathans, D. (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81, 419-423.
3 1. Fuchs, C., Rosenvold, E.C., Honigman, A., and Szybalski, W. (1978) Gene 4, l-23.
32. Kleid, D., Humayun, Z., Jeffrey, A., and Ptashne, M. (1976) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 293-297.
33. Lacks, S. and Greenberg, B. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4060-4066.
34. Brown, N.L. and Smith, M. (1977) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 3213-3216.
35. Blakesley, R.W. and Wells, R.D. (1975) Nature 257, 421-422.
36. Horuichi, K. and Zinder, N.D. (1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 2555-2558.
37. Godson, G.N. and Roberts, R.J. (1976) Virology 73, 561-567.
38. Blakesley, R.W., Dodson, J.B., Nes, I.F., and Wells, R.D. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 39. Mann, M.B. and Smith, H.O. (1978) in Transmethylation, eds. E. Usdin, R. T. Bor- chardt, C. R. Creveling (Elsevier/North Holland) pp 483-493.
40. Seeman, N.C., Rosenberg, J.M., and Rich, A. (1976) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 804- 41. Meselson, M., Yuan, R., and Heywood, J. (1972) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 41, 447-466.
42. Adler, K., Beyrenther, K., Fanning, E., Geisler, N. Gronenborn. B., Klemm, A., Müller- Hill, B., Pfahl, M., and Schuitz, A. (1972) Nature 237, 322-327.
43. Gilbert, W., Maxam, A., and Mirzabekov, A. (1976) in Control of Ribosome Synthesis, Alfred Benson Symposium IX, eds. Kjeldgaard, N.O., Maaloe, 0. (Munksgaard, Copen- hagen) pp. 139- 148.
Nucleotide Sequence Specificity of Restriction Endonucleases 44. Maxam, A. and Gilbert, W. (1977) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 560-564.
45. Greene, P.J., Poonian, MS., Mussbaum, A.L., Tobias, L., Garfin, D.E., Boyer, H.W., and Goodman, H.M. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 99, 237-261.
46. Mann, M.B. and Smith, H.O. (1977) Nucl. Acids Res. 4, 4211-4221.
47. Thomas, M. and Davis, R.W. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 91, 315-328.
48. Smith, H.O. and Birnstiel, M. (1976) Nucl. Acids Res. 3, 2387-2398.
49. Roychondhury, R., Jay, E., and Wu, R. (1976) Nucl. Acids Res. 3, 863-877.
50. Melgar, E. and Goldthwait, D.A. (1968) J. Biol. Chem. 243, 4409-4416.
5 1. Polisky, B., Greene, P., Garfin, D.E., McCarthy, B.J., Goodman, H.M., and Boyer, H.W.
(1975) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 3310-3314.
52. Hsu, M. and Berg, P. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 131-138.
53. Mann, M.B., Rao, N.R., and Smith, H.O. (1978) Gene 3, 97-112.
54. Rougeon, F., Kourilsky, P., and Mach, B. (1975) Nucl. Acids Res. 2, 2365-2378.
55. Rao, N.R. and Rogers, S.G. (1978) Gene 3, 247-263.
Guidelines for the Use of Herpes Simplex STD/HIV Prevention Type 2 Serologies: 1947 Center Street, # 201 Berkeley, CA 94704 Recommendations from the California Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Controllers Association and the California Department of Health Services (CA DHS) Guidelines for the Use of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)Type 2 Serologies: Recommendations from the California Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Controllers Association and the California Department of Health Services (CA DHS)
137310 sept magazine.pdf
Osteoporosis and Coeliac Disease Osteoporosis is a common problem in our society and Osteoporosis may will affect 2 in every 3 women who reach 60 and 1 in every 3 men. The risk is even higher as a consequence in those with coeliac disease. *Associate Professor Nick Pocock and Kate Noakes coeliac disease. ;LEXMWSWXISTSVSWMW#Osteoporosis is most easily thought of as a thinning of bones. Our bones are dynamic organs and are constantly being ‘remodelled' to cope with changing stresses imposed by our lifestyle and to repair microscopic damage to the bones which happens as a normal part of living. The remodelling of bones involves an initial ‘resorption' phase where the old bone is removed, followed by a ‘formation' phase where new bone is formed. Osteoporosis occurs when the