Marys Medicine

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Present Status of Paraviwella Reef Tangalle Southern Sri Lanka:
A Potential Natural Mesocosm for Marine Research
I. M. I. S. B. Gunathilake, I. P. S.C. Halgahawaththa, M. B. M. Fayas, W. A. S.Chamika and M. F. M. Fairoz Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Ocean University of Sri Lanka, Mahawela Road, Tangalle, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: Shallow reef habitats dominated with living corals is relatively accessible
all times of the day and could be useful to consider as a natural mesocosm. This study was
conducted at Paraviwella near shore reef patch, Tangalle, Southern Sri Lanka (6° 01'
17.07" N, 80° 48' 01.21" E) from 25th April 2014 to 10th September 2014 to examine the
current status of the substratum composition. Line Intercept Transects (LITs) method was
used for benthic composition study (number of transects = 6, length = 25m and area 3500
m2). Temperature (T), Salinity (S), Turbidity (Tb) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were
measured in sea water collected from transect locations. Results disclosed that sea water
quality at Paraviwella reef were within the suitable condition for growth of corals and
other associated organisms (T=29 ± 1°C, D=54 ± 17 cm, S=34 ± 1ppt, Tb=3 ± 0.6 NTU,
DO=8.6 ± 1 ppm). Transect study showed that living corals (64.7 ± 18.9%) and algae
(19.2 ± 13.4%) were dominant life forms represented by higher percentage cover at
Paraviwella. Also rock (13.8 ± 5.9%), coral rubble (1.5 ± 2.4%) sand (0.6 ± 0.7%) and
others (0.2 ± 0.4%) were represented as non-living components. Two dominant coral
species were identified as Pocillopora damicornis and Montipora aequituberculata, their
percentage values from the total coral cover were 28.8 ± 14.2% and 24.6 ± 9.6%
respectively. Other living corals were represented as 11.3 ± 5.4%. Algae cover also
consists of several fleshy and filamentous Algae types (Caulerpa racemosa, Halimeda sp.
and Chaetomorpha sp, Padina sp, Crustose coralline algae). In addition to corals and
algae, giant clams (Family: Cardiidae, Tridacna sp) and typical coral reef fish (herbivore
59.1 ± 11% [sergant fish 41.2 ± 14%, damsel fish 27.3 ± 2.5%], carnivore 34.2 ± 4.4%,
and omnivore 6.7 ± 5.2%) were also present associated to coral in Paraviwella. Other
invertebrates such as Sea cucumbers (Order Elasipodida, family Pelagothuriidae), Sea
Urchins (Order: Echinoida). The present water quality, the living and non –living benthic
composition suggest that the Paraviwella reef could be used as a natural mesocosm for

Keywords: coral, marine research, natural mesocosm, Paraviwella, substratum

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Preliminary Observation on Bird Diversity in Vairavapuliyankulam
Tank and Adjacent Paddy Land in Vavuniya, Sri Lanka
S. Kishoran1 and K. P .A. M. K. Luxmini2 1,2Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Applied Science Vavuniya Campus, University of Jaffna [email protected] ABSTRACT: Bird diversity is an excellent indicator of an ecosystem's health, both
terrestrial and aquatic. The objective of the present study was the diversity and abundance
of bird species in the Vairavapuliyankulam tank (VT) and in adjacent paddy land. This area
is notable for their bird diversity as well as being a major habitat in Vavuniya. The last ten
years there were no studies had been carried out in this area on the diversity and abundance
of bird species. This VT is a seasonal tank, therefore, the water level change according to
the climate. Due to the eutrophication, Eichhornia crassipes was covered a major area,
which gives a suitable habitat and good feeding habitat for many birds. In dry season water
level is very shallow that invite many wading birds. A total of 37 species of birds were
recorded during the survey carried out from April to July 2014. Point transect was used to
count birds. Peak counting hours were between 06.30 to 08.30 and 16.00 to 17.30 each day.
And counting was taken weekly. Area of the tank was 183 Acre feet. 6 sampling points were
selected using simple random sampling. A minimum distance of approximately 100m was
kept between points to avoid pseudo replication. Birds were counted for 15 minutes at each
point using binocular. The most abundance, species was purple coot (Poyphyrio porphyria)
(total count >2000) other notable species were common coot (Fulica
atra)(1263), black

(Threskiornis (Gallinago gallinago)(474), common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos)(352), spot billed pelican (Pelecanus phillippensis)(42), little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis)(36),black winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus)(26), purple heron (Ardea purpurea)(18), Egrets and cormorants were very common. This study indicates that the area had the high species richness of resident birds and the eco touristic potential. They are undoubtedly very important area for bird conservation. Keywords: Eco touristic, eutrophication, point transects, species richness, wading birds
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Identify the Soil Salinity Pockets and It's Reclamation Methods at
Pooneryn in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka
P. Loganathan and S. Suthakar1 Faculty of Applied Science, Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna [email protected] ABSTRACT: In Northern region of Sri Lanka, about 99,600 ha of land is utilized for
agricultural related activities. These lands have been degraded due to indiscriminate use
of agrochemicals, intrusion of sea water and other agricultural practices. Soil testing has
not been performed for farmers' fields in the Northern part of Sri Lanka after 1980.
Especially, Soil salinity is a widespread in the Paddy fields. A study was carried to identify
the soil salinity pockets and causes at Pooneryn in Kilinochchi district of Sri Lanka to
educate the farmers on remedial measures. Soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were
measured for hundred fifty one soil samples randomly collected from 0 – 30 cm depth from
Pooneryn area in Kilinochchi District during Maha 2012/13. Soil pH ranged from 4.35 to
9.90 (CV = 12.6 %), among all sampled soils where 11 % of soils were in acidic range (<
5.5) and 29 % of samples were in alkaline range starting from slight alkalinity (>7.0).
Rest of the soils samples were under suitable range. Therefore, there is a need for using of
soil amendments for soil pH management for enhancement of nutrient availability to
plants. Electrical conductivity (1:5 soil- water suspension) showed maximum value as
11.52 dS/m in Paddy fields. These results revealed that there is a soil salinity problem in
Pooneryn area. Salinity may be due to frequent intrusion of sea water and there is a need
to construct dams or sand dune or other infrastructures to control the sea water intrusion
into Paddy fields. Rice variety AT354 performed well in soil salinity locations. Hence
saline land could be managed by cultivating salt tolerant varieties and proper soil and
water management.

Keywords:electrical conductivity, soil salinity, soil fertility
1Regional Agricultural Research and Development Centre, Department of Agriculture, Kilinochchi Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 The Variation Of Stand Basal Area Calculation Using Three Different
Methods For Dry Zone Teak Plantations In Sri Lanka
M.P. Priyantha and S.M.C.U.P Subasinghe1 Central Environmental Authority ABSTRACT: Stand Basal Area (G) is simply the cross-sectional area of all the trees at
breast height per hectare of a forest or a plantation (m2/ha). G can be used to estimate
stand volume and is a useful measure of the degree of competition in the stand. The present
study was conducted for a 44 years old homogeneous Teak (Tectona grandis L.f)
plantation in the dry zone located in Anuradhapure Range, Mihintale Beat of Sri Lanka.
Initially, a 100m«100m square plot was demarcated and then it was divided into 100;
10m«10m subplots to be compatible with the research design.Then at the breast height
point, eight readings were taken using tree caliper and, a single reading was taken using
the diameter tape. Using different basal area factors of three instruments such as angle
gauge, Spiegal relascope and wedge prism, stand basal area readings for five locations
within 1 ha plot were also taken.The G calculated by using the tape reading and eight
diameter readings of caliper in the sample plot and wedge prism, Spiegal relascope and
angle gauge were tested by one way analysis of variance test together with Turkey's pair
wise comparison to recognize the differences among instruments used.According to the
results, there is no significant difference among the tape, number of caliper readings and
spiegal relascope. But the results showed significant differences for angle gauge and
wedge prism with the absolute basal area value. Also there was no significant difference
among the number of diameter readings were taken by caliper. In order to identify the
minimum plot size that has to be used to collect data for G calculations using sample plot
method, one sample t- test was used for selected plot sizes. The test mean used for this
method was absolute basal area value calculated using cut and weight method. According
to the test, it showed that the minimum plot size was 400m2 for the accurate basal area in
the sample plot method. Also the results showed that the absolute error difference
decreasing with the increasing of plot size. The three instruments used to calculate relative
basal area values were compared statistically by one sample t-test to identify the best
instrument for relative basal area calculation. In this method absolute basal area value
was used as the test mean and test results showed that Spiegal relascope predicts relative
basal area accurately and other both wedge prism and angle gauge do not predict relative
basal area accurately. Finally, it is concluded that use of sample plot is the best method
for total basal area calculations with a minimum plot size of 400m2.The diameter tape was
recommended to use in the field when taking diameter measurements for basal area
calculation. When calculate the relative basal area, Speigal relascope is recommended.
The error generated due to use of angle gauge and Wedge prism is very high and it is not
recommended these instruments to take basal area measurements in the dry zone teak

Keywords: absolute basal area, diameter at breast height (dbh), relative basal area, stand
basal area, sample plot method
1 Department of Forestry & Environmental Science University of Sri Jayuewardenepura Nugegoda,
Sri Lanka
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Impact of Land Use Changes on Bird Diversity: A Comparative
Study of Disturbed and Undisturbed Tanks in The Vavuniya District
K.S.Sivanesan1, 2and J. W Anukulan2 1Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Bird diversity and richness is an ecological indicator of natural terrestrial
and aquatic ecosystem quality. Objective of this study was to compare avian species
richness and abundance under two different levels of disturbance. The structure of the
avian community inhabiting a disturbed (urban area: Vairavapuliyankulam tank) and
undisturbed (forest area: Kombuvaithakulam tank) sites were compared. The extent of the
two tanks Vairavapuliyankulam and Kombuvaithakulam measured using Arc GIS 10 were
33.7 and 93.5 acres respectively. At each site, six transects (100m«100m) were used to
document the avifaunal diversity. A combination of aquatic plants such as lotuses, water
hyacinth, and the reed vegetation along the bund provides habitat to more birds. The study
was carried out from May to June 2013. Observations were carried out between 0630h to
0800h and 1630h to 1800 h on week days. Birds were counted for 15 minutes at each
transect. Both tanks were observed simultaneously. There were 32 and 54 bird species
and total count 2873±15, 4938±25individuals and most abundant species were
Intermediate Egret>Little egret> Black-headed Ibis, Painted Stork> Intermediate Egret>
Black-headed Ibis identified in disturbed and undisturbed tanks. Highly significant
differences were found between the numbers of species, numbers of individuals in almost
all comparisons performed. Our results showed clearly,
disturbed habitat where low bird
species diversity occurred is under great pressure due to deep rooted anthropogenic
factors. The mean number of species in undisturbed tank was significantly greater than
disturbed tank. Almost every aspect of this study confirmed that birds were significantly
influenced by the activities of humans; compared to those living in completely undisturbed
locations, birds living in locations experiencing high levels of disturbance were
characterized by significantly lower species richness. Increasing the land use changes and
anthropogenic disturbance are reducing the bird diversity and population in study area.
This study indicates these areas had the high species richness of birds and the eco touristic
potential. These are very important areas for bird conservation and bird watching.
Keywords: Bird watching, diversity richness, land use, undisturbed tank, Vavuniya

2 PGIS, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Estimation of Carbon Storage of Different Forest Plantations
Established by Sadaharitha Plantations Limited
S.M.C.U.P. Subasinghe, B.S. Nawarathne1 and U.N. Gunasekara1 Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, CO 10250, Sri Lanka
ABSTRACT: In order to mitigate the global warming resultant due to the rapid
industrialization, the "Green Economy Concept" has been introduced to the world which
is defined by the United Nations Environmental Programme as one that results in
improving human well-being and social equity, while reducing environmental risks and
ecological scarcities. Therefore green economy leads to low emission of CO2 and similar
gases and efficient resource utilization with great social care.
Admiring the green economy concept, Sadaharitha Plantation Limited (SPL), the Gold
Winner of Green Awards in 2012, is engaged in forest plantations management with
Sandalwood, Teak, Mahogany, Rambutan and Agarwood to earn foreign exchange to the
country. SPL manages its all plantations under ISO 14001 principles and Teak and
Sandalwood plantations are being prepared to obtain Forest Certification. In addition,
natural forest patches are maintained whenever possible in these plantations for the
purpose of biodiversity conservation and landscape protection. In order to minimize the
environmental damage due to the application of chemical fertilisers, over 1,500 MT of
compost are annually made within the estates to use as organic fertiliser. Further, the
company has provided over 900 direct green employment opportunities and introduced
innovative forest-based income generation opportunities such as Agarwood Homegarden
Concept to the villagers as a strategy to eliminate persistent poverty in Sri Lanka.
This paper investigates the carbon storage values of 156.0, 196.6, 3.4 and 13.9 ha of
Sandalwood, (2 and 3 years old), Teak (2,3,4,5,6, and 7 years old), Mahogany (10 years
old) and Rambutan (9 years old) plantations respectively managed by SPL in Colombo,
Kalutara, Rathnapura, Puttlam, Badulla, Galle, Matale and Matara Districts. For this
purpose, representative trees were selected from each species of each age and the tree
volumes were estimated using appropriate volume functions. Then the carbon values were
estimated using the guidelines of Carbon-Fix Standards V3.2 for each species. These
values were then projected to 20 years after planting considering the growth rates and
removal of trees in thinning.
According to the results, carbon storage values for 10 year old Mahogany plantations is
242.0MT/ha and 9 year old Rambutan plantations is 3.8 MT/ha. The carbon values for 2
and 3 year old Sandalwood plantations are 0.1 and 0.6 MT/ha while those values for 2, 3,
4, 5, 6 and 7 year old Teak plantations are 4.9, 9.7, 13.1, 23.4, 29.7 and 50.1 MT/ha
respectively. At the 20th year, the carbon contents of Mahogany, Rambutan, Sandalwood
and Teak plantations will be 242.0, 41.3, 69.5 and 326.7 MT/ha respectively which are
equivalent to 887.2, 151.4, 254.78 and 1,197.7 MT/ha respectively.

Tree biomass, mahogany, sandalwood, teak, green economy
1 Sadaharitha Plantations Limited, 6A, Alfred Place, Colombo 03, CO 00300, Sri Lanka
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 The Escaping Mechanism of Avicennia marina Against Cattle
Browsing in Kalpitiya Mangrove Forest in Sri Lanka.
V.G. Thanushka, M.P. Kumara, P.M.Wickramage, W.T.D.K.M.A I. Gunathilaka and Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Ocean University Mahawela Road, Tangalle, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: A research study was conducted (in May 2014) in an Avicennia marina
mangrove forest in Kalpitiya, Sri Lanka, (8˚21.95'N, 79˚74.4'E) that is regularly browsed
by cattle. When a small browsing class is progressing in to medium browsing class as well
as when a medium browsing class is progressing in to larger browsing class, significant
increments were observed for the height and the average canopy spread. Thus, during the
progression period of small class to larger class, the vertical and lateral growth
increments were noted. It was noted that the average canopy spread of the small and
middle classes stays within the downward browsing limits of the cattle and hence the
browsing occurred all over the canopies. However in the large browsing class, the
increased average canopy spread had created a "browsing free area" in the middle of the
canopy as the area was out of the downward browsing limits. The middle height of the
larger browsing class (101.6±16.4cm) was significantly taller than the browsing biomass
height (60.70±18.43cm cm) of the escaped trees. This height increment had been resulted
by the vertical growth of the "browsing free area" and the height to this point
(101.6±16.4cm) was identified as the Maximum Browsing Height: (MBH) for the studied
site as it was the upward browsing limit of the cattle. As a result of exceeding the downward
and upward browsing limits, the "browsing free area" of the larger browsing class was
found to have started producing the "escaping biomass". The average canopy spread for
the larger browsing class and the browsing biomass of the escaped trees showed no
significant differences. Thus, it was clear that the large browsing class transits in to the
escaped class producing the escaping biomass at its middle (in the browsing free area)
while their lateral growth remain constant. The mean height of the escaped biomass of the
escaped trees (mean±SD) was (142.9±52cm). The mean height ratio between the below
MBH: biomass: above MBH biomass was 2.6±1.5 indicating that the escaped biomass
could grow up to 4.1 times taller than the below MBH biomass. The browsing has caused
multi-stem conditions for all the browsing classes. Since the cattle browsing has profound
effects on the growth of A.marina in the associated site, necessary management initiatives
should be implemented to control the cattle browsing on mangroves in Kalpitiya area.

Keywords: Biomass, Browsing, Cattle, Escaping mechanism, Mangroves,
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Present Status Diversity of Medicinal Plants of Keechangulam Forest
Reserve in Mullaitivu District of Sri Lanka
Unit of Siddha Medicine University of Jaffna [email protected] ABSTRACT: Sri Lanka is one of the smallest but biologically most diverse country. The
flora of Keechangulam forest reserve in the Mullaitivu District was surveyed for medicinal
plants over a period of three months (January 2013- March 2013), using a belt transects
method. Interviews we also held with traditional physicians surrounding the surveyed area
to identify ethno-botanical information about the medicinal plants flora of the forest. The
predominant forest type observed in the study are was Dry Mixed Evergreen forest. A total
of 252 medicinal plant species belonging to 60 families were recorded during the study.
This includes 130 trees, 52 herbs, 55 shrubs, 9 lianas, and 6 stragglers comprised of
perennials (78%), annual (20%), and biennials (2%). Among the medicinal plant species
recorded, 13 species were identified as native species, 1 endemic species, and one
critically endangered species.
Out of the 252 medicinal plant species, 10 species were identified to be poisonous, 20
species are used for diabetic mellitus, 12 in vadha diseases, 15 in treating skin diseases,
and 16 for respiratory disorders. It was observed that 32 species are collected for
medicinal purposes by the physicians surrounding the forest. Rauvolfia serpentia,
Salvadora persica, Erythroxylum monogynum, Andrographis paniculata, and Salacia
reticulata were recorded as economically useful medicinal plants in the survey area. The
primary threats to the flora of medicinal plants of the Keechangulam Reserve include
illegal logging, encroachment, and lack of knowledge on identification of medicinal plants.
Due to these kinds of threats many native medicinal plants of Keechangulam Reserve are
in the verge of extinction. It is suggested that necessary steps should be taken to declare
the Keechangulam forest area as a natural reserve for medicinal plants.
Keywords: Diversity, Keechangulam forest, medicinal plants, status

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Necessity of More Reliable Meteorological Model for Vavuniya
District for Effective Planning
K. Arjunan., P. Loganathan. and S. Suthakar 1 Faculty of Applied Science, Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna, Vavuniya,Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: The field of meteorology has begun to receive renewed interest globally on
account of environmental awareness and concern regarding climate change and of
weather anomalies. Weather and Climate bear on critical fields such as energy, irrigation,
public health, infrastructure planning, construction, fisheries, wildlife, vegetation and
agriculture. This study aims to reveal the necessity of more instantaneous and accurate
meteorological information for Vavuniya District. Meteorological parameters
(Atmospheric temperature, Land surface temperature, Relative humidity) were obtained
from two different sources includes, with respect to selected 20 reference points in
Vavuniya District during the period of March to August of 2012. Sources for
meteorological parameters include the information collected from meteorological
information from meteorological station Vavuniya, portable devices and remotely sensed
imagery. The various statistical analyses Student t test and 2 t test were carried out in
order to find significant differences between two different data sets of particular
parameters. Analyses showed, for atmospheric temperature the p values for 2t test were
0.067, 0.011, 0.277, 0.006, 0.174, and 0.767 respectively, and for Relative Humidity (RH)
data sets, 0.975, 0.679, 0.030, 0.913, 0.039 and 0.028 respectively. Student t test for land
surface temperature data showed the p values as 0.705, 0.956, 0.051, 0.052, 0.02 and
0.001 respectively. This study reveals that few data sets of all three parameters show
negligible differences, but, most of the data sets from two different sources shows
significant differences. As far as the temporal and spatial differences were concerned the
differences reflects the location and the acquisition time of particular parameters. This
study emphasizes the need of more instantaneous and accurate meteorological information
for Vavuniya district towards more reliability for more successful future development

Keywords: Remotely sensed imagery, Atmospheric temperature, Relative Humidity, Land
surface temperature, significant differences.

1Regional Agricultural Research and Development Centre, Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Determination of Subsurface Profile Maps in Colombo Division using
Geotechnical Investigation
K.M.S.Bandara, A.L.T.Hewawasam1, Lal P.Vidana Arachchi2 and R.M.W.Rathnayake3 Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences Sabaragamuwa University Belihuloya, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: All constructions such as Highway road system, underground tunnels, dams,
bunds, bridges, tower foundations and high rise buildings build up on the surface and
subsurface. Stability and durability of constructions depend on the condition of the soil
layer patterns, groundwater table and soil bearing capacity. It can be decided the
foundation type of the construction, depth of foundation, method of ground improvement
and dewatering method etc. Borehole drilling is a geotechnical method to get real
information of a particular location from ground surface up to bed rock and beyond.
Standard Penetration Test was done by using split spoon sampler. This research was
carried out in Colombo Division. Secondary and primary boreholes (200) data used to
determine the soil bearing capacity, groundwater table, and rock level. Data analysis
process was done by using Arc GIS (9.2) software. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) values
are changed with grains sizes of soil types and it is increased with dense sand and
completely weathered rock. Standard penetration test average range was 2-42. Soil
bearing capacity was maximum in Mattakkuliya, Kotahena, Kirulapana and Havelock and
minimum in Orugodawatta, Sedawatta, Dematagoda and Kollupitiya. Maximum
groundwater table was (8.59±0.01) m, places where deepest were Narahenpita, Colombo
12 and groundwater table minimum was (0.10±0.01) m places in sedawatta

(-27.98±0.01) Dematagoda,Havelock and Rajagiriya and minimum was (25.59±0.01) m, places were
Kotahena, Mattakkuliya and Dematagoda referred to Mean Sea Level. Lower elevation
and Higher elevation were (5.00±0.01) m, places were Orugodawatta, Dematadoga and
Havelock (26.99±0.01) m, places were Kotahena and Pettah within Colombo division.
However, this preliminary study revealed well relationships among groundwater table,
rock level and soil layers patterns. However, groundwater table is inversely proportional
to soil bearing capacity and Soil bearing capacity increases with dense sand and
completely weathered rock. Finally, groundwater table was above and rock level was
almost below to Mean Sea Level. Subsurface profile maps of Colombo division can be used
to minimize flood risk management and to improve town development projects.

Keywords: borehole, mean sea level, standard penetration test, subsurface
1 Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri
Lanka, Belihuloya
2 Department of Export Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University
of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya
3 Engineering & Laboratory Services(pvt)Ltd, 62/3, NeelamaharaRd, Katuwawala, Boralesgamuwa
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Use of Satellite Data to Identification, Evaluation and Change
Detection Wetlands in South-Eastern River Basin in Sri Lanka
J.A.R. Gunawardena, T.T. Fernando, W. Takeuchi2, C. H Wickramasinghe3, and L. Samarakoon3 Geo-informatics Unit, Central Environmental Authority, 104, Denszil Kobbekaduwa Mawatha, Battaramulla,
ABSTRACT: Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these
ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural,
residential and industrial development and waste dumping.
South Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is becoming rapidly urbanizing, which
leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is
important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to
protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka as Environmental
Protection Areas. Land use/ cover mapping, habitat mapping, change detection and
vulnerability maps of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to managing
the protection area. this study there are 42 wetlands were explored on ecological and
socio-economical through field based survey. However, conventional mapping required
more labor, time and money. To overcome this limitations, GIS and Remote Sensing
techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems.
According to that, Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed
for identifying habitats, land use land cover types and change detection of selected 42
wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire
survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. SWAT analysis was done for each
wetland systems to ranking, valuation and results incorporated with satellite to quantify
the highly sensitive wetlands. Finally, 7 wetlands were selected as highly important
wetlands among the 42 systems to consider to declare as Environmental Protection Areas
under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Wetlands, GIS and Remote Sensing

2 Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan
3 Geoinformatics Center, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Application of GIS and RS Techniques to Identify Farmer's
Contribution for Soil Erosion in Upper Mahaweli Catchment
B.A.Y.B.Jayawardana, E.P.N.Udayakumara, T. Dammalage1 and J.S.M. Fowze2 Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka Belihuloya, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Soil erosion is a complex process that involves the detachment, movement
and deposition of soil particles influenced by both wind and water. The Upper Mahaweli
Catchment is an area subjected increase in erosion over the years due to anthropogenic
activities. The catchment covers an area of about 3118 km2 and four hydro power plants
located in the catchment contributes nearly 60% of the electricity supply of the country.
Therefore, this area is very vital to national economy and considered as heart of the
county. The natural forest cover of the UMC has been cleared during the last two centuries.
The region remained protected with virgin forest until the colonization in the early 19th
century. Afterwards, the forest was largely cleared first for coffee and later for tea
plantation. It was further deforested mainly due to the demand for agricultural activities,
development activities and human settlements in the hill country. Presently, only a few
isolated patches of forest remain, and the rest is being exposed to severe erosion.
Despite the fact that substantial land use change has been occurred in this catchment as
in many others, no recent soil erosion related study has been carried out. Lack of recent
data limits the application of some empirical and process-based models to assess erosion.
Another limitation is that most soil erosion studies do not take into account the
contribution of socioeconomic factors linked with soil erosion studies. Hence, this study
aims to assess the current status and socio-economic determinants of soil erosion.
Data used for the study were digital elevation data (DEM), Landsat 7 ETM satellite image,
and socio-economic data through a comprehensive farm household and famer plot survey
Using the Honda's model, soil erosion of the catchment was calculated. To find out socio-
economic determinants of soil erosion, stepwise multiple regressing analyses was
employed using ten correlated covariates.
This study disclosed that the average soil erosion rate is about 18.53 t ha-1 yr-1 (sd=13.98).
However, the natural soil generation rate of the catchment ranges from 0.13 to 0.30 t ha-1
yr-1. According to the natural soil generation rate, present soil erosion is 800 to 1800 times
higher. Moreover, the significant socio-economic determinants of soil erosion were farm
income, cropping types and total income (p= 0.01), and extent of cultivated land area
Keywords: Upper Mahaweli Catchment, Household, Soil erosion, Honda model
1 Department of Cartography, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & GIS, Faculty of Geomatics,
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka
2 Central Engineering and Consultancy Bureau, No- 415, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, Sri
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Estimating the Net Surface Shortwave Solar Radiation Using
S.M.J.S. Samarasinghe, Ali A. Abkar1, Valentyn and A. Tolpekin2 GIS Branch, Sri Lanka Survey Department, Colombo 05, Sri Lanka. ABSTRACT: Net Surface Shortwave Radiation (NSSR) is a key quantity for the estimation
of net radiation (Rn) and Rn is a key component of the Earth energy balance and is used
for various applications including climate monitoring, weather prediction and solar power
generation. The most practical and reliable method for estimating solar radiation is based
on remote sensing because remote sensing observation values are higher than location
based measurements for acquiring the features.
Over the past years, many models for estimating surface shortwave radiation or its
components have been developed from various remote sensing observations.
It has been observed that existing ancillary data are not sufficient to have an accurate
solar radiation estimates due to the limited amount of ground equipments, hence available
net surface shortwave solar radiation data is not accurate. Therefore, in this research the
aim is to fill this gap and provide the required information on reliable spatial solar
radiation data using high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data and
This research tries to provide accurate solar radiation data based on the data and products
from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board the Earth
Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite, as an alternative solution for existing unreliable
Pyranometer data.
The primary objective of this research is to explore an appropriate methodology to capture
the spatial distribution of NSSR using MODIS data. In addition, this study describes the
methods for estimating instantaneous and daily average NSSR.
By this developed model, the average RMSE value for estimated instantaneous NSSR is
29.44 W m−2, 55.51 W m-2 and 44.43 W m-2 for the clear sky, cloudy sky and both clear
and cloudy sky condition respectively. For the estimated daily average NSSR, value of
average RMSE is 29.53 W m−2, 31.83 W m-2 and 30.70 W m-2 for the clear sky, cloudy sky
and both clear and cloudy sky condition respectively. Instantaneous NSSR and Daily
average NSSR also mapped over the study area.
Keywords: Daily average net surface shortwave radiation; Earth energy balance;
MODIS; Net surface shortwave radiation; Narrowband-to-broadband conversion;
1 Assistant Professor, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, ITC, University of Twente, The Netherlands.
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Cloud Based GIS Approach for Environmental Monitoring in the
Coastal Zone of Kalutara, Sri Lanka
M. S. P. M. Sirirwardane, M. A. D. Samanmali1, R. N. P. Rathnayake2 G I S Solutions (Pvt) Ltd
GIS is a powerful tool in many aspects of handling geospatial data. Using
this approach the research is focused on monitoring the costal environment of Kalutara
for sustainable conservation activities. The identification of existing environment and
available natural resources was the first objective and it was derived using satellite images
and other hosted web map services. The green vegetation patches, water bodies and beech
areas were detected using visual interpretation and remote sensing techniques. Then the
detailed field survey was done with GPS devices and detected the minor costal
environmental conditions such as sand dunes, salt marshes, mangrove areas, grasslands
etc. The collected information were used to improve the data sets available in the study
area. Each data set was prioritized using a weighted scoring method by considering the
availability and rareness of the natural resource. The research experience as well as
expertise knowledge were combined to define the weightages. Using derived information,
GIS maps were created using ArcGIS and data were uploaded to the ArcGIS online cloud
platform. Several web maps were created and hosted using this cloud infrastructure. Some
data layers were given web based editing capabilities for field monitoring using mobile
devices through mobile apps. The field monitoring was conducted by using this
infrastructure to detect changes or any effects caused to this environment. Weather a
physical damage or a human interaction can be uploaded to web map from the field. The
operations dashboard was created for analyzing the types of effects occurred in the area
and spatial quarries were created to detect the incidents in different categories. The
summaries and charts are used to get better understanding and awareness of the
environment changes during certain time period. As the results, changes in the
environment were identified and minor costal environments has a significant effect by both
human and physical ways. GIS based cloud infrastructure, can be used to bring down the
barriers of data sharing in a significant way and reporting mechanism became more
convenient for the field observations.

Keywords: GIS, Costal Environment, Cloud Infrastructure
1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka 2 Faculty of Education, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Geospatial Approach in Predicting Soil Erosion - A Case Study in a
Watershed of Himalayan Landscape, India
H. R. Walpita and S. Kumar 1 Central Environmental Authority, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Soil erosion by water is a worldwide environmental problem, associated
with environmental impacts and crop productivity loss which helps in understanding of the
erosion process important to guarantee food security and environmental safety. It is an
important process of land degradation in Himalayan Mountains. The mountainous, sub-
mountainous and foothill area of the entire Himalayan region are subjected to various
degree of soil erosion. Steep slopes, sparse vegetation, high rainfall intensities, unstable
geology overgrazing and illicit cutting of forest for meeting fuel and fodder needs, faulty
road construction and un-scientific mining have caused severe soil erosion on the hill
slopes. The present was carried out to predict soil erosion employing modeling approach
using geospatial technologies in a watershed. Tons watershed located at Asan catchment
in Dehradun district of Garhwal Himalayas in India was selected for the study. It lies
between 30º20' to 30º24' N latitude and 77º10' to 77º55' E longitude covering 1271 ha of
area at Lesser Himalayas. RUSLE model was used to predict the soil erosion over the
area. Support practice factor map and cover management map for RUSLE was generated
from Land Use – Land Cover (LULC) map derived from LISS IV image through supervised
classification process. LS factor map and the K factor map representing the RUSLE were
created using the DEM and the Soil map of the area. Rain fall erosivity (R) factor map was
generated by integrating DEM and rain fall data. The study reveals that 46.85 percent of
land is covered by forest and 20.58, 24.07, and 01 percent by agriculture, Scrubs and
barren/rocky cover. Analysis revealed that 6.92 percent area lies in nearly level (<3%),
20.28 percent under gentle sloping (3-8%) 22.43 percent area lies under strongly sloping
(8-16%), 22.57 percent under moderately sloping (16-30%), 23.26 percent under steep
(30-60%), and 4.55 percent under very steep ( >60%) slope class. 46.85 percent of land is
covered by forest and 20.58, 24.07, and 01 percent by agriculture, Scrubs and
barren/rocky cover. Analysis revealed that 6.92 percent area lies in nearly level(<3%),
20.28 percent under gentle sloping (3-8%) 22.43 percent area lies under strongly sloping
(8-16%), 22.57 percent under moderately sloping (16-30%), 23.26 percent under steep
(30-60%), and 4.55 percent under very steep (.60%) slope class. Study clearly
demonstrated that the vegetation cover at the watershed has major impact on soil erosion
by varying from 2.44t/ha/yr in dense forest to 124.5 t/ha/yr in open scrub land cover. Soil
erosion according to the physiographic unit ranges from 6.77 t/ha/yr in residual hills to
148.41 t/ha/yr in Himalayan scrub. Sub watershed vice highest soil loss can be observed
is (133.63 t/ha/yr) and minimum soil loss was observed is 21(34.93 t/ha/yr). Tons
watershed was divided in 21 sub-watershed 6 sub-watershed had very high average annual
soil loss (>50 t/ha/yr), 2 sub-watersheds high average annual soil loss (25-50 t/ha/yr), 9
sub-water sheds medium level avg. annual soil loss (10-25 t/ha/yr) and rest 4 sub-
watersheds show low avg. annual soil loss (<10 t/ha/yr).

: Remote Sensing, GIS, Soil erosion, RUSLE, Himalayan landscape
1 Agriculture and Soils Department, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun, India.
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Centralized Web System for Monitoring/Management and Mapping
of Environmental Data
C.H. Wickramaisnghe1, M. Mayadunne2 and L. Samarkoon1 1Asian Institute of Technology
: Climate change and environmental monitoring and management have
received much attention recently, and an integrated information system (IIS) is considered
highly valuable to support country level environmental management. This paper
introduces a novel approach in combining Geoinformatics, WebGIS (web based
geographical information system), combined with cloud computing to provide
comprehensive environmental monitoring, management and mapping tools. This
innovative system provide general user with tools to visualize local level to county level
environmental data with simple information manipulation. Advance users are supported
with different data types and data streams, and real-time use of sensor networks for
analytical studies. Important environmental related analysis algorithms have been
simplified and incorporated to the system with web based visualization tools for spatial
and non-spatial data. The system enables easy data sharing and collaboration for data
analysis and mapping. New algorithms can be easily integrated as plugins to the system
making it easily expandable based on the user requirement. This comprehensive system
supports effective environmental monitoring and management in country level as well as
district and sub district level.

Keywords: Web-GIS, GIS Analysis, visualization, remote sensing
2 GeoEDGE,Sri Lanka, [email protected] Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Effects of Different Vermicomposts on Earthworms Inhabiting in
Contaminated Soils: An Approach for Bioremediation
D. Dissanayake and P.M.C.S De Silva Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara [email protected] ABSTRACT: Bioremediation is the most effective innovative technology that uses
biological systems for treatment of contaminants. Vermicomposting has been identified as
a potential tool for bioremediation although it has not been previously used in Sri Lanka.
Therefore two selected vermicompost were assessed for their usage as a possible
bioremediation tool in contaminated soils. The epigeic earthworm Eisenia andrei was used
as the standard test organism with suitability being assessed in terms of survival, growth
and reproduction. The experimental procedures were based on standard ISO and OECD
guidelines for earthworm toxicity studies. It was found that 5 to 25 % vermicompost was
the suitable range of amendment while 50 % and 75 % amendments were highly toxic to
the adult earthworms. Higher toxicity with the latter two amendments could be due to the
both the high acidity and mineral content. Tests with growth and reproduction of
earthworms indicate that the optimum amendment concentration was 5 % which suggests
that lower percentages of amendments may be used as bioremediation tools for restoring
contaminated arable lands.

: Agrochemicals, Bioremediation, Eisenia andrei, Soil, Vermicomposting,

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Influence of Sesbania rostrata and Crotalaria juncea on Nitrate
Leaching in Agricultural Fields and Ground Water Pollution
Faculty of Applied Science, Vavuniya Campus of the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: The study was carried out in a Government seed farm in Vavuniya from
June 2011 to September 2012 using a Random Completely Block Design (RCBD) with nine
treatments and three replicates, to study the role of Sesbania rostrata and Crotalaria
juncea on nitrate leaching in an agricultural field and on ground water pollution. The
green manure was incorporated into the soil 14 days before planting onion bulbs
(Vethalam variety) at a spacing of 10 cm x 10 cm in a plot size of 1m x 1m. The treatments'
T2 – T9 plots were fertilized with urea, Sesbania rostrata and Crotalaria juncea and it's
combinations at the recommended application of 6.21g total N per m2. Plants were
irrigated once in four days as usual practiced by the farmers. Soil samples were collected
from 0-15cm and 15- 30cm depth at 3 weeks after planting and harvesting of the bulbs.
NO3-N in soil was determined using the sodium salicylate method. Statistical analysis was
carried out using the SAS package (version 9.0) and mean separation was done by the
Dunkan's mean separation method. The NO3-N at 15-30 cm soil layer after 3 weeks of
planting was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in the recommended inorganic N (urea)
added plots and in the combination of inorganic N and green manure added plots, than in
the control where no fertilizer was applied in both years. Hence application of nitrogen
fertilizer increase NO3-N to the bottom layer. Research also revealed that one and a half
time urea added soil showed highest amount of NO3-N in root zone, thus indicate that over
usage of fertilizer could cause ground water pollution. Further, the study showed that
nitrate leaching could be minimized by using a combination of organic and inorganic N
fertilizers. Changing the farmers' attitude towards using green manure in addition to
inorganic fertilizer is the viable alternative for sustainable production.

Keywords: Crotalaria juncea, ground water pollution, inorganic fertilizer, nitrate
leaching, Sesbania rostrata.

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Ocean Wave Energy-Pneumatic Electricity Conversion (OWEPEC)
in Sri Lanka
S.P.Morawaka, E.P.N.Udayakumara and Sepala Karunasena1 Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka Belihuloya, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: Electricity is one of the basic needs of any society. Hence, the demand has
been increasing with the rapid socio-economic development and population growth. To
accomplish this task, tremendous amounts of non-renewable fossil fuels have been using
for centauries as sources to the electricity generation. Due to the emission of GHGs by
such processes, a number of serious environmental impacts have arisen, such as global
warming, air pollution etc. Also, some social and economic suppression could occur in
many countries.
Ocean wave energy has a big potential to generate electricity. Therefore, a number of
energy conversion techniques were invented by various governments and institutions.
However, still Sri Lanka has not tended to harness the wave energy from surround oceanic
resource to answer the serious energy related economic crisis.
OWEPEC is a method that converts ocean wave energy to electric energy using pneumatic
power. Wave energy converting air pumps (WECAP) harness the energy from
reciprocating movements of wave propulsions and pump air to the storing vessels at the
coast. In this process, pneumatically operated motor, rotate the dynamo to generate
A prototype of OWEPEC which has a single WECAP with the capacity of 2022cm3 ( 2 l)
was tested at inshore swells of Panadura fisheries harbor. Under the conditions of 26 cm
wave height and 3 sec wave period the WECAP has taken 10-12 min to pressurized up
to 8 psi (55.15KNm-2) by 30000 cm3/min (30l) flow of pumped air. Pneumatic generator
worked at max rpm of 560 by consuming 62000cm3/min (62l) constant air flow at the
regulated pressure of 6 psi and the generated electric power was 3W of AC 5.8V as max
Average energy output for 10-12 running hours/day is 0.033KWh and0.99 KWh/month
( 1KWh). Carbon emission in generation phase = 0.00Kg/KWh, carbon saving =
7.32Kg/year (610g/KWh), cost to the resource = 0.00LKR/KWh, money saving =
168LKR/year by prototype and it can be scaled up for more benefits; with zero level or
insignificant environmental impacts.
The recommended swell conditions for commercial scales can be found throughout the
year in many locations of the country with continuous supply and the sustainability. Near
coast industrial and hotel personals can use their own OWEPEC plants for captive
generations, while considering the limiting shore conditions.

Renewable energy, Electricity, Ocean wave, Pneumatic.
1Other Hydro Complex Office, CEB, New Kanchana Building, Divurumpitiya, Gatahaththa,
Sri Lanka
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Plants for Constructed Wetlands-A Study of Wetland Plants Potential
for Remediation of Dairy Wastewater
R.T. Nilusha1, S.W. Ranwala2, W.R.K. Fonseka1, and D.M.H.S. Dissanayaka1 1Environmental Technology Section, Industrial Technology Institute Baudhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka [email protected], [email protected] ABSTRACT: Constructed Wetland (CW) technology has become an emerging greener
remedy for treatment of wastewater. It had been widely employed to treat dairy wastewater
worldwide though in Sri Lanka CW for treatment of dairy wastewater is still in grassroots
level. Constructed Wetlands are characterized by wetland plants grown in order to
enhance phytoremediation process, thus wetlands plants are an indispensable component
of CWs.Their capacity to thrive in stressful conditions in CW need to be identified with
respect to the type and strength of the pollutants in wastewater due to the variations in
inherited traits of wetland plants. Hence this study primarily aimed at investigating the
potential survival of three wetland sedges in a medium containing dairy wastewater. In
this study Schoenoplectus grossus, Eleocharis dulcis, and Fimbristylis dictoma plants of
family Cyperaceae were grown in the premises of Industrial Technology Institute (ITI)
(latitude 06° 54' 18"N, longitude 079° 52' 14"W), from May-September 2014.The mean
air temperature ranged from 270C to 310C, Light intensity 8200lx to 48300lx, Humidity
from 66% to 86% over four months of culture period. Plants were established in plastic
pots (10L) containing natural wetland soil (n=16per species, N: P:K,10:2.5:1)and in an
artificial mixture (n=16 per species, N:P:K,2:2:1).
Growth parameters including number of shoots, shoot diameter and height was recorded
weekly during the establishment for six weeks. In the second phase plants were provided
with dairy wastewater with seven COD levels 45mg/L, 45mg/L, 120mg/L, 65mg/L, 168
mg/L, 162mg/L, and 435mg/L .Control groups for both growing mediums were maintained
for each species with addition of tap water (n=8). Plant dry biomass was recorded at
harvest. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) General Linear Model was performed to compare
the mean differences in growth parameters. Results showed that the substrate has not
significantly affected the growth of plant species during the first phase of the study since
obtained P values were >0.05 in one way interactions. Application of dairy wastewater
has not considerably affected the growth of all three plant species in mixture (P>0.05)
whereas corresponding P value (< 0.05) for Fimbristylis dictoma plants in Bog soil
indicated a significant difference in growth compared to other two species in bog soil with
respect to all measured growth parameters. Significantly higher accumulation of biomass
has resulted in the Fimbristylis dictoma in accordance with the Root/Shoot dry weight
ratio obtained for this plant. Hence this paper recommends Fimbristylis dictoma plants
grown in bog soil for dairy wastewater treatment .However further research is needed to
investigate the threshold dairy waste water concentration for Fimbristylis dictoma and its
removal efficiency of nutrients.
Constructed Wetland technology, Dairy wastewater, Wetland Plants
2 Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Agroforestry for Facing the Environmental Challenges in Sri Lanka
D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara1,2, B. Marambe2, B.V.R. Punyawardena3, R.H.H. Ranil2, K.T. Premakantha4 J. Weerahewa2, P. Silva2, J. Rizvi5 1 Country Liaison Scientist for World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) [email protected] ABSTRACT: Agroforestry is an integrated land management system that provides
sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits to people. Despite Sri Lanka has
long history of occurrence of 29 agroforestry systems, it has received little attention from
policy makers and research institutes. This paper addresses the importance of agroforestry
in terms of facing the environmental challenges in Sri Lanka. Currently, more than 25%
of the country's land area is occupied by agroforestry land use systems, and the extent of
land under agroforestry has increased during the last few decades. Thus, Sri Lanka can
create a scenario to face and mitigate environmental challenges through agroforestry
without sacrificing the food production. Agroforestry in this context involves growing
appropriate but high value trees and crops together in well planned and systematically
managed cycles as a specialized way of farming. This may be one of the few but effective
options for reducing the environmental challenges in Sri Lanka. Past experiences revealed
that agroforestry systems can contribute to socio-economic development of people and the
country. They also help to conserve soil and moisture and protect land from soil erosion
and environment from air pollution. Agroforestry can also reduce the pressure on natural
forests through on-farm production and provision of forest products such as timber and
firewood. On farm production will also support food and nutritional security of the society.
They can act as alternative habitat for wild life and jungle corridor among fragmented
forests. Agroforestry can also provide climate change mitigation mechanism through CO2
sequestration result in lower contribution to the greenhouse gas pool. Further, evidences
are accumulating with respect to the resilience nature to climate change on some of the
agroforestry systems such as homegardens in Sri Lanka. In addition, it is identified that
perennials are more resistance to the extreme events which can nicely matching with the
concept of agroforestry adaptation to climate change and other environmental challenges
in Sri Lanka. Finally, authors argued that in Sri Lanka, agriculture related land extent
exceeds about 3 million ha. If 5% of such area can be used for agroforestry modals by
inclusion of a few high value fruit, timber and medicinal tree species, such areas represent
over 150,000 ha which is more than the total lowland forest area of the country. This
ultimately helps in facing environmental challenges of the country.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Socio-economic development, on-farm production, food and
nutritional security, climate change, homegardens, perennials

2 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
3 Natural Resource Management Centre, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka
4 Forest Department, Rajamalwatta Road, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka
5 ICRAF South Asia Regional Office, CG Block, Dev Prakash Marg, New Delhi, India
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Determination of the Factors Affecting the Stability of
Road Cut Slopes along Badulla Nuwaraeliya Road
J.A.I. Senadeera, E.P.N. Udayakumara and J.S.M. Fowze1 Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Applied Sciences Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka Belihuloya, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: The stability of cut slopes in mountainous areas has serious impact on road
performance and traffic safety. Substantial excavated slopes and filled embankments
associated with the road bed, usually constitute the construction of roads and highways in
such terrains. The number of excavated slopes, thus, could be having a significant impact
on the construction of highways.
This study, therefore, tried to assess the cut slopes stability along the Badulla Nuwaraeliya
(A-5) road based on the soil characteristics. Methods used for this study were visual
inspections and experimenting on soil physical parameters viz. particle size distribution,
Atterberg's limits, bulk density, water content, specific gravity, porosity and free swell
index of stable and unstable cut slope soils.
Results revealed that the plasticity index (PI), porosity (η), water content (WC) and free
swell index (FSI) of soils from stable slopes were lower (PI<7, η =35-40% , WC= 20%
and FSI=8-9%) compared to those of soils from unstable slopes (PI>7, η =40-45%
WC= 30% and FSI=15-16%). However, the specific gravity (ρs) was higher in the stable
slope soils ( ρs= 2.40-2.50 gcm-3) compared to the unstable soils ( ρs= 2.3-2.4 gcm-3).
Moreover, the study disclosed that the particle size distribution was significantly
influencing the cut slope stability. Soils extracted from stable slopes had more soil
particles (>65%) of sand size [retained on 1.118-0.180 mm aperture range (# 16-80)]
allowing easy drainage compared to the soils from unstable slopes.
According to the obtained results of the study, it can be concluded that soils from stable
slopes have low PI and FSI i.e. lower clay content, η and WC values compared to the
unstable cut slope soils while the values of ρs is higher in the stable soils. Thus, to enhance
the stability of cut soil slopes, it is necessary to control the dynamic factors (clay content
and WC) of soils.

Cut slope stability, Dynamic factors, Soil physical properties.

1Central Engineering and Consultancy Bureau, No- 415, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Resource Efficient Cleaner Production Potential of Rubber
Processing Factory Located at Horana, Sri Lanka
C. Wickramasinghe, P.T. Kirinde Arachchige1 and R.A. Maithreepala Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Moratuwa [email protected]
ABSTRACT: HRC is one of the leading polymer based product manufacturing companies
having quality certifications such as ISO 9001:2008, ISO14001:2004 & OHSAS18001
owned by a foreign company which functioning under BOI. HRC is manufacturing various
rubber products for industrial applications using 450 employees as work force and having
several awards with respect to environmental and product efficiency aspects. Objective of
this study was to find Cleaner Production (CP) solution to enhance the productivity
through resource efficient approach by reduction of emissions and generation of waste in
order to manage the environment as well as
overcome shortcomings associated with the
processes. Furthermore, this study intends to improve awareness of the staff and increase
the facilities for the employees through savings. Resource efficient cleaner production
(RECP) assessment has been carried out within the factory by the support of National
Cleaner Production Center and appointed employees who are working in different
production lines. CP assessment tools were used to analyze the industrial data.
Consumption of total raw materials, unmixed materials and mixed compounds were
calculated as 5496
100, 215160, 334666 MT/annum respectively. Consumption of
water has been calculated as 7287
1500 m3/annum from public water supply and
500 m3/annum from company owned well. Energy for the production has been
acquired by national grid supply 4,380
800 MWh and fossil fuels including fuel oil
65,000 L/annum and Diesel 252661,000 L/annum. Resource productivity
performance indicators have been calculated for raw materials, Water consumption,
Energy consumption, Solid waste generation (kg of waste per 1 MT of product) and Air

emissions considered) 4.1190.05(m3/MT), 9.271.2 (GJ/MT), 8.30.9 (kg/MT), 0.490.01(CO2 kg/kg)
respectively. CP Potential of the company was found as over 40 million Sri Lankan rupees
per annum by considering rejected products, spew raw materials, intermediate outputs
and water budget. Implementation of Fuel switching to fire wood, Power factor correction,
Applying an insulating paint on molds, Thickness monitoring after maturing at water
pillow production line, Installing a kVA alarm system, Recovering spew at water pillow
production line and use of sky lighting during day time as CP solutions will save 32.3, 3.2,
1.8, 1.5, 0.9, 0.5, and 0.3 million LKR/annum respectively.
Keywords: CP Assessment, CP solution, Resource productivity

1 Department of Limnology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences &Technology, University of
Ruhuna, Matara. Sri Lanka.
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Effect of Raw Material Manipulation on Quality of Municipal Solid
Waste Compost
P.W.D.S.S. Wijerathne and D.M.N. Senanayake 1 Central Environmental Authority, Denzil Kobbekaduwa Mawatha, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Composting is an environmentally friendly method for disposal of Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW). The composition and proportions of raw materials used in composting
determine the quality of the end product of MSWC. This study investigates the effect of raw
material manipulation on the quality of MSWC, focusing in particular on the use of night
soil, another municipal waste product. Three compost piles were prepared using different
combinations of rock phosphate (RP), night soil (NS), wood-shavings (WS) and animal
waste (AW) as additional raw materials. A fourth pile containing only MSW was used as
the control. The moisture content, color, sand content, pH, and the content of organic
carbon, total nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P) in each of the four finished
products were tested using three replicates for each test. The treatments were compared
with each other as well as the Sri Lanka Standard (SLS) for compost. Significant effects
were found in regard to the phosphorous, carbon and potassium contents and the carbon
to nitrogen ratio with raw material manipulation. When the night soil was added at the
beginning of the composting with RP, it resulted in significantly higher P2O5 contents. This
result shows the potential of the night soil to further enhance the effectiveness of RP
solubilizing during composting. In regard to total nitrogen content, all the treatments other
than the control maintained more than 1% of N content in conformity with the SLS
standards. Organic carbon and potassium contents too were in conformity of the SLS
standard in all treatments but the content was significantly lower in treatments containing
night soil. However, only the night soil added treatments were conformed with SLS
standard for the carbon to nitrogen ratio. All the treatments exhibited pH values near
neutral and conformed to SLS limits for pH. These studies show the feasibility of quality
improvement of MSWC through the manipulation additional inputs such as night soil
where using it as an input solves the problem of its disposal as well. However, further
research is necessary to investigate the effect of night soil application on biological
characteristics and heavy metal content in MSWC.

Key words: Municipal Solid Waste, Compost, SLS
1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Belihuloya, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Assessment of Microbiological Water Quality in West Coast Sea
Bathing Sites of Sri Lanka
A.M.T.B. Alahakoon, S.C. Jayamanne1, M.S. Kurukulasuriya 1, and A.J.M. Gunasekara2 Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture Uva Wellassa University, Badulla [email protected] ABSTRACT: Globally, there is a growing concern in investigating microbiological water
quality in sea bathing sites due to the increasing coastal pollution. This is more important
for islands such as Sri Lanka, since coastal pollution has considerable socio-economic
implications. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the current status of water
quality in two popular sea bathing sites, Mount Lavinia (Colombo district) and Moragalla
(Kalutara district) and a reference site in Kalutara district, which is a non-bathing site.
Weekly changes of seven water quality parameters of the selected sites were recorded for
three months and microbiological tests were performed to detect fecal coliforms (FC) and
fecal streptococci (FS) separately. The comparison of these parameters in all three sites
during the experimental period was conducted by ANOVA using Minitab 16 software.
Sanitary inspection was conducted in both sea bathing sites to identify the potential
sources of fecal contamination. Finally Beach Suitability Grades (BSG) was determined
by combining categories obtained from sanitary inspection and microbial assessment. The
results showed that temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were in the standard range for
healthy sea bathing sites whereas salinity, conductivity, turbidity and total dissolved solids
were below the standard range throughout the experimental period. A significant
difference was observed in temperature, salinity, total dissolved solids and electrical
conductivity between the three experimental sites (P<0.05). Further, Mount Lavinia
showed a significantly higher FC count compared to the reference site (P<0.05). Based
on the FC count, BSG for both Mount Lavinia and Moragalla sea bathing sites were
determined to be ‘very high'. However, based on FS count, the BSG for Mount Lavinia
and Moragalla were ‘poor' and ‘fair' respectively. Hence, it is recommended to develop
and implement strategies including environmental education, water quality monitoring
procedures and beach management to maintain healthy sea bathing sites in Mount Lavinia
and Moragalla.
Keywords: Beach Suitability Grades, microbiological, physico–chemical, sea bathing
sites, water quality

1 Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla. Sri Lanka 2 Marine Environment Protection Authority, Baseline Road, Colombo 09, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Case Study on Acute Toxic Chemicals in Sri Lanka: Environment
Impacts, Distribution, Intended Use and Safe Handling
D. A. A. K. Amaradewa National authority for the Implementation of Chemical Weapons Ministry of Industry and Commerce 73/1, Galle Road, Colombo 03 [email protected] ABSTRACT: A number of acutely toxic chemicals (ATCs) are used in the industrial sector
in Sri Lanka. These chemicals may cause serious hazards to humans and environment
when released to the environment. Formation of a toxic cloud is the characteristic feature
of ATCs. Generally, it moves with the wind and gets dispersed in the environment. The
wind patterns and other whether and terrain conditions contribute to disperse the cloud in
the environment very quickly.
The Kalutara Industrial Park was selected for this case study. Chlorine and ammonia are
the identified ATCs which exceed the threshold limit value (TLV). Averagely 8 MT of
ammonia and 300 nos. of 900 Kg chlorine cylinders were stored at respective plant sites.
Based on the "Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis" published by U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency and the computer programme "ALOHA" to model the
vulnerable zone (VZ). It was calculated that in the worst case scenario 9 MT of ammonia
can pose immediate danger for life and health (IDLH) to living beings at 0.7 miles radius
while bursting of two chlorine cylinders, i.e., 1800 kg can pose IDLH to the living beings
at 0.6 miles radius.
Baseline ambient parameters of air, soil, ground water is very important to indicate a
possible chemical contamination in the future. The prevailing soil pH value is 6.56; the
ground water pH value is 5.47. Due to the high precision of the pH value of the measured
sample this value can be taken as a baseline figure. But the conductivity values were
dispersed and as such a precise baseline figure could not be calculated.
In order to mitigate consequences of emergency situation critical population
characteristics and critical facilities within the risk zone such as schools, daycare centers,
nurseries, hospitals, police stations were identified.
None of the above mentioned installations have prepared the emergency management
plans for an emergency, while the authorities who granted approval for these plants have
not forecasted the possibility of chemical hazards. Hence this is an attempt to understand
the long felt need.
Keywords: pH value, acutely toxic chemicals, ambient parameters

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Simulation of Ambient Water Quality of Lower Kelani River to
Assess the Impact of Point Sources and Non-Point Sources, using
Selected Parameters
A. Gunawardena , S. Wijeratne 2, B. White 1, A. Hailu 1, R. Pandit 1 and S. Ratnayake 3 School of Agriculture and Resource Economics University of Western Australia ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the Kelani River, which plays an important role in Sri
Lanka's economy. It is the main source of drinking water to the capital city, Colombo.
However, the water quality in the lower Kelani River has been a concern for many years.
Therefore, managing river water quality has become critical and also challenging as the
lower catchment of the river is a highly complex system which is impacted by many forces
and pollution sources.
We configured a river catchment based hydrological model to identify the main sources
of water pollution and their impact on ambient water quality of the river, coupling three
modules (Hydrodynamic (HD), Eco Lab(EL) and SHE Network) of MIKE software
developed by the Danish Hydraulic Institute. We simulated changes in three water quality
parameters i.e. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Fecal
Coliforms (FC), along the river from Seethawaka downstream to the open ocean point
The HD module was forced using water level and river discharge at the open ocean point
and the upper river boundaries, respectively. With the use of industrial, households and
sewerage data of pollution loads, source data for the EL module was specified. The
pollution due to natural vegetation and non-point sources were captured by the SHE
Network module using the river basin network, where parameters (rain fall, precipitation,
soil and vegetation) were provided using observational data and default values. The couple
model simulations were conducted for 8 years commencing from 2004. The model
validation was undertaken by comparing model predictions with observations of BOD,
DO, FC at 8 locations, where, skill level values indicated good agreement between the
observed and predicted values. Experimental simulations were undertaken including and
excluding the pollution loads from different sources.
Simulation results reveal that industries (point sources) contribute to reduce water quality
of the river, although the contributions vary between different sections of the river.
Pollution loads from household and sewage also contribute to the poor river water quality,
despite being of a small magnitude. Findings of this study provide a holistic approach for
practitioners to make management and policy decisions to manage river water pollution.

: Water Quality, Hydrology Modelling, Water Pollution, Water policy

1 School of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia 2 School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Western Australia 3 Central Environment Authority, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Effects of Tea Cultivation on the Quality of Water and Aquatic
Macro Insects in Selected Perennial Water Bodies from the
Three Major Tea Growing Elevations in Sri Lanka
M. Kanakarathna, Y.N.A. Jayatunga and N. Pallewatta Department of Zoology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to identify the land use effects on the physico-
chemical and biological parameters: aquatic macro insects (AMI) diversity of water in
selected perennial water bodies from eight tea estates in three major tea growing
elevations: 03 from low-country (<600m msl); 03from mid-country (600-1200m msl) and
02from up-country elevation (>1200m msl) under management by a single plantation
company were sampled during rainy season and dry season from year 2011 to 2014. 2232
samples from 62 sites were analyzed from 5 different land uses ie. springs within the forest,
springs within tea estates, springs within relatively undisturbed areas-without
anthropogenic effects(marshy lands, Eucalyptus plantations), streams in undisturbed
area, streams after flowing through the estates. Findings were subjected to PCA (p>0.05)
and Shannon-Wiener diversity Index.
Except in low-country estates, tested parameters (flow rate, depth & width of the water
body, Temperature, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, DO, BOD3, Nitrate, Ammonium,
Sulfate, Phosphate, Calcium, Zinc) did not show a significant difference with the land uses.
Except pH, all other tested parameters in all the 08 estates were found to be within the
WHO2012 potable water standards. Undisturbed areas and forest areas in low-country
estates were significantly lower than mid and hill. However, there was a significant
difference of AMI diversity with land use patterns and 28 morpho-species were recorded
from all estates.
The low pH even in the spring waters within forests indicates that the low level of pH found
in other sites could not be due to any anthropogenic activity. The composition of AMI
communities in a stream reflects the stream's conditions over time while physico-chemical
tests describe the quality at the time the samples were taken. This study revealed there was
a significant difference of AMI with land use patterns while physico-chemical parameters
were not.
This study revealed that the water bodies related to the low-country estates are in a more
vulnerable situation of pollution compared to the estates in higher elevations and this
could be due to lack of undisturbed habitats for the purification process and it revealed
the importance of maintenance of undisturbed habitats to enhance the quality of water in
this perennial water bodies.
Keywords: Aquatic macro insects, land use effect, tea growing elevations, forest, water

pollution Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 A Greener Method for Reduction of COD and Zinc Level in Textile
Effluents during Primary Treatment Process
Pandula T. Kirinde Arachchige, R.A. Maithreepala, H.B. Asanthi Department of Limnology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences & Technology, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka [email protected]
ABSTRACT: Fabrics with the traditional batik patterns are firmly established in many
Asian countries including Sri Lanka as the demand increased with the tourism. Manual
wax-resist dyeing technique is the main process for the production of colourful fabrics
while generating large amount of wastewater contaminated with organic chemicals which
having severe environmental consequences as it contain large amount of surfactants,
suspended solids, trace metals, color and high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).
Reduction of COD, colour and contaminated Zn2+ present in raw effluent using low cost
coagulant with sea water as a freely available ionizing agent was the major objective of
this study. Simple jar test was used to optimize the dosage requirement of seawater and
FeSO4 in order to remove the suspended particles from the effluents by controlling the pH
of the test reactor 11.5 with addition of lime. COD, colour and concentration of Zn2+ were
determined by open reflux digestion followed by titration, UV-Visible spectrophotometer
and acid digestion followed by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer respectively.
Characteristic of raw water from textile effluent was found have pH; 11.4
0.2, Salinity;
0.06 g/L, TDS; 9.30.1 g/L, COD; 141752 mg/L, Zn2+; 0.1620.02, and colour; at
max300nm. After the treatment of raw water using seawater followed by iron alum
coagulation and flocculation colour, COD and Zn2+ concentration found to have
decreased by 41%, 60% and 65% respectively. However salinity increase was observed
by approximately 18% which requires further treatment in order to meet the requirements
of the Sri Lankan industrial effluent discharging guide lines. Constructed wetland
treatment process and increasing the retention time of the primary treated water in
digestion tanks are recommendations for the completeness the treatment process with
greener approach.
Keywords: Coagulation, Effluents, Seawater

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Nutrient Removal of Dairy Wastewater by Pilot Scale Subsurface
Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland Planted
with Schelonoplectus grossus
R.T. Nilusha, D.M.H.S. Dissanayaka and W.R.K. Fonseka Environmental Technology Section Industrial Technology Institute Baudhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: Constructed wetland (CW) technology, artificial engineered systems
designed to treat wastewater, is relatively a novel practice in Sri Lanka.This greener
wastewater treatment method requires low cost for implementation and maintenance thus
it is a good alternative to replace high cost conventional wastewater treatment methods.
Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to examine the nutrient removal
efficiency of pilot scale CW designed to treat dairy wastewater arising from small and
medium sector dairy industries. This experiment was conducted at the premises of
Industrial Technology Institute (latitude 06° 54' 17"N, longitude 079° 52' 14"W), Sri
Lanka from April to August 2014. Two pilot scale fiberglass wetland units were designed
to function as subsurface horizontal flow (SSHF) CWs. A gravel based medium was
layered for the inlet and the outlet of each unit.CW bed was filled with sand and the upper
layer was filled with compost: top soil mixture (1:2). Both units were planted with
Schelonoplectus grossus (giant bulrush).After establishing plants for three months, the
treatment unit was saturated with seven biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) levels of
diluted dairy wastewater ranging from 5g/m2d to 186 g/m2d intermittently, maintaining 7
days as the retention time. Control unit was fed with tap water. Samples were collected
from the inlets and outlets of each unit and analyzed for BOD, chemical oxygen demand
(COD),total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP).Removal efficiencies of BOD,
COD, TN and TP were calculated. The results of this study showed BOD removal
efficiencies in the range of 30%-100%, COD removal efficiencies in the range of 75%-
92%, TN removal efficiencies in the range of 40%-100% and for TP in the range of 0%-
100% with respect to studied loading rates. Based on these results this paper suggests that
this type of pilot scale SSHF CWs planted with Schelonoplectus grossus is appropriate for
removal of BOD, COD, TN and TP in dairy wastewater arising from small and medium
sector dairy industries.

Keywords: Constructed Wetlands, Dairy wastewater, Schelonoplectus grossus, COD,

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 In Situ Denitrification as a Suggested Remedial Measure for
Jaffna Peninsula Aquifers
S. Sivaramanan and M. Reinsel Central Environmental Authority Battaramulla, Sri Lanka, ABSTRACT: Groundwater nitrate levels in the Jaffna peninsula of Sri Lanka are well
above the World Health Organization limit of 10 mg/L as N. Other studies point to high
use of chemical fertilizers and close proximity of septic systems to drinking water wells as
the probable causes. Since aquifers in the peninsula are primarily porous shallow karstic
miocene limestone, they provide high levels of infiltration. If the current situation
continues unabated, the public may suffer the harmful effects of nitrate toxicity. This paper
discusses in situ bioremediation processes, along with other possible mitigation
measures, to remove nitrate and improve drinking water quality. Five in situ
denitrification projects conducted in the Northern USA and Canada are presented, using
carbon sources such as ethanol, methanol and acetate. Treatment was achieved by a)
injecting carbon and phosphorus or b) infiltrating treated water with excess carbon and
phosphorus, into groundwater. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations as high as 60 mg/L have
been removed to below the limit of 10 mg/L with no ill effects.
Keywords: Bioremediation, denitrification, karstic aquifer, nitrate toxicity, pump and

1 Apex Engineering, PLLC Missoula, MT 59802, United States of America.
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Comparison of Peak and Time-Weighted Average Concentrations for
Effects of Insecticides as Observed in Semi-Field Experiments
M. I. Zafar and P. J. Van den Brink1,2 Department of Environmental Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. ABSTRACT: Areas with intensive agriculture are highly integrated with aquatic
ecosystems because of their dependence on water supply and/or drainage. When pesticides
are applied with the prevailing application methods used for crop protection, however, it
is inevitable that a portion of sprayed pesticides will reach these such untargeted edge-of-
field surface waters. Since aquatic ecosystems contain species related to the target
organisms of pesticides, unintended repercussions may occur when these ecosystems
become contaminated. Nowadays, evaluation of the potential adverse effects of a pesticide
stress on non-target aquatic organisms in aquatic ecosystems/environment is considered
as a major challenge. Therefore, governmental authorities have set criteria to protect
aquatic life from pesticide-stress. The aim of present study was to describe the effects as
observed in model ecosystem experiments with peak as well as the time-weighted average
(TWA21d) concentrations using different sensitivity endpoints. For this purpose, a literature
review was performed of empirical PERPEST database which has been built by
performing a review of freshwater model-ecosystem studies evaluating the effects of
pesticides. Peak exposures of single and multiple applications of insecticides were derived
from the publications and its corresponding TWA21d concentrations were calculated. In
order to allow comparison of studies with different insecticides, we expressed the exposure
concentrations as toxic units (TU). TU were calculated by dividing the concentrations
evaluated in the cosm study by the Hazard Concentration 50% (HC50). Different grouped
endpoints were selected from each model ecosystem study and responses were assigned to
effect class. When standardised on peak exposure concentrations in case of the insecticide
chlopryrifos, clear effects were reported for all endpoints at exposure concentrations of
0.1 µg/L and higher. When expressed as TWA21d concentrations, clear responses were
reported at concentrations of 0.05 µg /L and higher. On the basis of these comparisons
between peak and TWA21d concentrations, we found that when applied once, direct effects
became apparent at TWA21d exposure concentrations which were a factor of 5 lower than
their corresponding peak exposure concentrations. For acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
insecticides, TWA21d concentrations can be used as good predictors for predicting long-
term effects on sensitive endpoint groups in the risk assessment process.

Keywords: environment pollution, peak and TWA concentrations, PERPEST database,
sensitive endpoints, toxic unit

1 Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management ,Wageningen University , P.O.
Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2 Alterra , Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen , The
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Innovative and Low Cost Method for Leachate Treatment using
Modified Sequencing Batch Reactor Process
K. B. S. N. Jinadasa, T. I. P. Wimaraweera1 and H. M. W. A. P. Premarathne1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Srilanka.
ABSTRACT : The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a wastewater treatment system based
on activated sludge, which includes a biological nutrient removal process. This technology
is reputed because of its low foot print and capacity to handle a wide range of hydraulic
and organic loading variations. Since degradation process takes place in one reactor, this
method is low cost relative to other conventional wastewater treatment processes. With
the growth of the usage of microprocessor-based programmable logic controllers (PLCs),
the reliability of these systems have increased. The step-feed mechanism is an innovative
and novel operation mode of SBR. The aim of this research is to study the performances of
SBR to treat municipal solid waste landfill leachate. Synthetic leachate is used in this
research. At the initial stage, conventional SBR cycle (fill, react, settle and decant) was
performed and at the second stage the process was modified to enhance the nitrogen
removal. The step feed process is introduced as the nitrogen removing mechanism to SBR
model. This process has three phases of consecutive aerobic and anoxic period and three
steps of feeding in between them, combined with real-time control. The control strategy is
pH as the on-line control parameter. The durations of aerobic and anoxic phases will be
flexibly controlled by using the pH curve. Since leachate has a low C/N ratio, complete
denitrification is achieved by using influent as the carbon source. Only a small amount of
external carbon source was used for the final denitrification process before the settling
phase. In this way, a real saving in treatment has been achieved, an increase in treatment
efficiency (in terms of C and N removal) and a good adaptation of high strength loadings.
Keywords: Denitrification, Landfill Leachate, Real-time control; Sequencing batch
reactor, Step-feed process
1 SATREPS project, Civil Engineering Department, University of Peradeniya
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Evaluation of New Rice Hybrid Combinations
W.S.Priyantha, S.W. Abyasekera, J.M.Gunawansa and D.M.N.Dasanayaka Rice Research and Development Institute Batalagoda, Ibbagamuwa, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: Bg407H is a hybrid rice variety released under 4 month age group by the
Rice Research and Development Institute, Batalagoda. It has high yield potential (12 -
14t/h) and good demand within farmers, cultivated 4 months age varieties. At present,
there is a good demand for short age varieties (3and1/2months) all rice growing areas in
the island since they have short time duration, need less water and other inputs than the 4
months varieties. Hybrid rice programme was focused to develop the high yielding hybrid
rice variety under 3 ½ months to fulfill the above requirement and enhancing the rice
production to meet future demands. Therefore, several hybrid combinations could be
developed under 3 and 1/2 age groups having acceptable morphological and grain quality
characteristics. Preliminary yield trails(PYT) have been carried out in 2011/2012 Maha
and 2012 Yala seasons to test the 15 hybrid combinations to evaluate the yields of selected
hybrids combinations and compare them with high yielding in bred varieties (Bg357,
Bg300). Out of the 15 combinations BgCMS4A/R147 (Bg-HR10) was selected as
promising combination and it obtained 5.7t/h yield in 2011/2012 Maha and 6.8t/h yield in
2012 Yala seasons respectively. Check variety Bg357 has given 4.50t/h and 5.4t/h yield in
above two seasons respectively. According to that, Bg-HR10 has given 26.66% stranded
heterosis (SH %) in 2011/2012 Maha and shown values of SH 25.9% respectively in
2012Yala season. In addition Bg-HR10 showed high tillers, long panicle and same plant
height compare to Bg357 and acceptable grain quality (medium slender white per- carp).
It showed 5 days shorter to come for the 85% maturity than the check variety (Bg357) and
same resistant to Bacterial leaf blight (BLB). Other hybrids combinations showed same
and less performances and negative heterosis for the tested characters than the check
variety. According to that, Bg-HR10 was selected to further testing under different agro-
ecological zones in order to release as new hybrid under 3and ½ month age group.

Keywords: Heterosis, grain quality, rice, yield potential,

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 The Potential of Biofilmed Biofertilizers to Reduce Chemical
Fertilizer Use in Vegetable Cultivation of Sri Lanka
D.M.N. Senanayake, A. D. Igalavithana and G. Seneviratne Microbial Biotechnology Unit, Institute of Fundamental Studies (IFS), Hantana Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: Biofertilizers are live formulates of beneficial microorganisms which
perform beneficial functions in agricultural ecosystems. As a recent development,
microbial biofilms (BF) have been developed as promising inoculant biofertilizers to
reduce chemical fertilizer usage in agriculture and in plantations. These biofertilizers are
called biofilmed biofertilizers (BFBFs) and have been tested for tea, rice and maize. Here,
a range of crop-specific biofertilizers was formulated for
upcountry and low country
vegetables using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi, and tested in
major agro-ecological regions. Microbial species were isolated from bitter gourd
(Momordica charantia), eggplant (Solanum melongena), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus),
capsicum (Capsicum annuum), radish (Raphanus sativus) and tomato (Solanum
lycopersicum) grown in vegetable crop lands in Sri Lanka. Effective strains were screened
based on biofilm formation ability, nitrogenase activity and plant growth promoting
ability. Thereafter, selected effective strains were used for biofilm formation, following
protocols developed by the Institute of Fundamental Studies, Sri Lanka. Field experiments
arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates were conducted
with the developed crop specific BFBFs of the above vegetables during two consecutive
dry and wet seasons. Vegetable yields under the full dose of recommended chemical
fertilizer (100% CF), reduced dose of chemical fertilizers (i.e. 50% CF), 50% CF + BFBFs
and no fertilizer were evaluated during the two cropping seasons. In the dry season,
BFBFs formulations for bitter gourd, capsicum and okra gave higher vegetable yields than
even 100% CF, when those were coupled with 50% CF. In tomato, BFBFs alone gave a
comparable yield to 100% CF. In the wet season, BFBFs alone gave the highest yield in
bitter gourd. Results of tomato suggested the potential of BFBF formulation to replace
50% CF without affecting the yield. Further, capsicum, okra and radish yields during wet
season with 50% CF + BFBFs were higher than that of 100% CF. In eggplant, 50% CF +
BFBFs gave a comparable yield to 100% CF treatment during both seasons. These studies
show the feasibility of the developed crop specific BFBFs formulations for replacing from
50% to 100% of chemical fertilizer usage in different vegetables under different soil and
climatic conditions for a sustainable vegetable production.

Keywords: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, biofilms, biofertilizers, vegetables
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Production of Natural Vinegar from Waste Coconut Water using
High Rate Generator
S.G. Walliwala and A.B. G.C. J. De Silva Food Technology Section Industrial Technology Institute [email protected]
Currently, there are around 65 desiccated coconut (DC) mills in the country
and collectively process a quantity of nearly 550 million nuts annually. Thus,
approximately 80-100 million litres of coconut water is released annually from the
industry. At present, value addition to this waste coconut water has been
accomplished by
converting it into natural ready to serve drinks, bio gas and freezed cubes. However, nearly
80% of coconut water is still discharged into the environment after going through several
physical treatments. For those industries coconut water has become an enormous burden
since it has become an environmental concern. This is a wasting of a valuable resource,
which contains lots of nutrients including sugars (21.68 mg/mL), vitamins (1.833 mg/L),
amino acids (0.57 mg/mL), organic acids (35.07meq/mL) and enzymes. The potential of
producing natural vinegar with this waste coconut water is higher if it can be collected
hygienically. In this study a novel method of producing natural vinegar using a vinegar
generator has been introduced. Though, the traditional vinegar generation method
consumes 2-3 months to obtain the final product. The significance feature of this method
is that this process is faster and it takes minimum 10 days. Vinegar is defined as an acidic
liquid in which the key ingredient is acetic acid (ranging from 4-18 % (w/v)) and is
produced by aerobic fermentation in the presence of acetic acid bacteria. This method can
also be utilized for a wide variety of applications ranging from coconut water to various
fruit juices extracted from fruit wastes .This vinegar generator has been used to produce
natural vinegar from wines prepared using waste coconut water. The rate of acetification
in this generator has been enhanced with facilitated aeration. This novel method is a
combination of submerged and generator methods. The key concept is from rotating
biological contactor which is widely used in the wastewater treatment sector. A mix culture
of Acetobacter converts the alcohol (7 – 10 %) to 4-6 % acetic acid. During the process,
a favourable platform is provided to "attached growth" of Acetobacter bacteria which
converts ethyl alcohol into natural vinegar.

Keywords: Coconut water, Natural Vinegar, waste

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Evaluation of the Attitude and Awareness of the International
Resolution on Responsible Fishing: A Case Study on the Multiday
Fishermen of Matara
K. L. N. Dilini, I. U. Wickramaratne, N. P. P. Liyanage and N. D. P. Gunawardane1 Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: The worldwide increasing demand for fish has resulted an increase of IUU
fishing activities. Because of this, responsible fishing concept has developed. The regional
resolutions for avoiding IUU fishing activities have developed by IOTC (Indian Ocean
Tuna Commission). In Sri Lankan fisheries sector, especially the multiday fishermen who
are engaging in high seas fishing operations have the ultimate responsibility to comply
with these resolutions. This case study was done by taking a selected sample from multiday
fishermen of Matara fisheries district. Sample was selected through the stratified random
sampling technique. The minimum sample size (105 stakeholders) was determined using
"moving average". Data were collected using a questionnaire and secondary data also
were used. Questionnaire was prepared considering international resolutions which
highly impact to Sri Lankan fisheries sector. Collected data was analyzed using "Likert
scale" and One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on 95% confidence interval.
According to this study, the awareness of multiday fishermen in Matara fisheries district
is medium level (Mean Likert value is 3.38). But there is a significant difference in
responses for some questions according to the types of stakeholders. The identified major
reasons for this significant difference are difference of the participation level for the
awareness programs and different attitudes among types of stakeholders. Compared to the
crew members, the awareness of boat owners and skippers were high. The reason for this
was identified as the high level of participation for the awareness programs while others
are engaging in fishing activities. The awareness of other service providers was very low.
Because they just consider on their occupation. Therefore, awareness programs on
international resolutions should be modified taking the participation of all the
stakeholders for better results in order to increase the level of non-compliance and partial
compliance issues in Sri Lanka. It is better to use mass media for the awareness programs.
Other than using the mass media, it is better to display posters regarding these resolutions
in the harbour premises, maintain a continuous dialogue between the stakeholders and the
government. While improving common knowledge of stakeholders, developing positive
attitudes regarding international resolutions and importance of these resolutions is very

: Illegal Unreported Unregulated (IUU) fishing, Indian Ocean Tuna
Commission (IOTC), International Resolutions, Responsible fishing

1 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development, New Secretariat Building, Maligawatta, Colombo 10 Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Species Composition and Diversity of Breeding Habitats of Malaria
Vectors in the District of Mannar, Sri Lanka.
P.A.D.H.N. Gunathilaka 1&3, M.A.S.T. Fernando 1&3, M.D. Hapugoda 1, A.R Wickremasinghe 2 and W. Abeyewickreme1 Molecular Medicine Unit Faculty of Medicine University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Sri Lanka embarked on a malaria elimination program in 2009. Biological
and ecological data on malaria vectors are important in planning vector controlling
strategies. Lack of reliable biological and ecological data on malaria vectors in Northern
Province of the country, a malaria endemic region, is a major constrain in successful
implementation of malaria control programmes. Therefore, the objective of this study was
to explore the diversity of breeding habitats and species composition of malaria vector
mosquitoes in the District of Mannar, Sri Lanka. Potential larval habitats for Anopheles
mosquitoes were surveyed from June, 2010 to July 2012 on a monthly basis in selected
sampling sites in the Mannar District: Mannar Town, Vankalai and Silawathura
, within a
radius about 20 km. In each site, 4 sub sites were selected. A total of 37,788 Anopheles
representing ten species was recorded from 12 breeding habitat categories (Tank margin,
waste water collection, water storage tank, field canal, main canal, paddy field, pond, built
well, cemented tank, lagoon water collection, burrow pit and rain water pool). Built wells
and waste water collections were conducive for anopheline breeding. Anopheles subpictus
(96.2%, n= 36,351) was the dominant species followed by An. peditaeniatus (1.47%, n=
557), An. barbirostris (1.23%, n= 463), An. nigerriums (0.75%, n= 285), An. varuna
(0.19%, n= 74), An. barbumbrosus (0.1%, n= 38), An. vagus (0.03%, n= 12), An. pallidus
(0.01%, n= 4), An. jamesii (0.05%, n= 2) and An. pseudojamesi (0.05%, n=2). Use of
wells and waste water drains as breeding places by Anopheles indicate that both of these
habitats act as larval reservoirs during the dry season. Presence of theses habitats in close
proximity to human habitats create a high risk of malaria transmission among humans.
Therefore, health authorities need to be vigilant on these new habitats in vector control

Entomological, Malaria, Anopheles, Controlling
1 Molecular Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya
3 Tropical Environmental Diseases & Health Associates, Eli bank Rd, Colombo 5
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Radical Learning in Arboriculture: Environmental Education on
Biodiversity and Forest Restoration via Exploring a Nature Tour
at the IFS-Popham Arboretum in Sri Lanka
B.D. Madurapperuma, K.A.J.M. Kuruppuarachchi1, J. Amarasinghe2 and T.K. Walpola3 Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA [email protected] ABSTRACT: This study examines visitor information of the IFS-Pophan Arboretum about
educational and awareness programs conducted for school children, university students
and naturalists from 2007 to 2013. Integrating classroom teaching with field trips is vital
for learners to visualize and to understand ecological processes in the nature effectively.
IFS-Popham Arboretum is a sanctuary of tropical trees and a wildlife refuge, which
utilizes a simple silvicultural method to turn shifting cultivation land to a productive forest.
The arboretum had been gifted to the Institute of Fundamental Studies in 1989 for
conservation, research and education. In 2005, the Arboretum was developed as a visitor
and research center under the management of Ruk-Rakaganno, a national NGO. The key
role of the arboretum, since 2005, is to conduct workshops and awareness programs,
stewardship programs, train naturalists, and provide nature tours for visitors. The results
of the study showed that the largest number of school children (i.e. 756 students with 49
teachers) have visited the arboretum in 2007. In 2010 and 2011, school visitors for the
Arboretum were comparable with visitor attendance doubling in 2012 (438 students and
23 teachers). The largest number of university students (e.g. 131 students) visited the
Arboretum in 2010. This increase in visitor participation resulted from school awareness
programs and workshops for university students conducted through visitor promotion and
media campaigns. We evaluated the students' interests for the activities conducted through
the awareness program. The students from the primary schools were mainly interested in
active learning methodologies i.e., observing the feeding behavior of Jungle fowls, while
the middle school children were interested in learning seed bank collection of the dry zone
plants and bird watching. The university students were concerned about the silvicultural
methods adopted by Popham, taxonomy and ethnobotanical values of dry zone plants, and
the stakeholder activities. In addition, naturalists were interested in the Geoffrey Bawa's
architectural design of the cottage, nature trail visits and wildlife gardening. We conclude
that different environmental education programs should be formulated according to the
interest of different focal groups . The environmental education programs directed at
school children and naturalists in the Arboretum have influenced learners' keen interest
in protecting the valuable plants and/or planting trees in their home gardens to support
wildlife gardening.
Keywords: IFS-Popham Arboretum, forest restoration, biodiversity, environmental
1 Department of Botany, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nawala, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
2 IFS-Popham Arboretum, Kandalama Road, Dambulla, Sri Lanka
3 Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture, Uva Wellassa University, Sri Lanka
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Study on Bio Medical and Health-Care Waste Audit of Government
Hospitals in Colombo District
Central Environmental Authority Battaramulla, Sri Lanka. priatapra@yahoo,com ABSTRACT: Healthcare services aim to reduce health problems and to prevent potential
health risks. In doing so, however, waste often generated is potentially harmful to public
health and the environment. Most waste generated in healthcare establishments can be
treated as regular municipal waste. Only a small proportion of healthcare wastes called
special wastes such as sharps, pathological, infectious, pharmaceutical, biological, and
hazardous chemical waste require special attention.
Healthcare workers, patients, waste handlers, waste pickers, and the general public are
exposed to health risks through healthcare wastes. Haphazard disposal of special
healthcare wastes, including open dumping and uncontrolled burning, increases the risk
of spreading infections and of exposure to toxic emissions from incomplete combustion.
Otherwise, negligence in the process of wastes management, significantly contributes to
environmental pollution, affects public health and depletes natural and financial
This study using a questionnaire and sites visits was carried out to search waste handling
practices of government hospitals in Colombo District. The questionnaire was developed
on recommendation of World Health Organization and divided into sections as General
information, Amount of Waste, way of Wastes handling and Treatment, Waste Water
Generation and Treatment and Following Regulations.
18 out of 26 hospitals including National, General, Base, Peripheral and rural hospitals
were examined during this study. Site observations and Interviews with personnel involved
in handling of wastes in those hospitals were made to collect data on questionnaire. Data
was analyzed considering the hospitals under the central government and the provincial
government as group A and B respectively.
All hospitals in group A segregate wastes as per category wise using colour codes and
generate total of Pathological, Infectious Sharps, Radioactive, Recyclable, Other and
General wastes 724.8, 1966.8, 150.0, 42.0, 693.6, 6.7, 8285.6 Kg per day respectively as
estimation. Most hospitals in group B segregate especially sharps and generate total of
Pathological, Infectious Sharps, Radioactive, Recyclable, Other and General wastes
120.0, 186.0, 30.0,0, 16.8,0, 146.4 Kg per day respectively as estimation. Wastes
management in many hospitals includes wastes collection and disposal only. Most of
hospitals are aware of risk or health impacts however are not aware of environmental
damages or pollution due to poor management of healthcare wastes.
The findings of this study recommend that formal regulations on segregation, treatment
and final disposal of healthcare wastes are utmost need. Further adequate physical and
financial facilities, guidelines and training, special expert staff for healthcare wastes
management should be provided for hospitals.
Keywords: healthcare wastes, management, segregation, treatment, hospitals

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Environmental and Waste Management Awareness in
Executives' Perceptions of Corporate Environmental Reporting
in Sri Lanka
N. Rajeshwaran and R. P. C. Ranjani1 Department of Commerce Faculty of Commerce and Management Eastern University, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Most of environmental reporting studies examine annual reports of
companies and using proxy variables adopting quantitative methods. However, there is a
lack of study focusing on managerial values and believes behind disclosing of
environmental information in the annual report. Previous studies confirm that corporates'
environmental reporting gradually increases over the world including Sri Lanka due to
increasing environmental issues like global warming, soil and water pollution etc. resulted
in concern of environment. Despite environmental reporting is not mandatory, most of Sri
Lankan public companies voluntarily disclose environmental information. Therefore, the
study has two objectives. First, to examine the Executives' opinions about environmental
reporting in Sri Lankan public companies. Second, to explore reasons behind Sri Lankan
public companies to disclose environmental information. Legitimacy and Stakeholder
theories are used to examine the study. The study was conducted on interpretative
perspective adopting multiple case study strategies. Data were collected via fifteen in-
depth interviews from Executives, who have been directly involving in the process of
environmental management and/or reporting of fifteen companies which disclosed more
environmental information. Content analysis was used to analysis qualitative data using
NVivo 7 software. Interview data were converted into text through process of code and
categories primary patterns or themes. Question by question and pattern matching
techniques were used to analyse the data. The study shows that general opinion of
disclosing environmental information is good practice which facilitates to utilize the scare
resources properly and reserve for future generation. Further, results of study reveal
reasons for environmental reporting are: requirement of new reporting guidelines,
marketing the company, dealing with dangerous chemicals, show as responsible corporate
citizen, stakeholder rights to know, culturally inbuilt in the company, fulfill suppliers'
requirements, changing people attitude and having membership of United Nation Global
Compact, amongst others. In conclusion, companies report environmental information to
gain social acceptance, trust and confidence for successfully running the business by
satisfying numerous stakeholders. The results of the study would help to the government,
regulators, companies, and other stakeholders to effectively implement environmental
conservation and reporting for sustaining the greenness in the world.
Keywords: Environmental reporting, Green reporting, Legitimacy theory, Stakeholder
1 Department of Finance, Faculty of Commerce and Management Studies, University of Kelaniya.
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Environmental and Waste Management Awareness in
Secondary Schools in Sri Lanka
Faculty of Graduate Studies University of Sri Jayewardenepura ABSTRACT: In the society today, the recycling of Solid waste is supposed to be achieved
through hierarchies. The nomenclature Solid Waste Management (SWM) explains that the
society is attempting to achieve this target through management processes helped by the
law and order. This current strategy: ‘punishment avoiding and reward seeking' method
generally known as the standard regulatory path. The method is successful in countries
such as Switzerland and Singapore.
Notwithstanding the success obtained in these wealthy and small geographies, in the
global scale an evident failure can be seen in recycling. Therefore it is a current and urgent
necessity to understand reasons behind such a failure. It is universally agreed that
increasing the environmental awareness in the society would be a positive approach to
resolve this problem. The research therefore, has been conducted in secondary school
atmosphere to understand the alternative approaches to the above described regulatory
Two main alternative paths identified by the previous researchers to the typical regulatory
path of recycling have been tested to validate the researches conducted in foreign nation-
states to understand their practical applicability in Sri Lankan context. The paper came
with the conclusion that ‘distress reduction path' is more effective as a motivation path to
increase recycling behaviour than the regulatory path. The result would be helpful in
preparing future education awareness programs as well as in policy making process.

Environmental Education and Awareness, motivation behind recycling

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Captive Breeding of Fresh Water Fish Species - Promise for Natural
Stock Enhancement
Department of Livestock Production, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Conserving aquatic biodiversity, especially freshwater fish species in Sri
Lanka, has become an increasingly daunting task. While culprits of stock depletion i.e.
overexploitation, pollution and habitat destruction, are associated with the process of
controlled/uncontrolled development, they have major impacts on freshwater fish stock-
depletion in natural habitats. Even when these factors would be managed correctly, that
alone would not increase freshwater fish populations. If these depleted species can be
multiplied in captivity to release into nature, those would contribute for natural stock
enhancement, hence, could be used in integrated conservation plans. The objective of this
paper is to review such captive breeding efforts for freshwater fish, conducted by the
Efforts in captive-breeding endemic fish species were succeeded in Esomus thermoicos
(flying barb) by manipulating the bottom substrate and tank conditions. It was the first
such records found in this regard and unlike the already known observations in the wild,
they were found to be very fecund, laying large number of eggs per female, short embryonic
development and quick hatching, larvae preferring live feeds. Similar techniques, but
different substrates were successful in breeding Devario aequipinnatus (giant danio) and
Puntius bimaculatus (red-side barb), both preferring vegetation for their spawning and
having quick embryonic and larval development. The silvercarplet, Amblypharyngodon
melettinus did not breed with environmental manipulation. Even with low success rate,
they could be induced to breed naturally once chemically induced stress was given.
However, all these captive breedings provided key knowledge in reproductive behavior
and biology of those fish species, which would be instrumental in increasing their numbers.
In similar efforts, Channa striata (snake-head), a heavily exploited food fish species could
be successfully bred in captivity. Environmental manipulations did not succeed, yet
hormonal manipulations gave the first evidences of their captive breeding in Sri Lanka.
Together, these information show that captive breeding, by environmental manipulation
or induced breeding can enhance stocks of freshwater fish in captivity, hence, suggesting
a promising applications in conservational management.
Keywords: captive breeding, conservational management, freshwater fish,

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Conversion of Spent Broiler Litter into Environmental Friendly
Organic Manure
Y.A. N. Buddhika, S.D. Prabhashini, and P.W. A. Perera Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
ABSTRACT: The broiler industry plays a major role in supplying the protein requirement
of the Sri Lankan community. As a result a huge volume of broiler litter (BL) is produced
daily, as a waste and its demand as a direct organic fertilizer is limited due to its phytotoxic
properties. Piling into large heaps is the common practice in broiler production areas
that creates lot of environmental problems. It requires longer period to degrade due to its
imbalance C: N ratio which impairs the speedy decomposition. Therefore, broiler litter is
accumulated in the open lands in larger quantities. The objective of this study was to find
suitable co-composting material and to develop a protocol for speedy composting of
broiler litter (BL). Compost piles were made with BL+ Saw Dust (SD), BL+ Paddy Straw
(PS) and BL+ Market Waste (MW) mixture on which the C: N ratio was adjusted to 20:1.
The experiment was arranged in three places in a steep land and used Randomized
Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates and temperature, pH, electrical
conductivity (EC), N, P, K, maturity of the compost through germination index were tested
in each pile. The earliest maturity was achieved by BL/MW mixture (6 weeks) and followed
by BL/SW (8 weeks) and BL/PS (9 weeks) mixtures. Up on maturity the highest EC value
(4.933), N (1.78%) and P (0.0197%) were observed in BL/SD mixture. The highest K
content (1265ppm) and ash content (60.66ppm) was observed in BL/PS mixture. All three
compost mixtures comply with the Sri Lankan standards. It was concluded that paddy
straw (PS), saw dust (SW) and municipal waste (MW) are ideal co-composting material to
convert broiler litter into valuable organic fertilizer and BL would be efficiently composted
with a six-step procedure as follows. 1. Piling of C: N ratio adjusted (20:1) mixtures, 2.
First turning was done at 3rd day, 3. Second turning was done at 7th day, 4. Third turning
was at 3rd week, 5. Fourth turning was done at 6th week, and 6. Dispatch between 6-9 weeks
depending on the co-composting material.

: broiler litter, co-composting material, electrical conductivity, pH value

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Reef Fish Associated with Coral Dominant Area in Paraviwella,
Tangalle, Sri Lanka
I.P.S. Chandrasiri, I.M.I.S.B. Gunathilake, M.B.M. Fayas, W.A.S. Chamika and M.F.M. Fairoz Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Ocean University of Sri Lanka Mahawela Road, Tangalle, Sri Lanka Abstract Reef fish abundance and their feeding in relation to habitat characteristics are
essential to understand the function of food web in coral reef systems. We selected
Paraviwella reef, Tangalle, South coast of Sri Lanka (6001'17.09"N, 80048'01.21", Depth
= 54±17cm)
from 12th of February to 31st of May 2014 as a natural mesocosm to study the
reef fish abundance at different times of the day [morning–TM (7am-9am) , afternoon–TA
(11am-1pm), evening–TE (3pm-5pm )]. The aim of the study is to determine the reef fish
abundance with reference to their feeding type(herbivorous-HB, carnivore–CV,
omnivores–OM and planktanivor–PL).Underwater visual and video surveys were
performed along permanent belt transects (n=3, transect length =25m, observation time
= 30 min) to obtain data on fish abundance. Fish transect census disclosed that percent
abundance for different feeding behaviors viz. herbivores (51.7±1.7%), carnivores
(30.9±5.8%), planktivory (10.6±4%) and omnivores (6.8±6.4%). Fish feeding
observations during the study indicated that herbivorous and carnivorous species were
dominant in the study area. The herbivorous assemblage was dominated by four species
of damselfishes (Abudefduf vaigiensis, Chrysiptera brownriggii, Pomacentrus chrysurus,
Abudefduf sordidus) and five species of surgeonfishes (Acanthurus bleucosternon,
Acanthurus lineatus, Acanthurus triostegus, Acanthurus nigricauda, Ctenochae
tusstriatus).The percent abundance percentage of herbivorous fish families was highest
during the evening(55.1±11.3%) compared to the morning(48.3±11.4%) and the
afternoon(52.1±11%). Statistical comparison (two sample t-test) showed that, there was
no significant difference in abundance between time periods (p>0.05). The carnivorous
assemblage was dominated by twelve species of wrasses (Halichoeres hortulanus,
Halichoeres marginatus, Halichoeres nebulosus, Halichoeres scapularis, Halichoeres
vroliki, Thalassoma hardwicke, Thalassoma jansenii, Thalassoma lunare, Stethojulis
trilineata, Labroides dimidiatus, Gomphosus caeruleus) and four species of butterflyfishes
(Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon collare, Chaetodon decussatus, Chaetodon citrinellus).
The percent abundance percentage of carnivorous fish families were higher during the
morning (34.9±3.8%) compared with the afternoon (29.9±4.2%) and the evening
(27.6±5%) but showed no significant difference (Two sample t-test, p>0.05). This study
suggest that more detailed studies are necessary to find out the connectivity of reef fish to
food web function in a coral reef.

Keywords: coral reef fish, feeding type, food web, natural mesocosm

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Management Perspectives of Carbon Footprint Minimizing: Case of
Rubber Products Manufacturing SMEs in Sri Lanka
S. P. Dayaratne, 1Samadhi Wickremathillake and 2Kennedy D. Gunawardena
Ace Property & Business Consultants (Pvt.) Ltd, Sri Lanka [email protected]
ABSTRACT: Considering the global warming effect due to excessive caused by the
increased levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, it is
necessary to protect the natural environment for preservation and organism conservation
purposes. As a result it is essential to take up carbon footprint mitigation measures during
industrial processes and consumption stages. Available literature reveals that, there are
many methods introduced to mitigate carbon footprint and the SMEs have still not
considered implementing measures to mitigate carbon footprint. The main purpose of this
study is to analyze factors influencing Management Perspective in Rubber Products in Sri
Lanka as a carbon footprint minimization measure. To carry out management perspectives
of carbon footprint minimizing, data were collected from 100 rubber products
manufacturing SMEs in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. Apart from this exercise, 10
face-to-face interviews were conducted with the industry experts to ascertain their opinion
regarding carbon footprint mitigation measure. The primary data gathered were analyzed
to compare barriers for implementing carbon footprint reduction and management
perspectives towards carbon footprint reduction. There are several findings in this
research: namely, relationships between management perspectives for carbon footprint
minimizing and use of 3R, worker awareness, management motivation, certification as
ISO, GRI application, maintenance of machinery, awareness on energy cost reduction,
access to finance, carbon labeling, and use of cleaner production techniques. These
findings were obtained by the application of the cause-effect model of fishbone model.
Unfailingly, these findings can be used in any country to minimize carbon footprint.
Keywords: Carbon Footprint Minimizing, Management Perspectives, Small and Medium
Scale Enterprises

1,2 Consultant - Chemical & Process Engineering, Energy, Environment and Cleaner Production,
Sri Lanka
2 University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Growth And Yield Performance of Sri Lankan Grown Sesame/Thala
(Sesamum indicum L.) and Its Wild Relatives to
Water Deficit Conditions
I.A.J.K. Dissanayake, S.M.W. Ranwala, S.S.N. Perera1, M.S. Nijamudeen1 and W.M.W. Weerakoon2 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Colombo [email protected] ABSTRACT: The agriculture sector is often challenged by dry weather and subsequent
threats to food security and well-being of rural communities. Hence, a better
understanding of growth responses of crops to changes in climate is imperative.
This research was aimed to reveal responses of Sri Lankan grown Sesame varieties: Uma,
Malee, Idal, Pokuru, Kalu thala, wild varieties and its wild relatives to reduced water
availability during their growth and reproductive stages.
A field experiment was conducted at the Field Crops Research and Development Institute
Mahailluppallama to simulate the effect of drought on growth of Sesame plants, using four
different irrigation intervals (4, 7 , 10 and 13 days) following establishment of seedlings
of 10 Sesame varieties/ races. The main plots and subplots were randomly allocated for
each treatment and variety respectively and the experiment was conducted according to
split plot design with three replicates / treatment. Plant height was measured at the first,
second months and maturity, total dry biomass, of shoots and roots, root: shoot were
calculated. Yield parameters: number of capsules per plant, capsule dry weight, seed dry
weight and 1000 seed weight were also measured. Yield per area and harvest index (HI)
were calculated. Data were subjected to ANOVA using, Statistical Analysis System (SAS).
The effect of irrigation intervals had a significant effect on Plant height at maturity
(p<0.01) as the low water availability suppressed plant height. A significant positive
impact on logarithm of root: shoot (p<0.01) was observed. However, yield parameters and
HI did not change among treatments. The crop showed a greater plasticity in vegetative
growth in response to the simulated water stress levels. A significant varietal effect was
also observed. Wild relatives showed a slow growth during first two months and
significantly low values for yield parameters and HI while a significantly high HI was
recorded from Uma, Malee, Idal, and Kalu thala.
The findings explained the drought tolerance ability of Sri Lankan Sesame varieties and
wild relatives.
Keywords: Drought tolerant ability, Growth and Yield of Sesame, Sri Lankan Sesame
varieties, Water deficit conditions

Financial assistance from National Science Foundation (NSF Grant No. RG/2011/AG/08)
is acknowledged.

1 Department of Mathematics, University of Colombo, 2Field Crops Research and Development Institute (FCRDI), Mahailluppallama Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Performance Evaluation of the Biological Unit in Polishing the
Effluent at Unilever Ceylon (Ltd) Treatment Plant
W.R.L. Hiranthi Jansz and S.Pathinather1 Central Environmental Authority Battaramulla, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: A research study was carried out by me to evaluate the performance of the
biological unit (Activated Sludge) of the treatment plant (ETP) at Unilever Ceylon Ltd,
involved in the manufacture, marketing and distribution of personnel goods and goods.
The ETP consists of physical, chemical and biological units and it treats the waste water
generated from various plants of factory. It operates 24 hours a day. Although there are
some problems during the operational stage, the results indicate that the system is
operating quite efficiently with respect to COD and BOD removals and also the
concentrations of the above in the treated effluent meet the standards stipulated by the
Central Environmental Authority (CEA). Also this research study indicates that the plant
can assimilate considerable high shock loads of the above pollutants without significant
treatment failure .Based on the study, it is concluded that, Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
concentration is extremely low in aeration tank. Nitrogen availability in the aeration tank
is not quite sufficient for cell synthesis. Low food to Micro- Organism Ratio (F/M) values
due to high mixed liquor concentration in the aeration tank etc. Accordingly remedial
measures have been recommended as follows. Install a closed loop control system in PH
adjustment and chemical dosing in the process. Increase the Dissolved Oxygen level in the
aeration tank. Feed nutrients as required by the ratio BOD5: N: P=100:5:1. Main Mixed
Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS) concentration in the range of 3000 to 4500mg/l etc.

Keywords: activated sludge, biological unit, dissolved oxygen, F/M ratio, mixed liquor
suspended solids, nitrogen availability,

1 Department of Civil Engineering University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Life Cycle Assessment of Tea Manufacturing in Sri Lanka
S.S Punchihewa, K.G.N.H Weerasinghe1, A.K Kulatunga1 and J. Vidanagma2 Department of Production Engineering University of Peradeniya [email protected] ABSTRACT: Tea industry is one of the main foreign currency earners in Sri Lanka.
Current tea production and export amount is nearly 350 million kilograms annually. Tea
plantation sector was started by British planters in late 18th century. Currently it was
developed to 230 thousand hectares out of total plantation sector in Sri Lanka. Tea
plantation and processing have different impacts to the environment. Soil erosion, use of
chemical fertilizers, significant energy usage is the main issues related to the production.
There are studies which were conducted to find the impacts on environment, by taking
some stages in to consideration. But a complete study of existing and potential impacts
covering all stages of manufacturing of black tea was not done. This study aims to carry
out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) covering all stages in black tea manufacturing based
on ISO 14044 guidelines; from cultivation to reaching them to local consumer. The
factories and the plantations taken in to account in this study are located in Nuwaraeliya
district. In this study, the CTC tea processing method was considered as the main
manufacturing method. The impact assessments were carried out with the assistance of
commercial software; simapro, aiming GHG emissions to the atmosphere. The impact
assessment protocols used in the study are Eco-indicator 99 (H), Eecological scarcity-
method-2013, Greenhouse Gas Protocol V1.01. The impact categories evaluated using the
software are, Global Warming, Ozone Layer Depletion, Land Use, Carcinogenic effects
etc. Based on the outcomes; that the electricity used in the manufacturing process is the
highest contributor to the considered environmental impacts. Among the electricity
required process steps, the rolling process contributes 39% of CO2 emission to the
atmosphere where the 38% emission is due to withering process. Fertilizer usage in the
plantations is the next significant impact to the biosphere. These results can be used to
reduce the GHG emission and hazardous discharges to the environment and to convert the
industry greener in future.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Tea Industry, Impact Categories, GHG emission
1 Department of Production Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka 2 National Cleaner production Center, Kirula Road, Narahenpita, Sri Lanka Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Identification of Potential Sites for Aquaculture using GIS integrated
AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) in Badulla District, Sri Lanka
M.A.N. Sandamali, R.M.C.W.M. Rathnayake, N.P.P. Liyanage and S.C. Jayamanne Uva Wellassa University Badulla, Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the application of Geographic Information System in
identifying potential areas for aquaculture in Badulla district. Aquaculture is farming
aquatic organisms including fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants. There is a
potential to develop aquaculture practices in Badulla district. Selection of potential site is
the first and foremost step for successful aquaculture practice. The study was carried out
in Badulla district in Sri Lanka by the geographical coordinates of longitude 80°.45 to
81°.15. Latitude 6 °.34 to 7°.18. In this study environmental factors related to aquaculture
practices were considered. Data have been collected from secondary sources. Water
availability (proximity to rivers and perennial tanks), soil texture, soil pH, rainfall,
temperature, topography (slope, elevation) and land use factors were considered to
identify potential areas for aquaculture (pond culture). Protected areas were considered
as constraints. Water availability, soil texture, soil pH, slope, elevation, rainfall,
temperature, land use/ land cover thematic layers were created using ArcGIS 10.1
software. All these thematic layers have been assigned the weights according to their
relative influence on pond construction using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS
approach. The use of Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS is described; each thematic
layer was evaluated using the scores that were obtained according to the weighted linear
combination. Finally all thematic layers have been integrated in an ArcGIS 10.1
environment to generate an aquaculture potential map. Four aquaculture potential areas
have been Identified, viz. "Suitable", "Less Suitable", "Least suitable" and
"Exclusionary Areas". The north part of the Badulla district is identified as suitable and
the southern part of the Badulla district is identified as least suitable, exclusionary areas
for aquaculture in Badulla district. By using this aquaculture potential map, users able to
identify a location to establish aquaculture practices. It helps decision makers to develop
aquaculture practices in Badulla district.
: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Aquaculture, Environmental factors, Geographic
Information System, Weighted linear combination

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Traffic Noise Contour Mapping in Weligama City - Sri Lanka
S.M.N. Sethunga, J.A.P. Bodhika and W.G.D. Dharmaratna Department of Physics, University of Ruhuna, Matara, Sri Lanka. [email protected] ABSTRACT: An unwanted unpleasant sound is called noise. Noise pollution is one of the
major environmental problems in many cities with the rapid urbanization. Therefore, a
systematic study on city noise pollution is essential to control the situation. The noise
emitted from different sources can be mapped quantitatively on to a single map, is called
"noise zone map". Noise contour maps play a major role in planning, tourism, leisure,
transportation, investment and other developments in cities. These maps have been used
in Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) and they provide a great remark of well-being
of future generation in the country.
The main objective of this study was to map the noise distribution in Weligama city which
is a popular destination among tourists and investors. Noise measurements were carried
out using a B&K Type-2250 hand held analyzer (IEC 61672-1; 2002 Class1) in December,
2013. LAeq, values of the diurnal sound level variation were used to produce noise contours.
Internationally recommended IMMI mapping software was used to calculate the noise
distribution and to prepare the noise map. The traffic volume, vehicular type, their speed,
nature of road surface and meteorological conditions were considered. According to the
results, the noise level in Weligama city is exceeding the maximum allowed level for a
mixed-residential area (According to Sri Lanka National Environment Act. No. 47, 1980,
maximum allowed level for mixed-residential area is 63 dB(A) in day time) in 40.7±5.7 %
of the total area of 49.07 km2. The densely populated area in the city lies within the noise
contours of 70-80 dB(A). At some locations the recorded LAeq was more than 85 dB(A),
especially near at main bus stand and surround area. Noise contour varies between 75-80
dB(A) along the A2 road. The results suggest that necessary regulations and noise
reduction techniques have to be imposed to control the noise pollution and to protect the
economic value of the city.

Keywords: LAeq, Noise contour map, Noise mitigation, Traffic noise, Weligama city

Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge financial assistance provided by the TURIS
Project, Grant No: RU/DVC/Pro 61.

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Sand Mining in Kanagarayan Aru, Mullaithivu District, Sri Lanka
– Post War Development Perspective
Central Environmental Authority ABSTRACT: Post War development activities have been taking place in many sectors in
the Mullaithivu district. Construction of houses, roads, schools, government departments
and other buildup land uses are rapidly changing after war. One of the important building
materials for construction is river sand. In-stream sand mining is a common practice
because the mining locations are usually near the sales outlets or along the transportation
route, hence reducing the transportation cost. This has resulted in a mushrooming of river
sand mining activities which have given rise to various environmental problems that
require urgent action by the authorities. This paper describes the environmental problems
due to unsystematic river sand mining activities in natural tributaries of Kanagarayan Aru
(river) in Panikkankulam Forest, Oddusuddan divisional secretariat division, Mullaithivu
district and outlines the best management practices in order to minimize the adverse
environmental impacts. Kanagarayan Aru originates in Semamadukkulam, Vavuniya
district and run towards north, mix in a place of Elephant pass East lagoon nearby
Thadduwankoddi and Ooyian in Kilinochchi district. This river is 90 Kilometers long &
has a catchment area of 906 square kilometers. Recently due to post war development sand
is hugely excavated in the Kangarayan Aru. These sand mining activities have been taking
place without a sustainable environmental conservation plan. The natural resources have
been deteriorating rapidly in the Kanagarayan Aru. These unsystematic sand mining
activities has led to loss of fauna & flora, river bank erosion, river bed degradation, river
buffer zone encroachment and deterioration of river water quality and groundwater
availability. It is difficult to totally ban sand mining practices in Kanagarayan Aru,
because many people living near the river are totally dependent on this job, and also there
should be an alternative material for the construction sector. Given the importance of post
war development in this area and the concerns on the environment, systematic sand mining
approach is deemed to be the utmost importance for sustainable environmental
conservation. The recommendations made in this paper are intended as guidance for
decision makers who are specifically involved in the review of sand mining operations to
make more informed decisions. Some of these recommendations are establish a district
level management committee to control River Sand Mining activities, Establish a
mechanism to observe and follow up whether permit procedure is efficient and controlled,
Raise public awareness and strengthen community organizations to combat illegal River
Sand Mining activities, Enforce law in an efficient and unbiased way and Restore damaged
and affected natural environment using natural barriers such as tree plantations.
Keywords: Sand Mining, Environmental Impacts, Sustainable Environmental
Conservation Plan

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Antibiotic Resistant Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria
B.C Walpola and L.V. Rajarathna Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka [email protected] ABSTRACT: Phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated and were tested for
antibiotic resistance using six antibiotics namely kanamycin, streptomycin, ampiciline,
tetracycline, rifampicin and chloramphenicol. Out of thirty five phosphate solubilizing
isolates, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter ludwigii were found to be highly tolerant to
varying concentrations of all the tested antibiotics except chloramphenicol. According to
the results, both strains were resistant for kanamycin, streptomycin, ampiciline,
tetracycline and rifampicin up to 100, 200, 500, 100 and 100 µg/ml concentrations
respectively. However, both strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol by producing large
inhibition zone (17-20 mm diameter) even at 100 µg/ml. These antibiotic resistant strains
as bio-inoculants would have attractive beneficial impacts on sustainable agricultural
practices in contaminated soils.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Enterobacter ludwigii, Klebsiella oxytoca, resistant, sensitive

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Environmental Management and Planning, 23rd - 24th February 2015 Low Cost Mosquito Larvae Trap to Control Dengue
MOH Office, Mawathagama, Sri lanka ABSTRACT: Dengue epidemic has become a severe threat in the country from past 2
decades. However, still a successful solution has not sought in this regard. Though
destroying breeding places is considered as a solution, it results in mosquitoes finding
alternative places for breeding, which in turn makes Dengue control difficult. Not only the
density of Aedes Genera but also other mosquito species densities are increasing day by
day which has become a major detriment to businesses and day today life of humans. This
mosquito trap is introduced as a successful solution for mosquito epidemic elimination and
Dengue control.
This is a 7 inch high cylindrical shaped container with a cross sectional diameter of 7
inches. A plastic funnel is placed upside down on the cylindrical shaped water basin and
two levers are fixed to the neck of the funnel using supports to make water currents. Water
was poured in to the basin and to the water containing inside the funnel, kerosene oil was
added. The end of the funnel was covered with a small lid to prevent kerosene from
evaporating. A small piercing was made on the basin to remove the excess water. Finally,
the basin was covered with a wire mesh. To another cylindrical container with a lid
containing a small hole, hay with water was added to attract the mosquitoes and placed
close to the trap. The mosquito larvae trap attracts mosquitoes by providing optimal
conditions to lay their eggs. The larvae emerge from the eggs hatched inside the trap and
die without becoming pupae within few minutes. All the mosquito larvae emerging from
the eggs die inside the trap by averting the creation of new mosquito generation and after
about two months adult mosquitos die due to aging. Therefore, using this method will
eliminate mosquito menace which will eventually help to become a healthy environment.
As no other organism is affected except mosquitos and no other use of environmental
harmful pesticides, this is an eco-friendly mosquito suppression method. As there is no
need for maintenance or observance of this mosquito trap, this is a very successful time
and energy saving mosquito suppression method for general public.

Keywords: Dengue, mosquitoes, trap



MEMORANDUM State Public Health Veterinarians State Epidemiologists State Veterinarians Interested Pet Bird Professionals FROM: Kathleen A. Smith, DVM MPH Chair, Psittacosis Compendium Compendium of Measures To Control Chlamydophila psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2009 On behalf of the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, I am pleased to provide you with a copy of the Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydophila psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2009. The Compendium committee and consultants believe these updates and revisions will aid public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, and the pet bird industry to control this disease in birds and in people. This Compendium updates the 2008 Compendium. Notable changes in the 2009 Compendium are as follows: Infection in Humans, Laboratory Testing